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BMJ Open ; 8(5): e021085, 2018 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764883


OBJECTIVES: We examine if temperatures in winter in English homes meet the recommendation of being at least 18°C at all times. We analyse how many days meet this criterion and calculate the hours per day and night being at/above 18°C. These metrics are compared between households with occupants aged above 64 years or having a long-term disability (LTD) and those younger and without disability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: 635 households. OUTCOMES MEASURES: (1) Mean temperatures, (2) proportion of days of the measurement period meeting the criterion, (3) average hours at/above 18°C, (4) average hours at night at/above 18°C. RESULTS: Mean winter temperatures in the bedroom were MBR=18.15°C (SD=2.51), the living room MLR=18.90°C (SD=2.46) and the hallway MHall=18.25°C (SD=2.57).The median number of days meeting the criterion was 19-31%. For the living room, more days meet the criterion in the group with a LTD (Mdisability=342 vs Mno_disability=301, 95% CI 8 to 74), and with someone over 64 years present (Mabove64=341, Mbelow65=301 95%, CI 8 to 74).The median number of hours/day meeting the criterion was 13-17. In the living room, households with a disability had more hours at 18°C (Mdisability=364, Mno_disability=297, 95% CI 17 to 83) as did the older age group (Mabove64=347, Mbelow65=296, 95% CI 18 to 84). In the hallway, more hours met the criterion in households with a disability (Mdisability=338, Mno_disability=302, 95% CI 3 to 70).247 homes had at least nine hours of at least 18°C at night; no effect of age or disability. CONCLUSIONS: Many households are at risk of negative health outcomes because of temperatures below recommendations.

Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Habitação/normas , Temperatura Ambiente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
Lancet ; 391(10120): 581-630, 2018 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096948
Lancet ; 389(10074): 1151-1164, 2017 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856085


The Lancet Countdown: tracking progress on health and climate change is an international, multidisciplinary research collaboration between academic institutions and practitioners across the world. It follows on from the work of the 2015 Lancet Commission, which concluded that the response to climate change could be "the greatest global health opportunity of the 21st century". The Lancet Countdown aims to track the health impacts of climate hazards; health resilience and adaptation; health co-benefits of climate change mitigation; economics and finance; and political and broader engagement. These focus areas form the five thematic working groups of the Lancet Countdown and represent different aspects of the complex association between health and climate change. These thematic groups will provide indicators for a global overview of health and climate change; national case studies highlighting countries leading the way or going against the trend; and engagement with a range of stakeholders. The Lancet Countdown ultimately aims to report annually on a series of indicators across these five working groups. This paper outlines the potential indicators and indicator domains to be tracked by the collaboration, with suggestions on the methodologies and datasets available to achieve this end. The proposed indicator domains require further refinement, and mark the beginning of an ongoing consultation process-from November, 2016 to early 2017-to develop these domains, identify key areas not currently covered, and change indicators where necessary. This collaboration will actively seek to engage with existing monitoring processes, such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals and WHO's climate and health country profiles. The indicators will also evolve over time through ongoing collaboration with experts and a range of stakeholders, and be dependent on the emergence of new evidence and knowledge. During the course of its work, the Lancet Countdown will adopt a collaborative and iterative process, which aims to complement existing initiatives, welcome engagement with new partners, and be open to developing new research projects on health and climate change.

Mudança Climática , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Humanos
Lancet ; 374(9705): 1917-29, 2009 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19942273


Energy used in dwellings is an important target for actions to avert climate change. Properly designed and implemented, such actions could have major co-benefits for public health. To investigate, we examined the effect of hypothetical strategies to improve energy efficiency in UK housing stock and to introduce 150 million low-emission household cookstoves in India. Methods similar to those of WHO's Comparative Risk Assessment exercise were applied to assess the effect on health that changes in the indoor environment could have. For UK housing, the magnitude and even direction of the changes in health depended on details of the intervention, but interventions were generally beneficial for health. For a strategy of combined fabric, ventilation, fuel switching, and behavioural changes, we estimated 850 fewer disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and a saving of 0.6 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), per million population in 1 year (on the basis of calculations comparing the health of the 2010 population with and without the specified outcome measures). The cookstove programme in India showed substantial benefits for acute lower respiratory infection in children, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and ischaemic heart disease. Calculated on a similar basis to the UK case study, the avoided burden of these outcomes was estimated to be 12 500 fewer DALYs and a saving of 0.1-0.2 megatonnes CO(2)-equivalent per million population in 1 year, mostly in short-lived greenhouse pollutants. Household energy interventions have potential for important co-benefits in pursuit of health and climate goals.

Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Características da Família , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Comportamento , Códigos de Obras , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Culinária , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Combustíveis Fósseis , Calefação , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública , Reino Unido
Lancet ; 370(9593): 1175-87, 2007 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17868820


Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing.

Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Planejamento de Cidades , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde da População Urbana , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Efeito Estufa , Humanos
Exp Appl Acarol ; 41(1-2): 61-86, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17334815


A generalised model of the life cycle of a house dust mite, which can be tailored to any particular species of domestic mite, is presented. The model takes into account the effects of hygrothermal conditions on each life cycle phase. It is used in a computer simulation program, called POPMITE, which, by incorporating a population age structure, is able to predict population dynamics. The POPMITE simulation is adapted to the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) (DP) mite using published data on the egg development period, total development period, adult longevity, mortality during egg development, mortality during juvenile development, and fecundity of individual DP mites held at a range of constant hygrothermal conditions. An example is given which illustrates how the model functions under constant hygrothermal conditions. A preliminary validation of POPMITE is made by a comparison of the POPMITE predictions with published measurements of population growth of DP mites held at a range constant hygrothermal conditions for 21 days. The POPMITE simulation is used to provide predictions of population growth or decline for a wide range of constant relative humidity and temperature combinations for 30 and 60 days. The adaptation of the model to correctly take account of fluctuating hygrothermal conditions is discussed.

Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura Ambiente
Exp Appl Acarol ; 39(2): 127-48, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16775777


A simple mite population index (MPI) model is presented which predicts the effect on house dust mite populations of any combination of temperature and relative humidity (RH). For each combination, the output is an index, or multiplication factor, such that 1.1 indicates 10% population growth and 0.9 indicates 10% population decline. To provide data for the model, laboratory experiments have been carried out using lab cultures of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The population change was observed for mites held in steady-state conditions at different combinations of temperature and RH over 21 days. From the results, a best-fit equation has been derived which forms the basis of the MPI model. The results also enable a new term to be defined: the Population Equilibrium Humidity, PEH, the RH for a given temperature at which house dust mite populations neither grow nor decline. It is similar to Critical Equilibrium Humidity, the RH below which house dust mites are unable to maintain water balance, but relates to a population of mites (rather than a physiological phenomenon) and is more able to take account of the observed effects of extremes of temperature and RH. Compared with previous population models, the MPI model is potentially more accurate and comprehensive. It can be combined with other simple models (described in previous papers), such as BED, which simulates the average hygrothermal conditions in a bed, given room conditions, and Condensation Targeter II, which simulates room conditions given a range of easily obtainable inputs for climate, house type and occupant characteristics. In this way it is now possible, for any individual dwelling, to assess the most effective means of controlling mite populations by environmental means, such as by improving standards of ventilation and insulation, or by modifying the occupant behaviour that affects the hygrothermal environment within a dwelling. Although the MPI model requires further development and validation, it has already proved useful for understanding more clearly how the different hygrothermal conditions found in beds and bedrooms can affect mite populations. It has also demonstrated that there is considerable scope for controlling mites by environmental means in cold winter climates such as the UK.

Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/fisiologia , Umidade , Animais , Leitos , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/genética , Habitação , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Pragas , Densidade Demográfica , Temperatura Ambiente