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1.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266012

RESUMO

We sought to determine if DNA methylation patterns differed between vegans and non-vegetarians in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort. Genome-wide DNA methylation derived from buffy coat was profiled in 62 vegans and 142 non-vegetarians. Using linear regression, methylation of CpG sites and genes was categorized or summarized according to various genic/intergenic regions and CpG island-related regions, as well as the promoter. Methylation of genes was measured as the average methylation of available CpG's annotated to the nominated region of the respective gene. A permutation method defining the null distribution adapted from Storey et al. was used to adjust for false discovery. Differences in methylation of several CpG sites and genes were detected at a false discovery rate < 0.05 in region-specific and overall analyses. A vegan diet was associated predominantly with hypomethylation of genes, most notably methyltransferase-like 1 (METTL1). Although a limited number of differentially methylated features were detected in the current study, the false discovery method revealed that a much larger proportion of differentially methylated genes and sites exist, and could be detected with a larger sample size. Our findings suggest modest differences in DNA methylation in vegans and non-vegetarians, with a much greater number of detectable significant differences expected with a larger sample.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

3.
Cancer ; 126(5): 1102-1111, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that Adventists, who often follow vegetarian diets, live longer and have lower risks for many cancers than others, but there are no national data and little published comparative data for black subjects. METHODS: This study compared all-cause mortality and cancer incidence between the nationally inclusive Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) and nonsmokers in US Census populations: the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) and its Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results substudy. Analyses used proportional hazards regression adjusting for age, sex, race, cigarette smoking history, and education. RESULTS: All-cause mortality and all-cancer incidence in the black AHS-2 population were significantly lower than those for the black NLMS populations (hazard ratio [HR] for mortality, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.69; HR for incidence, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.88). When races were combined, estimated all-cause mortality was also significantly lower in the AHS-2 population at the age of 65 years (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.69) and at the age of 85 years (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75-0.81), as was cancer mortality; this was also true for the rate of all incident cancers combined (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.67-0.74) and the rates of breast, colorectal, and lung cancers. Survival curves confirmed the mortality results and showed that among males, AHS-2 blacks survived longer than white US subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Substantially lower rates of all-cause mortality and cancer incidence among Adventists have implications for the effects of lifestyle and perhaps particularly diet on the etiology of these health problems. Trends similar to those seen in the combined population are also found in comparisons of black AHS-2 and NLMS subjects.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Protestantismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Adv Nutr ; 10(Suppl_4): S284-S295, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728496

RESUMO

Epidemiologic cohort studies enrolling a large percentage of vegetarians have been highly informative regarding the nutritional adequacy and possible health effects of vegetarian diets. The 2 largest such cohorts are the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford (EPIC-Oxford) and the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). These cohorts are described and their findings discussed, including a discussion of where findings appear to diverge. Although such studies from North America and the United Kingdom have been important, the large majority of the world's vegetarians live in other regions, particularly in Asia. Findings from recent cohort studies of vegetarians in East and South Asia are reviewed, particularly the Tzu Chi Health Study and Indian Migration Study. Important considerations for the study of the health of vegetarians in Asia are discussed. Vegetarian diets vary substantially, as may associated health outcomes. Cohort studies remain an important tool to better characterize the health of vegetarian populations around the globe.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Saúde da População , Ásia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Plantas , Vegetarianos
5.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875776

RESUMO

Associations of low-to-moderate consumption of red and processed meat with mortality would add to the evidence of possible adverse effects of these common foods. This study aims to investigate the association of red and processed meat intake with mortality. The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) is a prospective cohort study of ~96,000 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited in the US and Canada between 2002 and 2007. The final analytic sample after exclusions was 72,149. Cox proportional hazards regression was used and hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Diet was assessed by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), calibrated using six 24-h dietary recalls. Mortality outcome data were obtained from the National Death Index. During a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, there were 7961 total deaths, of which 2598 were Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) deaths and 1873 were cancer deaths. Unprocessed red meat was associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.07⁻1.31) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.05⁻1.50). Processed meat alone was not significantly associated with risk of mortality. The combined intake of red and processed meat was associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11⁻1.36) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12⁻1.60). These findings suggest moderately higher risks of all-cause and CVD mortality associated with red and processed meat in a low meat intake population.


Assuntos
Dieta/mortalidade , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 210, 2018 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477563

RESUMO

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a 2-day workshop, "Next Steps in Studying the Human Microbiome and Health in Prospective Studies," in Bethesda, Maryland, May 16-17, 2017. The workshop brought together researchers in the field to discuss the challenges of conducting microbiome studies, including study design, collection and processing of samples, bioinformatics and statistical methods, publishing results, and ensuring reproducibility of published results. The presenters emphasized the great potential of microbiome research in understanding the etiology of cancer. This report summarizes the workshop and presents practical suggestions for conducting microbiome studies, from workshop presenters, moderators, and participants.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 1121-1128, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30329007

RESUMO

Background: Meat intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is not clear if egg intake is associated with T2D risk because purported associations may be due to concurrent consumption of eggs with meat. Objective: Our aim was to differentiate any associations between meat and egg consumption and the risk of T2D. Design: In this longitudinal study, 55,851 participants of the Adventist Health Study 2 who were free of diabetes provided demographic, anthropometric, and dietary data at baseline. Meat and egg intakes were assessed with a validated quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Responses to 2 follow-up questionnaires determined incident T2D cases. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was used to determine relations between meat and egg intake and incident T2D. Results: T2D cases identified during a mean 5.3 y of follow-up totaled 2772. Meat intake of >0 to <25 g/d, ≥25 to <70 g/d, and ≥70 g/d significantly increased the risk of T2D compared with no meat intake (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.44; OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.61; and OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.96, respectively; P-trend < 0.0001). Egg intake compared with no egg intake was not associated with T2D risk. A significant meat-egg interaction (P = 0.019) showed that within every category of egg intake, there was an incremental rise in T2D risk as meat intake increased. However, within categories of meat intake, increasing egg intake did not increase the risk of T2D except among nonmeat-eaters consuming ≥5 eggs/wk (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.12). Conclusions: Meat consumption, but not egg consumption, is independently associated with T2D risk. Egg intake seems not to increase T2D risk further with meat intake. Our findings suggest that the purported egg-T2D risk relation in US populations may be biased due to failure to investigate egg-meat interactions. Further investigations are needed to ascertain T2D risk among nonmeat-eaters with high egg intakes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Carne/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
JAMA Intern Med ; 175(5): 767-76, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25751512

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. EXPOSURES: Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Vegetarian diets are associated with an overall lower incidence of colorectal cancers. Pescovegetarians in particular have a much lower risk compared with nonvegetarians. If such associations are causal, they may be important for primary prevention of colorectal cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Br J Nutr ; 112(10): 1644-53, 2014 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25247790

RESUMO

Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet. Foods were categorised into fifty-eight minor food groups comprising seventeen major food groups. The adjusted mean consumption of each food group for the vegetarian dietary patterns was compared with that for the non-vegetarian dietary pattern. Mean consumption was found to differ significantly across the dietary patterns for all food groups. Increased consumption of many plant foods including fruits, vegetables, avocados, non-fried potatoes, whole grains, legumes, soya foods, nuts and seeds was observed among vegetarians. Conversely, reduced consumption of meats, dairy products, eggs, refined grains, added fats, sweets, snack foods and non-water beverages was observed among vegetarians. Thus, although vegetarian dietary patterns in the AHS-2 have been defined based on the absence of animal foods in the diet, they differ greatly with respect to the consumption of many other food groups. These differences in food consumption patterns may be important in helping to explain the association of vegetarian diets with several important health outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 100 Suppl 1: 353S-8S, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24898223

RESUMO

The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large cohort that is well suited to the study of the relation of vegetarian dietary patterns to health and disease risk. Here we review initial published findings with regard to vegetarian diets and several health outcomes. Vegetarian dietary patterns were associated with lower body mass index, lower prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus, lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its component factors, lower prevalence of hypertension, lower all-cause mortality, and in some instances, lower risk of cancer. Findings with regard to factors related to vegetarian diets and bone health are also reviewed. These initial results show important links between vegetarian dietary patterns and improved health.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 100 Suppl 1: 313S-9S, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24871470

RESUMO

Nutritionism reduces dietary advice to statements about a few nutrients, with sometimes unintended implications for science, industry, and the public. Although reductionist questions about nutrition are legitimate scientifically, a nutrient focus in the public arena forces the food industry to compete with the use of nutrient statements. Consumers must interpret information that may not be correct or relevant. The theory of food synergy, which postulates that the many constituents of individual foods and dietary patterns act together on health, leads to the idea that dietary policy would be clearer if it focused on foods. To illustrate this method, the food-based A Priori Diet Quality Score was described in the Iowa Women's Health Study; a substantial total mortality reduction for increasing quartiles of the score was found. The simple food-based rules implied in this a priori score support minimizing meat, salt, added sugar, and heavily processed foods while emphasizing phytochemical-rich foods. These principles could help improve nutrition policy, help industry to supply better food, and help to focus future scientific research. Although an understanding of what foods are best for health is a step forward in nutrition, other major challenges remain, including getting high-quality food to the masses and food sustainability.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Longevidade , Política Nutricional , Saúde , Humanos
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 100 Suppl 1: 359S-64S, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24847857

RESUMO

An increase in noncommunicable disease (NCD) in India has been attributed to an epidemiologic transition whereby, due to urbanization, there is an increase in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity. Accumulated biomarker data on the "Asian Indian phenotype" identify central obesity, which occurs at a lower body mass index (BMI), as a particularly potent risk factor in Asian Indians. A revised WHO case definition for obesity in India [BMI (in kg/m(2)) >25] has identified an obesity epidemic that exceeds 30% in some cities and rivals that in Western nations. This review summarizes 2 key lines of evidence: 1) the emergence of an obesity epidemic in urban and rural India and its contribution to the NCD burden and 2) the role of a "nutrition transition" in decreasing the whole plant food content of diets in India and increasing risk of obesity and NCDs. We then present new epidemiologic evidence from Asian Indians enrolled in the Adventist Health Study 2 that raises the possibility of how specific whole plant foods (eg, nuts) in a vegetarian dietary pattern could potentially prevent obesity and NCDs in a target population of >1 billion persons.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Dieta Vegetariana , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia , Obesidade/epidemiologia
16.
JAMA Intern Med ; 173(13): 1230-8, 2013 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23836264

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. SETTING: Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 96,469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73,308 participants remained after exclusions. EXPOSURES: Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and vegan. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. RESULTS: There were 2570 deaths among 73,308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82-6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01); in lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75-1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered carefully by those offering dietary guidance.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Dieta Vegetariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Protestantismo , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Amostragem
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