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1.
Zootaxa ; 4683(3): zootaxa.4683.3.4, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715918

RESUMO

Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sister species Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA recover the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter in that a specimen of S. stellatus from the type locality in Peninsular Malaysia is more closely related to S. praesignis than to Indochinese populations of S. stellatus. Furthermore, the phylogeny indicates that the Indochinese populations represent two species, thus resulting in four major lineages within this clade. These relationships are consistent with multivariate and univariate analyses of morphological and discrete color pattern data which statistically define and diagnose the four lineages and together with the molecular data, provide the foundation for robust, testable, species-level hypotheses. As such, S. stellatus is herein restricted to Peninsular Malaysia; S. annamiticus is resurrected for the circum-continental populations ranging through southeastern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and southern Vietnam; a new species-S. preylangensis sp. nov.-is described from an isolated mountain, Phnom Chi, from the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary in central Cambodia; and the taxonomy of S. praesignis remains unchanged. The description of S. preylangensis sp. nov. underscores the necessity to conserve this remnant of lowland evergreen rainforest in the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Camboja , Lagartos/genética , Malásia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tailândia , Vietnã
2.
Zootaxa ; 4657(1): zootaxa.4657.1.13, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716807

RESUMO

To date, 26 species of Theloderma have been described and all are distributed throughout Southeast Asia from Assam in northeastern India to Myanmar, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of the Greater Sundas: Sumatra and Borneo (Frost 2019). The tadpoles of only 12 species have been described and published: T. asperum (Boulenger); T. auratum Poyarkov, Kropachev, Gogoleva Orlov; T. bicolor (Bourret); T. corticale (Boulenger); T. gordoni Taylor; T. horridum (Boulenger); T. leave (Smith); T. moloch (Annandale); T. nebulosum Rowley, Le, Hoang, Dau Cao; T. palliatum Rowley, Le, Hoang, Dau Cao; T. stellatum Taylor; T. vietnamense Poyarkov, Orlov, Moiseeva, Pawangkhanant, Ruangsuwan, Vassilieva, Galoyan, Nguyen Gogoleva (Boulenger 1903; Annandale 1912; Wassersug et al. 1981; Inger et al. 1999; Leong Lim 2003; Inthara et al. 2005; Rowley et al. 2011; Gawor et al. 2012; Orlov et al. 2012; Poyarkov et al. 2015; Kropachev et al. 2018).


Assuntos
Anuros , Fibras Musgosas Hipocampais , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Bornéu , Índia , Indochina , Indonésia , Larva , Malásia , Mianmar , Filogenia , Vietnã
4.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075128

RESUMO

Caenophidian snakes include the file snake genus Acrochordus and advanced colubroidean snakes that radiated mainly during the Neogene. Although caenophidian snakes are a well-supported clade, their inferred affinities, based either on molecular or morphological data, remain poorly known or controversial. Here, we provide an expanded molecular phylogenetic analysis of Caenophidia and use three non-parametric measures of support-Shimodaira-Hasegawa-Like test (SHL), Felsentein (FBP) and transfer (TBE) bootstrap measures-to evaluate the robustness of each clade in the molecular tree. That very different alternative support values are common suggests that results based on only one support value should be viewed with caution. Using a scheme to combine support values, we find 20.9% of the 1265 clades comprising the inferred caenophidian tree are unambiguously supported by both SHL and FBP values, while almost 37% are unsupported or ambiguously supported, revealing the substantial extent of phylogenetic problems within Caenophidia. Combined FBP/TBE support values show similar results, while SHL/TBE result in slightly higher combined values. We consider key morphological attributes of colubroidean cranial, vertebral and hemipenial anatomy and provide additional morphological evidence supporting the clades Colubroides, Colubriformes, and Endoglyptodonta. We review and revise the relevant caenophidian fossil record and provide a time-calibrated tree derived from our molecular data to discuss the main cladogenetic events that resulted in present-day patterns of caenophidian diversification. Our results suggest that all extant families of Colubroidea and Elapoidea composing the present-day endoglyptodont fauna originated rapidly within the early Oligocene-between approximately 33 and 28 Mya-following the major terrestrial faunal turnover known as the "Grande Coupure" and associated with the overall climate shift at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Our results further suggest that the caenophidian radiation originated within the Caenozoic, with the divergence between Colubroides and Acrochordidae occurring in the early Eocene, at ~ 56 Mya.

5.
PloS One ; 14(5): e0216148, 2019.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15982

RESUMO

Caenophidian snakes include the file snake genus Acrochordus and advanced colubroidean snakes that radiated mainly during the Neogene. Although caenophidian snakes are a well-supported clade, their inferred affinities, based either on molecular or morphological data, remain poorly known or controversial. Here, we provide an expanded molecular phylogenetic analysis of Caenophidia and use three non-parametric measures of support–Shimodaira-Hasegawa-Like test (SHL), Felsentein (FBP) and transfer (TBE) bootstrap measures–to evaluate the robustness of each clade in the molecular tree. That very different alternative support values are common suggests that results based on only one support value should be viewed with caution. Using a scheme to combine support values, we find 20.9% of the 1265 clades comprising the inferred caenophidian tree are unambiguously supported by both SHL and FBP values, while almost 37% are unsupported or ambiguously supported, revealing the substantial extent of phylogenetic problems within Caenophidia. Combined FBP/TBE support values show similar results, while SHL/TBE result in slightly higher combined values. We consider key morphological attributes of colubroidean cranial, vertebral and hemipenial anatomy and provide additional morphological evidence supporting the clades Colubroides, Colubriformes, and Endoglyptodonta. We review and revise the relevant caenophidian fossil record and provide a time-calibrated tree derived from our molecular data to discuss the main cladogenetic events that resulted in present-day patterns of caenophidian diversification. Our results suggest that all extant families of Colubroidea and Elapoidea composing the present-day endoglyptodont fauna originated rapidly within the early Oligocene–between approximately 33 and 28 Mya–following the major terrestrial faunal turnover known as the "Grande Coupure" and associated with the overall climate shift at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Our results further suggest that the caenophidian radiation originated within the Caenozoic, with the divergence between Colubroides and Acrochordidae occurring in the early Eocene, at ~ 56 Mya.

6.
Zootaxa ; 4438(2): 313-326, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313147

RESUMO

A new forest skink of the genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger, 1843 is described from Khanh Hoa Province, southern Vietnam based on morphological characters of four specimens and a fragment of 653 nucleotides of the gene COI. Sphenomorphus yersini sp. nov. is characterized by the following morphological characters: medium size in adults (snout-vent length up to 55 mm); tail length/snout-vent length ratio 1.81; toes reach to fingers when limbs adpressed; midbody scale rows 32-34, smooth; paravertebral scales 61-69; ventral scale rows 58-67; subcaudal scales 112; supraoculars four, rarely five; prefrontals in broad contact with one another; loreal scales two; tympanum deeply sunk; smooth lamellae beneath finger and toe IV 10-12 and 18-20 respectively; a pair of enlarged precloacal scales; hemipenis deeply forked and asymmetrical with two differently sized smooth lobes. The new species differs from its most similar congener, Sphenomorphus buenloicus Darevsky Nguyen, 1983, by 16.4-16.7% uncorrected p-distance in COI sequences.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Extremidades , Florestas , Filogenia , Vietnã
7.
Zool Res ; 39(3): 158-184, 2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683110

RESUMO

A new species of small tree frog from a primary montane tropical forest of central Vietnam, Tay Nguyen Plateau, is described based on morphological, molecular, and acoustic evidence. The Golden Bug-Eyed Frog, Theloderma auratum sp. nov., is distinguishable from its congeners and other small rhacophorid species based on a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) bony ridges on head absent; (2) smooth skin completely lacking calcified warts or asperities; (3) pointed elongated tapering snout; (4) vocal opening in males absent; (5) vomerine teeth absent; (6) males of small body size (SVL 21.8-26.4 mm); (7) head longer than wide; ED/SVL ratio 13%-15%; ESL/SVL ratio 16%-20%; (8) small tympanum (TD/EL ratio 50%-60%) with few tiny tubercles; (9) supratympanic fold absent; (10) ventral surfaces completely smooth; (11) webbing between fingers absent; (12) outer and inner metacarpal tubercles present, supernumerary metacarpal tubercle single, medial, oval in shape; (13) toes half-webbed: I 2-2» II 1½-2¾ III 2-3» IV 3-1½ V; (14) inner metatarsal tubercle present, oval; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; (15) iris bicolored; (16) dorsal surfaces golden-yellow with sparse golden-orange speckling or reticulations and few small dark-brown spots; (17) lateral sides of head and body with wide dark reddish-brown to black lateral stripes, clearly separated from lighter dorsal coloration by straight contrasting edge; (18) ventral surfaces of body, throat, and chest greyish-blue with indistinct brown confluent blotches; (19) upper eyelids with few (3-5) very small flat reddish superciliary tubercles; (20) limbs dorsally reddish-brown, ventrally brown with small bluish-white speckles. The new species is also distinct from all congeners in 12S rRNA to 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences (uncorrected genetic distance P>8.9%). Advertisement call and tadpole morphology of the new species are described. Our molecular data showed Theloderma auratum sp. nov. to be a sister species of Th. palliatum from Langbian Plateau in southern Vietnam.


Assuntos
Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Anuros/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vietnã , Vocalização Animal
8.
Zool Res ; 39(3): 202-219, 2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683111

RESUMO

We describe a new karst-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Ban Thathom, Xiangkhoang Province, northeastern Laos. The new species can be distinguished from other congeners by having four dark dorsal bands between limb insertions, a discontinuous nuchal loop, 10 precloacal pores in males or 10-12 precloacal pits (females) separated by a diastema from a series of enlarged femoral scales bearing 18 or 19 pores (male) or 8-10 pits (females) along each femur, 14-18 dorsal tubercle rows at midbody, no precloacal groove, 30-36 midbody scale rows across belly between ventrolateral skin folds, transversely enlarged subcaudal plates, and a maximal known snout-vent length of 75.5 mm. Our description brings to 22 the number of Cyrtodactylus species recorded from Laos.


Assuntos
Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Laos , Lagartos/classificação , Masculino
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 124: 162-171, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530499

RESUMO

Southeast Asia and southern China (SEA-SC) harbor a highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna that is under increasing threat. An understanding of the biogeographical history and drivers of this diversity is lacking, especially in some of the most diverse and threatened groups. The Asian leaf-litter frog genus Leptolalax Dubois 1980 is a forest-dependent genus distributed throughout SEA-SC, making it an ideal study group to examine specific biogeographic hypotheses. In addition, the diversity of this genus remains poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leptolalax and closely related Leptobrachella Smith 1928 remain unclear. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 48 of the 53 described species from throughout the distribution of Leptolalax. Molecular analyses reveal many undescribed species, mostly in southern China and Indochina. Our well-resolved phylogeny based on multiple nuclear DNA markers shows that Leptolalax is not monophyletic with respect to Leptobrachella and, thus, we assign the former to being a junior synonym of the latter. Similarly, analyses reject monophyly of the two subgenera of Leptolalax. The diversification pattern of the group is complex, involving a high degree of sympatry and prevalence of microendemic species. Northern Sundaland (Borneo) and eastern Indochina (Vietnam) appear to have played pivotal roles as geographical centers of diversification, and paleoclimatic changes and tectonic movements seem to have driven the major divergence of clades. Analyses fail to reject an "upstream" colonization hypothesis, and, thus, the genus appears to have originated in Sundaland and then colonized mainland Asia. Our results reveal that both vicariance and dispersal are responsible for current distribution patterns in the genus.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Zookeys ; (672): 49-120, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769667

RESUMO

Asian Mountain Toads (Ophryophryne) are a poorly known genus of mostly small-sized anurans from southeastern China and Indochina. To shed light on the systematics within this group, the most comprehensive mitochondrial DNA phylogeny for the genus to date is presented, and the taxonomy and biogeography of this group is discussed. Complimented with extensive morphological data (including associated statistical analyses), molecular data indicates that the Langbian Plateau, in the southern Annamite Mountains, Vietnam, is one of the diversity centres of this genus where three often sympatric species of Ophryophryne are found, O. gerti, O. synoria and an undescribed species. To help resolve outstanding taxonomic confusion evident in literature (reviewed herein), an expanded redescription of O. gerti is provided based on the examination of type material, and the distributions of both O. gerti and O. synoria are considerably revised based on new locality records. We provide the first descriptions of male mating calls for all three species, permitting a detailed bioacoustics comparison of the species. We describe the new species from highlands of the northern and eastern Langbian Plateau, and distinguish it from its congeners by a combination of morphological, molecular and acoustic characters. The new species represents one of the smallest known members of the genus Ophryophryne. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between 700-2200 m a.s.l. We suggest the species should be considered Data Deficient following IUCN's Red List categories.

11.
Zootaxa ; 3931(2): 221-52, 2015 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25781823

RESUMO

We describe a new species of megophryid frog from Loc Bac forest in the western part of the Langbian Plateau in the southern Annamite Mountains, Vietnam. Leptolalax pyrrhops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) presence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings, including blackish spots on flanks and dark canthal and/or temporal streaks; (2) rudimentary webbing on toes; (3) tympanum externally distinct; (4) dorsal skin finely shagreened with numerous small tubercles and pustules; (5) medium size for the genus (30.3-33.9 mm in 2 adult males, 30.8-34.3 mm in 7 females); (6) grey-pinkish to dark brownish-violet chest and belly with numerous whitish speckles, also covering the lateral sides of body; (7) ventrolateral glands small, indistinct, do not form a distinct line; (8) pectoral glands comparatively small, comprising 1-3% of adult SVL; (10) iris bicolored, typically bright orange-red in upper two-thirds, fading to silvery green in lower third. The male advertisement call of the new species is also unique among those Leptolalax species for which calls are known, with a single long 'introductory' note, consisting of 5-12 pulses, followed by of 4-5 predominantly single-pulsed notes, and an average dominant frequency of 1.91-2.23 kHz. From the morphologically similar L. applebyi, L. melicus and L. bidoupensis, Leptolalax pyrrhops sp. nov. can be further distinguished by 13.5%, 13.7% and 10.3% sequence divergence at the 16S rRNA mtDNA gene. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between 800-1100 m elevation. We suggest the species should be considered as Data Deficient following IUCN's Red List categories. To date our finding represents the southernmost known record of the genus Leptolalax from Vietnam.


Assuntos
Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Anuros/genética , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vietnã , Vocalização Animal
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 84: 85-100, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25527984

RESUMO

The phylogeny and historical demography of small Eurasian vipers of the Vipera ursinii and V. renardi complexes were studied using mitochondrial DNA sequences analysed with Bayesian inference, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony approaches, and mismatch distributions. Diversification in the group resulted from an initial dispersion in the later Pliocene - Pleistocene in two directions: north-westwards via the Balkans (V. ursinii complex) and north-eastwards from Asia Minor via the Caucasus (V. renardi complex). An independent, comparatively recent transition occurred from montane habitats to lowland grasslands in different mitochondrial lineages during the Late Pleistocene, when representatives of the both complexes had reached lowland steppes to the north. Effective population size showed clear signs of rapid growth in eastern V. renardi, triggered by colonization of vast lowland steppes, but in western V. ursinii complex grew during the Last Glaciation and experienced stabilization in Holocene. Expansion and population growth in lowland lineages of V. renardi was not strongly affected by Pleistocene climatic oscillations, when cold, dry conditions could have favoured species living in open grasslands. The high diversity of closely related haplotypes in the Caucasus and Tien-Shan could have resulted from repetitive expansion-constriction-isolation events in montane regions during Pleistocene climate fluctuations. The mitochondrial phylogeny pattern conflicts with the current taxonomy.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Filogenia , Viperidae/classificação , Animais , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Pradaria , Haplótipos , Funções Verossimilhança , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Zootaxa ; 3784: 48-66, 2014 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24872031

RESUMO

Species of bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus) in Vietnam have been described at a rate of nearly four species per year since 2007 mostly based on morphological data. A tool that guides species delimitation will accelerate the rate of documentation, and at a time when the recognition of species greatly benefits conservation. We use DNA barcoding using COI (550 bp) to re-examine the levels of genetic divergence and taxonomic status of 21 described species of Vietnamese bent-toed geckos. Tree-based analyses resolve all sampled species and identify potential undescribed taxa. Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances between the described species average 21.0±4.2% and range from 4.3% to 28.7%. Further, our analyses discover two potentially new species from Vietnam, two from Laos and one from China. Herein we describe the new species Cyrtodactylus puhuensis sp. nov. from Vietnam on the basis of both genetics and morphology. Genetically, it differs from the remaining species by an average K2P distance of 24.0±1.8%. Morphologically, the new species is diagnosed by its medium-size (snout-vent length 79.24 mm and tail length 82.59 mm, for the single known individual), in having a series of moderately enlarged transverse subcaudals and a series of moderately enlarged femoral scales that extend from precloacal scales, in possessing femoral scales without pores, with males having five precloacal pores, and in exhibiting 8 supralabials, 10 infralabials, 23 narrow subdigital lamellae on its fourth toe, and 36 transverse ventrals.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , China , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ecossistema , Feminino , Deriva Genética , Laos , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Vietnã
14.
Zootaxa ; 3737: 399-414, 2013 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25112761

RESUMO

The number of described species of bent-toed geckos of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis species complex in Vietnam has increased from one to eight in the last six years. We combined morphological and molecular analyses to explore phylogenetic relationships among all described species in the group. The phylogeny required the description of two new species, Cyrtodactylus phuocbinhensis sp. nov. and Cyrtodactylus taynguyenensis sp. nov. Further, the tree resolved two additional undescribed clades that may also be new species. The species C. bugiamapensis and C. ziegleri were found to require redefinition. Cyrtodactylus phuocbinhensis sp. nov. is characterized by a series of enlarged femoral scales separated from preanal scales while Cyrtodactylus taynguyenensis sp. nov. does not possess enlarged femoral scales. Both new species are distinguished from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: small subcaudal scales, not transversely enlarged; presence (C. phuocbinhensis sp. nov.) or absence (C. taynguyenensis sp. nov.) of enlarged femoral scales; number of preanal pores; and dorsal pattern. Genetic distances between described species and new species were 16.5% and 2.0% in COI and RPL35, respectively, for C. phuocbinhensis sp. nov., and these distances were 18.8% and 2.2% for C. taynguyenensis sp. nov., respectively.


Assuntos
Lagartos/genética , Animais , Lagartos/classificação , Filogenia , Vietnã
15.
J Hered ; 104(1): 72-85, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23125408

RESUMO

Relatively little is known about spatial patterns of cryptic diversity in tropical species and the processes that generate them. Few studies examine the geographic distribution of genetic lineages in Southeast Asia, an area hypothesized to harbor substantial cryptic diversity. We investigated the evolutionary history of Asian tree frogs of the Polypedates leucomystax complex (n = 172) based on 1800 bp of the mtDNA genes ND1 and cytochrome b and tested hypotheses pertaining to climate, geology, and dispersal patterns. Analyses revealed substantial genetic diversity and lineage divergence throughout the region with evidence for widespread sympatric lineages and a general north versus south clustering. Relaxed molecular clock analysis and tests for demographic expansion identified an initial cladogenesis during the Miocene with subsequent Plio-Pleistocene diversification, with the former corresponding to periods of increased aridity and the onset of monsoonal weather systems. Rates of diversification were relatively constant until the Early Pleistocene when rates increased exponentially. We found equivocal evidence for isolation-by-distance and a potential role of some landscape features as partial barriers to dispersal. Finally, our analyses showed that divergence between insular and mainland populations occurred before Homo sapiens colonized Southeast Asia, suggesting that historical human-mediated dispersal did not drive insular diversification. Our results suggested that demographic expansion in the Late Pleistocene resulted in widespread sympatric lineages in the P. leucomystax complex throughout southern China and Indochina and further clarified the evolutionary history of lineages within P. leucomystax.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Evolução Biológica , Demografia , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Clima , Biologia Computacional , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Geografia , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 63(3): 714-23, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22387289

RESUMO

We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and estimated the history of species diversification and character evolution in two ichthyophiid genera: Caudacaecilia and Ichthyophis. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of 67 samples from 33 localities in Southeast Asia from 3840-bp sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cyt b genes using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods. The Southeast Asian samples formed a well-supported clade differentiated from a South Asian sample. The Southeast Asian clade was divided into two subclades, one containing samples from South China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, and Java. The other consisted of samples from Borneo and the Philippines. Neither Caudacaecilia nor Ichthyophis was monophyletic, nor did samples with or without light stripes lateral to the body form clades. We found several distinct sympatric lineages and undescribed species, especially from Sundaland.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/genética , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Anfíbios/genética , Anfíbios/classificação , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Teorema de Bayes , Citocromos b/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Genéticos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogeografia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria
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