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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, the addition of ixazomib to lenalidomide maintenance post- autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in 64 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients was evaluated based on the observed benefit of lenalidomide-only maintenance in prior studies. METHODS: Patients were started on maintenance therapy with lenalidomide and ixazomib within 60-180 days of stem cell infusion. RESULTS: Response rates deepened over time from baseline post-ASCT for 39 patients. The complete response (CR)/stringent CR rate was 43% and median overall survival was not reached with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 25-82 months). Median PFS (mPFS) for all patients was 73 months and has not been reached for those with ISS stage 1 disease. mPFS in 9 patients who had ISS stage 3 disease and 14 patients who had high-risk cytogenetics was 34 and 25 months, respectively. Twenty-two patients had progressive disease, while 19 patients continue to receive dual maintenance. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events included neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, lung infections, diarrhea, and maculopapular rash. Second primary malignancies occurred in 9 patients. Toxicity led to dose reductions in ixazomib and lenalidomide in 20 and 31 patients, respectively. Discontinuation of ixazomib due to toxicity occurred in 4 patients. Grade 1/2 neuropathy occurred in 22 patients and led to reduction or discontinuation of ixazomib in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of ixazomib to lenalidomide maintenance demonstrated a better than expected PFS compared with historical data using lenalidomide alone and was safe and tolerable.

2.
Cancer Drug Resist ; 4(4): 888-902, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888496

RESUMO

Aim: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy of antibody-producing mature B cells or plasma cells. The proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, was the first-in-class compound to be FDA approved for MM and is frequently utilized in induction therapy. However, bortezomib refractory disease is a major clinical concern, and the efficacy of the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), panobinostat, in bortezomib refractory disease indicates that HDAC targeting is a viable strategy. Here, we utilized isogenic bortezomib resistant models to profile HDAC expression and define baseline and HDACi-induced expression patterns of individual HDAC family members in sensitive vs. resistant cells to better understanding the potential for targeting these enzymes. Methods: Gene expression of HDAC family members in two sets of isogenic bortezomib sensitive or resistant myeloma cell lines was examined. These cell lines were subsequently treated with HDAC inhibitors: panobinostat or vorinostat, and HDAC expression was evaluated. CRISPR/Cas9 knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of specific HDAC family members were conducted. Results: Interestingly, HDAC6 and HDAC7 were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in bortezomib-resistant cells. Panobinostat was effective at inducing cell death in these lines and modulated HDAC expression in cell lines and patient samples. Knockdown of HDAC7 inhibited cell growth while pharmacologically inhibiting HDAC6 augmented cell death by panobinostat. Conclusion: Our data revealed heterogeneous expression of individual HDACs in bortezomib sensitive vs. resistant isogenic cell lines and patient samples treated with panobinostat. Cumulatively our findings highlight distinct roles for HDAC6 and HDAC7 in regulating cell death in the context of bortezomib resistance.

3.
Neoplasia ; 24(1): 1-11, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826777

RESUMO

The introduction of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib into treatment regimens for myeloma has led to substantial improvement in patient survival. However, whilst bortezomib elicits initial responses in many myeloma patients, this haematological malignancy remains incurable due to the development of acquired bortezomib resistance. With other patients presenting with disease that is intrinsically bortezomib resistant, it is clear that new therapeutic approaches are desperately required to target bortezomib-resistant myeloma. We have previously shown that targeting sphingolipid metabolism with the sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) inhibitor K145 in combination with bortezomib induces synergistic death of bortezomib-naïve myeloma. In the current study, we have demonstrated that targeting sphingolipid metabolism with K145 synergises with bortezomib and effectively resensitises bortezomib-resistant myeloma to this proteasome inhibitor. Notably, these effects were dependent on enhanced activation of the unfolded protein response, and were observed in numerous separate myeloma models that appear to have different mechanisms of bortezomib resistance, including a new bortezomib-resistant myeloma model we describe which possesses a clinically relevant proteasome mutation. Furthermore, K145 also displayed synergy with the next-generation proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in bortezomib-resistant and carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells. Together, these findings indicate that targeting sphingolipid metabolism via SK2 inhibition may be effective in combination with a broad spectrum of proteasome inhibitors in the proteasome inhibitor resistant setting, and is an approach worth clinical exploration.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(11): 1582-1596, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the primary analysis of the phase 3 MAIA trial (median follow-up 28·0 months), a significant improvement in progression-free survival was observed with daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in transplantation-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Here, we report the updated efficacy and safety results from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival. METHODS: MAIA is an ongoing, multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial that enrolled patients at 176 hospitals in 14 countries across North America, Europe, the Middle East, and the Asia-Pacific region. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2, and were ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation because of their age (≥65 years) or comorbidities. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using randomly permuted blocks (block size 4) by an interactive web response system to receive 28-day cycles of intravenous daratumumab (16 mg/kg, once per week during cycles 1-2, once every 2 weeks in cycles 3-6, and once every 4 weeks thereafter) plus oral lenalidomide (25 mg on days 1-21 of each cycle) and oral dexamethasone (40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle; daratumumab group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group). Randomisation was stratified by International Staging System disease stage, geographical region, and age. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was centrally assessed, and a secondary endpoint was overall survival (both assessed in the intention-to-treat population). The safety population included patients who received at least one dose of the study treatment. The results presented here are from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival, for which the prespecified stopping boundary was p=0·0414. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02252172. FINDINGS: Between March 18, 2015, and Jan 15, 2017, 952 patients were assessed for eligibility, of whom 737 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the daratumumab group (n=368) or the control group (n=369). At a median follow-up of 56·2 months (IQR 52·7-59·9), median progression-free survival was not reached (95% CI 54·8-not reached) in the daratumumab group versus 34·4 months (29·6-39·2) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·53 [95% CI 0·43-0·66]; p<0·0001). Median overall survival was not reached in either group (daratumumab group, 95% CI not reached-not reached; control group, 95% CI 55·7-not reached; HR 0·68 [95% CI 0·53-0·86]; p=0·0013). The most common (>15%) grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (197 [54%] patients in the daratumumab group vs 135 [37%] patients in the control group), pneumonia (70 [19%] vs 39 [11%]), anaemia (61 [17%] vs 79 [22%]), and lymphopenia (60 [16%] vs 41 [11%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 281 (77%) patients in the daratumumab group and 257 (70%) patients in the control group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 13 (4%) patients in the daratumumab group and ten (3%) patients in the control group. INTERPRETATION: Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone increased overall survival and progression-free survival in patients ineligible for stem-cell transplantation with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. There were no new safety concerns. Our results support the frontline use of daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for transplantation. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Idoso , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(21): 10164-10174, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651428

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a haematologic malignancy. The proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib has been approved to treat MCL, but resistance has emerged through mechanisms that remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of PI resistance in MCL and identify new targets for this patient subgroup. Carfilzomib-resistant (CR) MCL cell lines and primary samples were used for both in vitro and in vivo experiments to identify gene expression and explore their related signalling pathways. We first identified mucin 20 (MUC20) suppression in carfilzomib-resistant MCL models. MUC20 overexpression sensitized cells to carfilzomib in vitro and in vivo. MUC20 expression was inversely related to activation of c-Met and the downstream p44/42 MAPK pathway. c-Met activation with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced PI resistance, while c-Met inhibition restored PI sensitivity. Carfilzomib resistance and depressed MUC20 expression were associated with enhanced proteasome activity and higher expression of proteassemblin (POMP), a chaperone for catalytically active proteasome assembly. c-Met and POMP were associated through binding and induction of MAPK-regulated ELK1 to the POMP promoter. Our data reveal that c-Met signalling activation enhanced proteasome capacity as a mechanism of PI resistance, and MUC20 expression may be a useful biomarker for PI therapy.

6.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686083

RESUMO

Standard-of-care for newly-diagnosed, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT)-eligible, multiple myeloma (MM) patients includes bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD) induction followed by melphalan 200 mg/m2 (Mel200)-conditioned auto-HCT and lenalidomide maintenance. We completed a retrospective case series assessing outcomes of 187 MM patients who received this regimen at our institution. The 100-day non-relapse mortality incidence was zero. Before auto-HCT, 9.6 and 52.9% of patients achieved a complete response (CR) or ≥ very good partial response (VGPR), respectively. At day-100 post-transplant, 29.4 and 74.9% had achieved a CR/stringent-CR (sCR) or ≥ VGPR, respectively. At the last evaluation, 57.2% of patients had CR/sCR and 87.1% had ≥ VGPR. Median follow-up, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 63.2, 50, and 101.7 months, respectively. The 5-year PFS and OS were 43.1 and 79%. High-risk cytogenetics was associated with worse outcomes. This study illustrates that VRD induction, Mel200-conditioned auto-HCT, and lenalidomide maintenance are associated with good outcomes in MM.

8.
Blood ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521108

RESUMO

We hypothesized that combining adoptively transferred autologous T cells with a cancer vaccine strategy would enhance therapeutic efficacy by adding anti-myeloma idiotype-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Id-KLH) vaccine to vaccine-specific co-stimulated T cells. In this randomized, phase II trial, eligible patients received either the control (KLH only) or Id-KLH vaccine, an auto-transplant, vaccine-specific co-stimulated T-cells expanded ex-vivo, and two booster doses of the assigned vaccine. In 36 patients (20 in KLH, 16 in Id-KLH) enrolled, no dose-limiting toxicity was seen in either arm. At last evaluation, 6 (30%) and 8 (50%) had achieved complete remission in KLH-only and Id-KLH, respectively (p=0.22) and no difference in 3-year progression-free survival was observed (59% and 56%, respectively; p=0.32). In a 594 Nanostring nCounter gene panel analyzed for immune reconstitution (IR), compared with KLH-only patients, there was a greater change in IR genes in T-cells in Id-KLH patients relative to baseline. Specifically, upregulation of genes associated with activation, induction of effector function, and generation of memory CD8+ T cells after Id-KLH, but not after KLH control vaccination, was observed. Similarly, responding patients across both arms were associated with upregulation of genes associated with T-cell activation. At baseline, all patients had greater expression of CD8+ T-cell exhaustion markers. These changes were associated with functional Id-specific immune responses in a subset of Id-KLH patients analyzed. In conclusion, in this combination immunotherapy approach, we observed a significantly more robust IR in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the Id-KLH arm, supporting further investigation of vaccine and adoptive immunotherapy strategies.

10.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(6): 3285-3293, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249462

RESUMO

Despite advances in treatment, most patients with multiple myeloma (MM) will relapse, and long-term survival remains poor. B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is an ideal therapeutic target as it is expressed throughout the disease course with normal tissue expression limited to plasma and some B-cell lineages. This phase 1, multicenter, first-in-human study evaluated the safety and efficacy of KITE-585, an autologous anti-BCMA chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, in patients with relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM). Key eligibility criteria included measurable MM and progression, defined by the International Myeloma Working Group Consensus Criteria within 60 days of the last treatment. Patients underwent leukapheresis and subsequently received a 3-day conditioning therapy regimen (cyclophosphamide [300 mg/m2/day] and fludarabine [30 mg/m2/day]). Patients then received a flat dose of 3 × 107 to 1 × 109 KITE-585 CAR T cells in a 3+3 dose-escalation design. The primary endpoint was incidence of adverse events (AEs) defined as dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). Key secondary and exploratory endpoints included efficacy outcomes, incidence of AEs, levels of KITE-585 in blood, serum cytokines, and incidence of anti-BCMA CAR antibodies. Seventeen patients were enrolled, and 14 received KITE-585 with a median follow-up of 12.0 months. The median age of patients was 56 years, 41.2% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1, 92.9% had baseline BCMA expression on plasma cells, and median number of prior therapies was 5.5. No patients experienced a DLT, all patients experienced ≥ 1 grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent AE (TEAE), and no grade 5 TEAEs were observed. There were no grade ≥ 3 events of cytokine release syndrome, neurologic events, or infections; all were grade 1 or 2, and each occurred in 21.4% of patients. Among all patients infused with KITE-585, 1 patient who received 3 × 107 anti-BCMA CAR T cells experienced a partial response. Median peak CAR T-cell expansion was low (0.98 cells/µL), as were median peak serum levels of CAR-associated cytokines, including interferon-γ (61.45 pg/mL) and interleukin-2 (0.9 pg/mL). KITE-585 demonstrated a manageable safety profile; however, the limited CAR T-cell expansion and associated lack of anti-tumor response in patients with RRMM treated with KITE-585 is consistent with the minimal CAR T-cell activity observed.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 73: 101972, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activation is implicated in Multiple Myeloma (MM) development, but little is known if genetic variants within this pathway contribute to MM susceptibility. METHODS: We performed a discovery candidate pathway analysis in 269 non-Hispanic white MM cases and 272 controls focusing on 171 variants selected from 26 core genes within the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Significant candidate variants (P < 0.05) were selected for validation in internal and external non-Hispanic white populations totaling 818 cases and 1209 controls. We also examined significant variants in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic case/control study populations to identify potential differences by race/ethnicity. Possible biological functions of candidate variants were predicted in silico. RESULTS: Seven variants were significantly associated with MM risk in non-Hispanic whites in the discovery population, of which LRP6:rs7966410 (OR: 0.57; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.88; P = 9.90 × 10-3) and LRP6:rs7956971 (OR: 0.64; 95 % CI: 0.44-0.95; P = 0.027) remained significant in the internal and external populations. CSNK1D:rs9901910 replicated among all three racial/ethnic groups, with 2-6 fold increased risk of MM (OR: 2.40; 95 % CI: 1.67-3.45; P = 2.43 × 10-6 - non-Hispanic white; OR: 6.42; 95 % CI: 2.47-16.7; P = 3.14 × 10-4 - non-Hispanic black; OR: 4.31; 95 % CI: 1.83-10.1; P = 8.10 × 10-4 - Hispanic). BTRC:rs7916830 was associated with a significant 37 % and 24 % reduced risk of MM in the non-Hispanic white (95 % CI: 0.49-0.82; P = 5.60 × 10-4) and non-Hispanic Black (95 % CI: 0.60-0.97; P = 0.028) population, respectively. In silico tools predicted that these loci altered function through via gene regulation. CONCLUSION: We identified several variants within the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway associated with MM susceptibility. Findings of this study highlight the potential genetic role of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in MM etiology among a diverse patient population.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina , Afro-Americanos/genética , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/etnologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , /estatística & dados numéricos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética
12.
Oncologist ; 26(9): e1599-e1608, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab has shown efficacy in treatment of advanced endometrial carcinoma (that is not microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient) following prior systemic therapy in any setting in the open-label, single-arm, phase Ib/II Study 111/KEYNOTE-146. With the exception of hypothyroidism, the safety profile of the combination was comparable to that of each monotherapy. Given the medical complexity and fragility of patients with endometrial carcinoma, further characterization of adverse reactions (ARs) associated with treatment will help health care professionals to optimize treatment with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab combination therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In Study 111/KEYNOTE-146, patients received lenvatinib at a starting dose of 20 mg orally once daily and pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks. Selected ARs (hypertension, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite/weight loss, hypothyroidism, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, musculoskeletal pain, stomatitis, and proteinuria) were chosen for detailed post hoc analyses. RESULTS: Median times to first onset of the selected ARs in this analysis all occurred within the first 10 weeks of treatment. Of the selected ARs, grade ≥3 severity of fatigue, hypertension, and nausea occurred in ≥5% of patients. Overall incidence of hypothyroidism was 51%, primarily of grade 2 severity (46%). Most of the ARs assessed were managed with a combination of study drug dose modifications and concomitant medications. CONCLUSION: No new safety signals were identified and the toxicity profile in this study was manageable with supportive medications, dose interruptions, and/or lenvatinib dose reductions. This analysis provides AR management guidance for patients with endometrial cancer receiving lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab combination therapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab has shown efficacy in the treatment of patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma (that is, not microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient) following at least one prior systemic therapy in any setting. Patients may experience toxicity associated with this combination, including adverse reactions of hypertension, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite/weight loss, hypothyroidism, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, musculoskeletal pain, stomatitis, and proteinuria. These adverse reactions may be managed with a combination of concomitant supportive care medications and judicious lenvatinib dose modifications. This article provides context and guidance for the recognition and management of adverse reactions in patients receiving lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas
13.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(10): 6099-6107, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) experience substantial cancer/treatment-related symptom burden during maintenance therapy. This is a phase II randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial to examine the effect of minocycline for symptom reduction by its potential anti-inflammatory effect. METHODS: Eligible MM patients for maintenance therapy were randomized to receive minocycline (100 mg twice daily) or placebo. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for MM (MDASI-MM) was used to assess multiple symptoms weekly during the trial. Clinician-rated toxicities and blood samples were prospectively collected. The effect size, area under the curve (AUC), and t tests were used to determine the symptom burden between treatment groups and identify the 5 most-severe MDASI-MM symptoms. The longitudinal analysis compared the changes in symptom severity and associated inflammatory markers between groups over time. RESULTS: Sixty-nine evaluable MM patients (33 from the intervention group and 36 from the placebo group) were included. No grade 3+ adverse events related to study medication were noted. The AUCs for the 5 worst MDASI-MM symptoms (fatigue, pain, disturbed sleep numbness/tingling, and drowsiness) were not significantly different between two arms. Regardless of group assignment, pain reduction was positively associated with decreased serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 and 2 during therapy (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This pPhase II randomized study observed no statistically significant positive signal impact from minocycline on symptom reduction or inflammatory markers during maintenance therapy for MM, although using minocycline was feasible and had a low toxicity profile.


Assuntos
Minociclina , Mieloma Múltiplo , Biomarcadores , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga , Humanos , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Dor
15.
Neoplasia ; 23(4): 361-374, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735664

RESUMO

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct type of indolent lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) with a high frequency of MYD88L265P mutation. Treatment for WM/LPL is highly variable in clinic and ibrutinib (a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, BTKi) has become a new treatment option for WM. To investigate the clinical impact of genetic alterations in WM, we assembled a large cohort of 219 WMs and 12 LPLs dividing into two subcohorts: a training cohort, patients sequenced by a same targeted 29-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, and a validation cohort, patients sequenced by allele specific-PCR or other targeted NGS panels. In both training and validation subcohorts, MYD88L265P and TP53 mutations showed favorable and adverse prognostic effects, respectively. CXCR4 nonsense/missense mutations (CXCR4NS/MS), cytogenetic complex karyotypes, and a family history of lymphoma/leukemia in first-degree relatives were associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes only or more in the validation subcohort. We further investigated the efficacy of various treatments and interaction with genetic factors in the entire cohort. Upfront dexamethasone usage was associated with poorer clinical outcomes in patients who received non-proteasome-containing chemotherapy as first-line treatment independent of genetic factors. Maintenance rituximab was associated with better survival. Ibrutinib/BTKi showed potential benefit in relapsed/refractory patients and patients without CXCR4NS/MS including those with TP53 mutations. In conclusion, genetic testing for MYD88L265P, TP53, and CXCR4 mutations and cytogenetic analysis provide important information for prognosis prediction and therapy selection. The findings in these study are valuable for improving treatment decisions on therapies available for WM/LPL patients with integration of NGS in clinic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/tratamento farmacológico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(3): 243.e1-243.e6, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781521

RESUMO

Numerous genetic abnormalities affect treatment outcomes in multiple myeloma. The role of coexistent trisomy or hyperdiploidy and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (CGAs) is not well defined. We assessed the influence of overlapping genetic abnormalities in patients who received frontline autologous stem cell transplantation. A total of 491 consecutive patients between January 2009 and January 2016 were identified. High-risk CGAs included del(17p), t(4;14), t(14;16), and gain 1q21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and del(13) by conventional cytogenetics. Thirty-two percent had a trisomy, 27% had a high-risk CGA, and 11% had both. Among patients with any trisomy, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 60% and 90%, respectively, compared to 25% and 65%, respectively, for patients with any high-risk CGA. Patients with co-existent trisomy and high-risk CGAs had 3-year PFS and OS of 43% and 89%, respectively, whereas those with isolated high-risk CGAs without trisomy had 3-year PFS and OS of 13% and 49%, respectively. The PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.3; P = .02) and OS (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 13; P = .006) were worse for high-risk CGAs without versus those with concurrent trisomies. Our findings suggest a protective impact of trisomies in patients with high-risk CGAs and a potential need for revised risk stratification assessments to account for overlapping genetic abnormalities.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Emerg Med ; 60(3): 349-354, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency medical services (EMS) agencies with higher field termination-of-resuscitation (TOR) rates tend to have higher survival rates from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Whether EMS agencies can improve survival rates through efforts to focus on resuscitation on scene and optimize TOR rates is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine if an EMS agency's efforts to enhance on-scene resuscitation were associated with increased TOR and OHCA survival with favorable neurologic outcome. METHODS: A single-city, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected 2017 quality assurance data was conducted. Patient demographics, process, and outcome measures were compared before and after an educational intervention to increase field TOR. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurologic status. RESULTS: There were 320 cases that met inclusion criteria. No differences in age, gender, location, witnessed arrest, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initial shockable rhythm, or presumed cardiac etiology were found. After the intervention, overall TOR rate increased from 39.6% to 51.1% (p = 0.06). Among subjects transported without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), average time on scene increased from 26.4 to 34.2 min (p = 0.02). Rates of sustained ROSC and survival to hospital admission were similar between periods. After intervention, there was a trend toward increased survival to hospital discharge rate (relative risk [RR] 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-5.91) and an increase in survival with favorable neurologic status rate (RR 5.96; 95% CI 0.80-44.47). CONCLUSION: This study described the association between an educational intervention focusing on optimization of resuscitation on scene and OHCA process and outcome measures. Field termination has the potential to serve as a surrogate marker for aggressively treating OHCA patients on scene.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Cell Metab ; 33(1): 78-93.e7, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406405

RESUMO

Obesity is often linked to malignancies including multiple myeloma, and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we showed that acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) may be an important linker in obesity-related myeloma. ACSS2 is overexpressed in myeloma cells derived from obese patients and contributes to myeloma progression. We identified adipocyte-secreted angiotensin II as a direct cause of adiposity in increased ACSS2 expression. ACSS2 interacts with oncoprotein interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), and enhances IRF4 stability and IRF4-mediated gene transcription through activation of acetylation. The importance of ACSS2 overexpression in myeloma is confirmed by the finding that an inhibitor of ACSS2 reduces myeloma growth both in vitro and in a diet-induced obese mouse model. Our findings demonstrate a key impact for obesity-induced ACSS2 on the progression of myeloma. Given the central role of ACSS2 in many tumors, this mechanism could be important to other obesity-related malignancies.


Assuntos
Acetato-CoA Ligase/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Obesidade/genética , Acetato-CoA Ligase/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
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