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1.
J Nutr ; 150(1): 47-54, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, no studies have directly compared the differences between presleep and daytime protein (PRO) consumption on localized and systemic fat metabolism in active women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of presleep compared with daytime PRO supplementation on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) lipolysis and whole-body substrate utilization in women. METHODS: Thirteen young (mean ± SE age: 22 ± 1 y; BMI: 24.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2), resistance-trained [1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat percentage of body weight: 135% ± 6%; 1RM bench press percentage of body weight: 82% ± 4%] women volunteered. On overnight experimental visits, participants performed full-body resistance exercise (RE; 65% 1RM) and were randomly assigned to consume either daytime PRO (PRO, 30 g casein) 30 min post-RE and presleep (30 min before bed) noncaloric, sensory-matched placebo (PLA, 0 g casein) (PRO-PLA), or the opposite (PLA-PRO), switching the order of the supplements on the following visit. SCAAT lipolysis, resting metabolism (indirect calorimetry), and plasma biomarkers (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol) were measured at baseline, overnight, and the next morning. RESULTS: There were no differences in overnight SCAAT lipolysis between conditions indicated by interstitial glycerol concentrations (PRO-PLA: baseline, 669 ± 137; next morning, 321 ± 77.1; PLA-PRO: baseline, 524 ± 109; next morning, 333 ± 68.0 µM), fat oxidation (PRO-PLA: baseline, 5.70 ± 0.35; next morning, 5.00 ± 0.28; PLA-PRO: baseline, 6.59 ± 0.32; next morning, 5.44 ± 0.27 g/min), or any other measure. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference between the effects of daytime and presleep PRO supplementation on SCAAT lipolysis or whole-body substrate utilization in resistance-trained women. Presleep PRO is a viable option for increasing PRO consumption in resistance-trained women because it does not blunt overnight lipolysis, and will therefore likely not lead to increases in subcutaneous abdominal fat.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03573687.

2.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 120(2): 349-357, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the influence of the Ultraman Florida triathlon (3 days of non-continuous racing; stage 1: 10 km swim and 144.8 km cycle; stage 2: 275.4 km cycle; stage 3: 84.4 km run) on circulating plasma concentrations of whole-body (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 (IL-6), and IL-10 and surrogate gut-specific inflammatory markers (IL-17 and IL-23), and determine whether these variables are associated with performance. METHODS: Eighteen triathletes (N = 18; 15 men, 3 women; age: 37 ± 8 yrs) were evaluated at baseline and post-race for circulating concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23. Blood samples were drawn two days prior to stage 1 (1600 h) and one day after stage 3 (1200 h). RESULTS: Plasma CRP significantly increased from baseline (1985.8 ± 5962.3 ng/mL) to post-race (27,013.9 ± 12,888.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001, 13-fold increase). Both plasma IL-6 and IL-10 did not significantly change from baseline to post-race. Baseline and post-race concentrations of IL-17 and IL-23 were below detectable limits. Pearson's correlation between mean finish time and post-race IL-10 revealed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.54, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10 involved in the inflammatory response return to near-baseline concentrations rapidly even after ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The absence of IL-17 and IL-23 may suggest positive gut adaptations from ultra-endurance training. A significant positive correlation between post-race IL-10 concentrations and mean finish time may indicate that a relationship between anti-inflammatory responses and performance exists.

3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 50, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699159

RESUMO

Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg- 1·d- 1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg- 1·d- 1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg- 1·d- 1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h- 1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h- 1; protein, 5-10 g·h- 1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h- 1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L- 1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Corrida/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Resistência Física , Corrida/classificação , Sociedades
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 47, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TeaCrine® is the synthetic version to naturally occurring theacrine (1, 3, 7, 9-tetramethyluric acid) found in the leaves of Camellia kucha tea plants. A few studies have examined the effects of TeaCrine® on cognitive perception, but no research exists examining its effects on resistance exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of TeaCrine®, a caffeine-like compound, on maximal muscular strength, endurance, and power performance in resistance-trained men. METHODS: Twelve resistance-trained men participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over designed study. Each participant performed one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, 1RM squat, bench press repetitions to failure (RTF) at 70% 1RM, squat RTF at 70% 1RM, and 2-km rowing time trial 90 min after consumption of: (1) Caffeine 300 mg (CAFF300); (2) TeaCrine® 300 mg (TEA300); (3) TeaCrine® + Caffeine (COMBO; 150 mg/150 mg); (4) Placebo 300 mg (PLA). Power and velocity were measured using a TENDO Power Analyzer. Visual analogue scales for energy, focus, motivation to exercise, and fatigue were administered at baseline and 90 min post-treatment ingestion (pre-workout). Rating of perceived exertion was assessed after bench press RTF and squat RTF. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for 1RM, RTF, and power in the bench press and squat exercises. Only CAFF300 resulted in significant increases in perceived energy and motivation to exercise vs. TEA300 and PLA (Energy: + 9.8%, 95% confidence interval [3.3-16.4%], p < 0.01; + 15.3%, 95% CI [2.2-28.5%], p < 0.02; Motivation to exercise: + 8.9%, 95% CI [0.2-17.6%], p = 0.04, + 14.8%, 95% CI [4.7-24.8%], p < 0.01, respectively) and increased focus (+ 9.6%, 95% CI [2.1-17.1%], p = 0.01) vs. TEA300, but there were no significant differences between CAFF300 and COMBO (Energy + 3.9% [- 6.9-14.7%], Focus + 2.5% [- 6.3-11.3%], Motivation to exercise + 0.5% [- 11.6-12.6%]; p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Neither TEA300, CAFF300, COMBO, or PLA (when consumed 90 min pre-exercise) improved muscular strength, power, or endurance performance in resistance-trained men. Only CAFF300 improved measures of focus, energy, and motivation to exercise.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Úrico/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Treinamento de Resistência , Ácido Úrico/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647886

RESUMO

Aesthetic athletes strive to attain an ideal body image and the physical demands placed on dancers make their body composition and fitness equally as important as their technique. Body composition has shown positive changes in response to increased protein intake and may improve aesthetics of dance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which supplemental whey protein (PRO) would improve body composition in female collegiate dancers compared to an isocaloric placebo (PLA). Twenty-one (19.6 ± 1.4 years) female collegiate dancers were randomly assigned to consume PRO or PLA (25g, 3x/day) for 12 weeks. Laboratory testing at weeks 0, 6 and 12 included, 24-hour urine collection, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), resting metabolic rate and performance. Data were reported as mean ± SD. Significance was accepted at p<0.05. Body weight, fat mass, and lean soft tissue did not change between groups or over time. Body composition index (BCI= (LSTpost-LSTpre)+(FMpre-FMpost)) significantly improved over time in PRO (+0.6 ± 1.9) but not PLA (-1.8 ± 3.1; p=0.048) however, neither group demonstrated changes in laboratory performance tests. Protein supplementation for 12 weeks significantly improved BCI and provides a simple way to improve the diet in female collegiate dancers. Novelty Bullets ●12-weeks of protein supplementation does not change body weight in female collegiate dancers ●Body composition index improves following protein supplementation in female collegiate dancers.

6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 30: 145-151, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher protein (HP) intake and physical activity (PA) have been associated with improved lean soft tissue (LST) and reduced fat mass (FM). Puerto Ricans have among the highest age-adjusted prevalence (42.5%) of obesity, which may be associated with inadequate protein consumption and PA. We examined the relationship between protein intake and PA with body composition and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health in Puerto Rican adults. METHODS: Participants included 959 Puerto Rican adults (71.4% women, 28.6% men) from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS), aged 46-79 y (Women: age, 60.4 ± 7.6 y, BMI, 32.9 ± 6.8 kg/m2; Men: age, 59.8 ± 7.9 y, BMI, 30.1 ± 5.2 kg/m2). Protein intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and expressed as g/kg body weight/day in energy intake-adjusted equal cut point tertile categories (lower, moderate, higher: LP < 0.91 g/kg/d, MP ≥ 0.91 ≤ 1.11 g/kg/d, and HP > 1.11 g/kg/d). PA was assessed by questionnaire and expressed in tertile categories (low, moderate and high; PA1: <0.8 km/d, PA2: ≥0.8  ≤ 3.2 km/d, PA3: >3.2 km/d). RESULTS: Participants with energy-adjusted HP had lower appendicular LST (ALST: 16.2 ± 3.8 kg), LST (39.7 ± 8.0 kg) and FM (25.6 ± 8.1 kg) when compared to LP (ALST: 20.1 ± 4.5 kg; LST: 49.5 ± 10.0 kg; FM: 40.8 ± 12.3 kg; P < 0.001) and MP (ALST: 18.2 ± 4.3 kg; LST: 44.1 ± 8.8 kg; FM: 32.2 ± 9.8 kg; P < 0.001). However, when adjusted for total body weight (kg), relative LST was significantly greater in HP (58 ± 9%) when compared to LP (53 ± 9%; P < 0.001) and MP (56 ± 9%; P < 0.001). Participants in PA3 had greater ALST (19.5 ± 5.4 kg), and LST (58 ± 10%), compared to PA1 (ALST: 17.2 ± 4.3 kg; LST: 53 ± 9%; P < 0.001) or PA2 (ALST: 17.7 ± 4.7 kg; LST: 56 ± 9%; P < 0.05). Those in HP + PA3 or MP + PA2 had lower c-reactive protein (CRP; HP + PA3: 5.1 ± 6.8 mg/L; MP + PA2: 6.4 ± 10.0 mg/L), when compared to LP + PA1 (8.7 ± 8.8 mg/L; P < 0.05). Insulin concentration was lower for those in both the HP and PA3 (HP + PA3; 11.4 ± 7.9 IU/mL) compared to those in both the LP and PA1 (LP + PA1; 20.7 ± 16.3 UI/mL) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The highest tertiles of energy-adjusted protein intake (≥1.11 g/kg/d) and PA (>3.2 km/d) were associated with more desirable indicators of overall body composition and cardiometabolic health, when adjusted for body weight, than those in the lower protein intake and PA in Puerto Rican adults.

7.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 44(10): 1043-1051, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785765

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cold ambient temperature on lactate kinetics with and without a preceding warm-up in female cyclists/triathletes. Seven female cyclists/triathletes participated in this study. The randomized, crossover study included 3 experimental visits that comprised the following conditions: (i) thermoneutral temperature (20 °C; NEU); (ii) cold temperature (0 °C) with no active warm-up (CNWU); and (iii) cold temperature (0 °C) with 25-min active warm-up (CWU). During each condition, participants performed a lactate threshold (LT) test followed by a time to exhaustion trial at 120% of the participant's peak power output (PPO) as determined during prior peak oxygen consumption testing. Power output at LT with CNWU was 10.2% ± 2.6% greater than with NEU, and the effect was considered very likely small (effect size (ES) = 0.59, 95%-99% likelihood). Power output at LT with CNWU was 4.2% ± 5.4% greater than with CWU; however, the effect was likely trivial (ES = 0.25, 75%-95% likelihood). At LT, there were no significant differences between interventions groups in oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, heart rate, or rating of perceived exertion. Time to exhaustion at 120% at PPO was 11% longer with CNWU than with CWU (ES = 0.62, respectively), and this effect was likely small. These findings suggest that power output at LT was higher in CNWU compared with NEU. Additionally, time to exhaustion at 120% of PPO was higher in CNWU compared with CWU and no different than NEU; these differences likely result in a small improvement in performance with CNWU versus CWU and NEU.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Exercício de Aquecimento , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
9.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 126(3): 739-745, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605402

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of acute full-body resistance exercise [RE; one set of 10 repetitions at 40% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and three sets of 10 repetitions at 65% 1RM] on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) lipolysis and whole body substrate oxidation in young (age: 22 ± 1 yr), normal-weight and body fatness (body mass index: 20 ± 1 kg/m2; %body fat: 28.7 ± 1.4%), resistance-trained women. Microdialysis was used to measure SCAAT lipolysis at baseline, mid-RE, post-RE, and 30 min post-RE, and indirect calorimetry was used to measure whole body substrate oxidation at baseline and immediately post-RE in 13 women. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, growth hormone (GH), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured at baseline, mid-RE, and post-RE. Lipolysis (dialysate glycerol concentration) was elevated post-RE (baseline: 596.7 ± 82.8, post-RE: 961.4 ± 116.3 µM, P = 0.01). Energy expenditure (baseline: 1,560 ± 49; post-RE: 1,756 ± 68 kcal/day; P = 0.02) and fat oxidation (baseline: 5.64 ± 0.24; post-RE: 7.57 ± 0.41 g/h; P = 0.0003) were elevated post-RE. GH (baseline: 513.1 ± 147.4; mid-RE: 1,288.3 ± 83.9; post-RE: 1,522.8 ± 51.1 pg/ml, P = 0.000), Epi (baseline: 23.2 ± 2.7; mid-RE: 92.5 ± 16.6; post-RE: 84.5 ± 21.4 pg/ml, P = 0.000), and NE (baseline: 139.2 ± 13.6; mid-RE: 850.9 ± 155.3; post-RE: 695.3 ± 93.5 pg/ml, P = 0.000) were higher at mid-RE and post-RE. Therefore, one of the potential mechanisms behind RE-induced fat mass changes in resistance-trained women may be in part due to the accumulated effect of transient increases in SCAAT lipolysis, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure, mediated by GH, Epi, and NE release.

10.
Clin Nutr ; 38(1): 372-382, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This investigation evaluated the efficacy by which resistance training enhances body composition, metabolic, and functional outcomes for obese patients undergoing a 12-week medically supervised hypocaloric treatment. METHODS: This was a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. Morbidly obese patients were prescribed a 12-week proprietary very low calorie diet (VLCD) treatment (Optifast®) with supplemental protein (1120 kcals/day) and were placed in one of two groups for 14 weeks: 1) Standard Treatment Control (CON) (n = 5) or 2) Resistance Training (RT) (n = 6). Both groups underwent a pedometer-based walking program; however only RT performed resistance training 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), neuromuscular function, and serum biomarkers were measured at weeks 0, 6, and 13. RESULTS: Both groups exhibited a significant loss of total body mass (TBM) (CON: -19.4 ± 2.3 kg, p = 0.0009 vs. RT: -15.8 ± 1.5 kg, p = 0.0002) and fat mass (FM) (CON: -14.7 ± 1.8 kg, p = 0.0002 vs. RT: -15.1 ± 2.1 kg, p = 0.0002) with no group differences. CON lost 4.6 ± 0.8 kg (p = 0.004) of lean mass (LM) while RT demonstrated no changes. Group differences were found for the relative proportion of total weight-loss due to FM-loss (CON: 75.6 ± 3.4% vs. RT: 96.0 ± 6.0%, p = 0.03) and LM-loss (CON: 24.4 ± 3.2% vs. RT: 4.0 ± 6.5%, p = 0.03). CON demonstrated a 328.6 ± 72.7 kcal/day (-14.3 ± 2.4%) (p = 0.02) decrease in REE while RT exhibited a non-significant decrease of 4.6 ± 1.6% (p = 0.78). RT demonstrated greater improvements in all measures of contractile function and strength when compared to CON (p < 0.05). At post-treatment, RT exhibited greater serum free fatty acids (p = 0.01), glycerol (p = 0.003), and ß-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.005) than CON. CONCLUSION: Resistance training was advantageous for weight-loss composition by preservation of LM without compromising overall weight- or fat-loss in morbidly obese men and women undergoing a protein supplemented VLCD. These changes accompanied positive adaptations for resting metabolism and muscular function.

11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(2): 337-345, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301439

RESUMO

Ormsbee, MJ, Carzoli, JP, Klemp, A, Allman, BR, Zourdos, MC, Kim, J-S, and Panton, LB. Efficacy of the repetitions in reserve-based rating of perceived exertion for the bench press in experienced and novice benchers. J Strength Cond Res 33(2): 337-345, 2019-Autoregulation (AR) is the practice of adjusting training variables in response to athlete feedback. One component of AR postulated to enhance resistance training adaptations involves implementing a resistance training-specific rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale measuring repetitions in reserve (RIR). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of this method using the bench press exercise. Twenty-seven college-aged men were assigned to one of 2 groups based on training age: experienced benchers (EB) (n = 14, training age: 4.7 ± 2.0 years) and novice benchers (NB) (n = 13, training age: 1.1 ± 0.6 years). Subjects performed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) followed by single-repetition sets with loads corresponding to 60, 75, and 90% of 1RM and an 8-repetition set at 70% of 1RM. Subjects reported a corresponding RPE, based on RIR, for every set. Average velocity was recorded for each single-repetition set along with the first and last repetitions of the 8-repetition set at 70% of 1RM. Average velocity at 100% of 1RM in EB was slower (0.14 ± 0.04 m·s) compared with NB (0.20 ± 0.05 m·s) (p < 0.001). Experienced benchers recorded greater RPE than NB at 1RM (EB: 9.86 ± 0.14 vs. NB: 9.35 ± 0.36) (p = 0.011). No between-group differences existed for average velocity or RPE at any other intensity. Both EB (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) and NB (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) had strong inverse significant correlations between average velocity and RPE at all intensities. Our findings suggest that the RIR-based RPE scale may be an efficacious approach for AR of bench press training load and volume in college-aged men.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Br J Nutr ; 120(9): 988-994, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249314

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a whole-food protein (cottage cheese, CC) consumed before sleep on next-morning resting energy expenditure (REE), RER and appetite compared with an isoenergetic/isonitrogenous casein protein (CP) supplement and placebo (PL) in active women. In a beverage-blinded, randomised, cross-over design, ten active women (age, 23·1 (sd 1·9) years; body fat, 22·0 (sd 4·6) %) consumed pre-sleep CC (30 g of protein, 10 g of carbohydrate and 0 g of fat) or energy- and protein-matched liquid CP or PL (0 kJ). Participants arrived at 18.00 hours for an overnight stay in the laboratory. At 30-60 min before normal bed time (2 h post standard meal), participants consumed CC, CP or PL before measurement of REE. Upon waking (05.00-08.00 hours), REE was repeated and subjective appetite was recorded. Statistical analyses were conducted using repeated-measures ANOVA (SPSS). Significance was accepted at P≤0·05. There were no significant differences in acute REE (CC, 7217 (sd 1368); CP, 7188 (SD 895); PL, 7075 (sd 1108) kJ/d, P=0·95), acute RER (0·79 (sd 0·05), P=0·56), morning REE (CC, 5840 (sd 1225); CP, 5694 (sd 732); PL, 5991 (sd 903) kJ/d, P=0·79) or morning RER (0·77 (sd 0·03), P=0·52). Subjective measures of appetite were not different between groups. In active women, pre-sleep consumption of CC does not alter REE or RER more than a CP or PL beverage. These data suggest that the metabolic response from whole-food protein do not differ from the metabolic response of liquid protein.


Assuntos
Apetite , Caseínas/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Adulto , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Descanso , Sono , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 23: 79-83, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460818

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity (SO) and its association with health outcomes in patients seeking weight loss treatment from a bariatric center. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients [≥18 years old, body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2] from the Tallahassee Memorial Bariatric Center and with baseline body composition assessment by bioelectrical impedance analysis were included. Fat mass index (FMI = fat mass/height2) and fat-free mass index (FFMI = fat free mass/height2) were calculated. SO was defined by a FMI/FFMI ratio greater than the 95 percentile of sex, BMI and ethnicity specific population-representative references. Medical records were reviewed for biochemical and comorbidity measures. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four patients (∼69% females, mean age 55.6 years, mean BMI 46.6 kg/m2) were included. Patients' FMI/FFMI ratios ranged from 0.35 to 1.60 kg/m2 across body weight spectrum, with 51% having SO. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL or LDL were not different between patients with and without SO. However, the prevalence of high cholesterol, asthma, alcoholism and hernia were higher in patients with SO. SO was the strongest univariate predictor of high cholesterol (OR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.07-4.04) and asthma (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.12-6.83). CONCLUSION: SO was prevalent and associated with adverse health outcomes, beyond that captured by anthropometric measures in the present study.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 28(6): 619-628, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485324

RESUMO

We examined the effect of a protein supplement on muscular strength and body composition during 6 months of a 5 days/week concurrent strength and endurance training program. Sedentary males (n = 26) and females (n = 25), 18-25 years, were randomly assigned to receive a protein (PRO, 42 g/serving) or carbohydrate (CON) supplement twice daily. Strength and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed at baseline, 3 (3M), and 6 (6M) months. Protein intake was higher in PRO (PRO: 2.2 g/kg; CON: 1.1 g/kg; p < .001). Females in both groups gained similar strength at 3M and 6M in bench press and hip sled. Males in PRO gained more bench press strength at 3M (PRO: 24.6 ± 3.2 kg; CON: 14.3 ± 3.8 kg; p = .06) and 6M (PRO: 34.4 ± 4.3 kg; CON: 18.7 ± 5.1 kg; p = .03) and hip sled strength at 3M (PRO: 67.7 ± 9.2 kg; CON: 40.8 ± 10.8 kg, p = .07) and 6M (PRO: 94.0 ± 10.6 kg; CON: 65.1 ± 12.4 kg; p = .09) compared with CON. Females in PRO experienced a greater reduction in fat mass over the course of the study (6M) than CON (PRO: -1.7 ± 0.5 kg; CON: 0.1 ± 0.5 kg; p = .06). Changes in lean mass were similar for females in PRO and CON. Loss in fat mass was similar for males in PRO and CON at 3M and 6M. Males in PRO gained more lean mass at 3M compared with CON (PRO: 3.2 ± 0.3 kg; CON: 2.2 ± 0.4 kg; p = .1) but similar gains at 6M (PRO: 2.6 ± 0.4 kg; CON: 2.2 ± 0.5 kg; p = .6). The results of this study demonstrate that PRO used during a concurrent training program may augment positive changes in body composition in young sedentary males and females, and strength gains in males.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Força Muscular , Treinamento de Resistência , Absorciometria de Fóton , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(4): 827-836, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effect of preexercise carbohydrate of different glycemic indices on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) metabolism and running performance. METHODS: Ten trained male runners completed three experimental trials consisting of 30 min at 60% maximal oxygen consumption, 30 min at 75% maximal oxygen consumption, and a 5-km time trial. Thirty minutes before exercise, participants consumed one of three beverages: 1) 75 g low glycemic index modified starch supplement (UCAN), 2) 75 g high glycemic index glucose-based supplement (G), or 3) a flavor-matched noncaloric placebo (PL). SCAAT lipolysis was assessed via microdialysis. RESULTS: Before exercise, blood glucose and insulin were elevated with G versus PL (+53.0 ± 21.3 mg·dL (mean ± SD), P < 0.0001; +33.9 ± 11.0 µU·mL, P < 0.0001) and G versus UCAN (+36.6 ± 24.9 mg·dL, P < 0.0001; +25.2 ± 11.0 µU·mL, P < 0.0001), respectively. Fat oxidation was attenuated, and carbohydrate oxidation increased before exercise with G versus PL (-0.06 ± 0.06 g·min, P = 0.005; +0.18 ± 0.07 g·min, P < 0.0001) and G versus UCAN (-0.06 ± 0.05 g·min, P = 0.004; +0.18 ± 0.14 g·min, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in SCAAT lipolysis at rest or during running at either exercise intensity. Also, there was no effect of treatment on running performance. CONCLUSIONS: Preexercise carbohydrate lowers fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate oxidation, and these effects are attenuated with low glycemic index carbohydrate. However, these changes are not the result of alterations in SCAAT lipolysis, nor do they affect running performance.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Índice Glicêmico , Lipólise , Corrida/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/metabolismo , Desempenho Atlético , Bebidas , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Amido/administração & dosagem
16.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 14: 33, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919842

RESUMO

The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise.Endogenous glycogen stores are maximized by following a high-carbohydrate diet (8-12 g of carbohydrate/kg/day [g/kg/day]); moreover, these stores are depleted most by high volume exercise.If rapid restoration of glycogen is required (< 4 h of recovery time) then the following strategies should be considered:aggressive carbohydrate refeeding (1.2 g/kg/h) with a preference towards carbohydrate sources that have a high (> 70) glycemic indexthe addition of caffeine (3-8 mg/kg)combining carbohydrates (0.8 g/kg/h) with protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h) Extended (> 60 min) bouts of high intensity (> 70% VO2max) exercise challenge fuel supply and fluid regulation, thus carbohydrate should be consumed at a rate of ~30-60 g of carbohydrate/h in a 6-8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (6-12 fluid ounces) every 10-15 min throughout the entire exercise bout, particularly in those exercise bouts that span beyond 70 min. When carbohydrate delivery is inadequate, adding protein may help increase performance, ameliorate muscle damage, promote euglycemia and facilitate glycogen re-synthesis.Carbohydrate ingestion throughout resistance exercise (e.g., 3-6 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum [RM] using multiple exercises targeting all major muscle groups) has been shown to promote euglycemia and higher glycogen stores. Consuming carbohydrate solely or in combination with protein during resistance exercise increases muscle glycogen stores, ameliorates muscle damage, and facilitates greater acute and chronic training adaptations.Meeting the total daily intake of protein, preferably with evenly spaced protein feedings (approximately every 3 h during the day), should be viewed as a primary area of emphasis for exercising individuals.Ingestion of essential amino acids (EAA; approximately 10 g)either in free form or as part of a protein bolus of approximately 20-40 g has been shown to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS).Pre- and/or post-exercise nutritional interventions (carbohydrate + protein or protein alone) may operate as an effective strategy to support increases in strength and improvements in body composition. However, the size and timing of a pre-exercise meal may impact the extent to which post-exercise protein feeding is required.Post-exercise ingestion (immediately to 2-h post) of high-quality protein sources stimulates robust increases in MPS.In non-exercising scenarios, changing the frequency of meals has shown limited impact on weight loss and body composition, with stronger evidence to indicate meal frequency can favorably improve appetite and satiety. More research is needed to determine the influence of combining an exercise program with altered meal frequencies on weight loss and body composition with preliminary research indicating a potential benefit.Ingesting a 20-40 g protein dose (0.25-0.40 g/kg body mass/dose) of a high-quality source every three to 4 h appears to most favorably affect MPS rates when compared to other dietary patterns and is associated with improved body composition and performance outcomes.Consuming casein protein (~ 30-40 g) prior to sleep can acutely increase MPS and metabolic rate throughout the night without influencing lipolysis.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Sociedades , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Exp Physiol ; 102(11): 1500-1512, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28795443

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? This study examined the effects of 20 weeks of administration of conjugated linoleic acids/omega-3 fatty acids with or without programed resistance exercise training on body composition, skeletal muscle properties and functional capacity in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet. What is the main finding and its importance? Chronic daily administration of conjugated linoleic acids/omega-3 fatty acids with resistance exercise training can help to blunt fat gain, alleviate loss of myogenic capacity and sensorimotor function and lower tissue inflammation in middle-aged mice during chronic high-fat diet-induced catabolism. This study investigated the effects of 20 weeks of combined conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)/omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) administration independently or combined with resistance exercise training (RET) on skeletal muscle in middle-aged mice consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine-month-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (H, high-fat diet; HE, H + RET; HCN, H + CLA/n-3; and HECN, H + CLA/n3 + RET). Body composition and functional capacity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Muscle tissues were collected at 14 months of age. ANOVA was used, with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Fat mass significantly increased in H (+74%), HE (+142%) and HECN (+43%) but not in HCN. Muscle wet weights were significantly lower in H and HCN than in HE and HECN. Grip strength substantially declined in H (-15%) and HCN (-17%), whereas sensorimotor function significantly declined only in H (-11%). HECN exhibited improvement in strength (+22%) and sensorimotor coordination (+17%). In comparison to H, muscle tumour necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was significantly lower in HE (-39%), HCN (-24%) and HECN (-21%), respectively. Mean myofibre cross-sectional areas were markedly lower in H and HCN than in HE and HECN. H showed significantly lower satellite cell abundance and numbers of myonuclei than all other groups. Our findings suggest that long-term daily CLA/n-3 intake with resistance training improved sensorimotor function, ameliorated fat gain and prevented loss of myogenic capacity while lowering tumour necrosis factor-α expression during chronic HFD.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Treinamento de Resistência , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 14: 20, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642676

RESUMO

The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1.4-2.0 g protein/kg body weight/day (g/kg/d) is sufficient for most exercising individuals, a value that falls in line within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range published by the Institute of Medicine for protein.Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg/d) may be needed to maximize the retention of lean body mass in resistance-trained subjects during hypocaloric periods.There is novel evidence that suggests higher protein intakes (>3.0 g/kg/d) may have positive effects on body composition in resistance-trained individuals (i.e., promote loss of fat mass).Recommendations regarding the optimal protein intake per serving for athletes to maximize MPS are mixed and are dependent upon age and recent resistance exercise stimuli. General recommendations are 0.25 g of a high-quality protein per kg of body weight, or an absolute dose of 20-40 g.Acute protein doses should strive to contain 700-3000 mg of leucine and/or a higher relative leucine content, in addition to a balanced array of the essential amino acids (EAAs).These protein doses should ideally be evenly distributed, every 3-4 h, across the day.The optimal time period during which to ingest protein is likely a matter of individual tolerance, since benefits are derived from pre- or post-workout ingestion; however, the anabolic effect of exercise is long-lasting (at least 24 h), but likely diminishes with increasing time post-exercise.While it is possible for physically active individuals to obtain their daily protein requirements through the consumption of whole foods, supplementation is a practical way of ensuring intake of adequate protein quality and quantity, while minimizing caloric intake, particularly for athletes who typically complete high volumes of training. Rapidly digested proteins that contain high proportions of essential amino acids (EAAs) and adequate leucine, are most effective in stimulating MPS. Different types and quality of protein can affect amino acid bioavailability following protein supplementation. Athletes should consider focusing on whole food sources of protein that contain all of the EAAs (i.e., it is the EAAs that are required to stimulate MPS). Endurance athletes should focus on achieving adequate carbohydrate intake to promote optimal performance; the addition of protein may help to offset muscle damage and promote recovery. Pre-sleep casein protein intake (30-40 g) provides increases in overnight MPS and metabolic rate without influencing lipolysis.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Necessidades Nutricionais , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/normas , Aminoácidos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Leucina/administração & dosagem
20.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 49(7): 1283-1292, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28252552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate 12 wk of resistance training (RT; n = 16) and protein supplementation (RT + protein; n = 17) on muscular strength, body composition, and blood biomarkers of muscle (insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]), fat (adiponectin), and inflammation (human C-reactive protein [CRP]) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Thirty-three BCS (59 ± 8 yr) were measured pre- and posttraining for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) muscular strength (chest press and leg extension), body composition (lean mass [LM] and fat mass [FM]) via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and serum concentrations of IGF-1, adiponectin, and CRP. RT consisted of 2 d·wk using 10 exercises for two sets of 10-12 repetitions and a third set to failure at ~65%-85% of 1-RM. RT + protein consumed 20 g of protein twice a day. ANOVA was used for analyses. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Average RT intensity was 65%-81% of 1-RM and was not different between RT and RT + protein. There were no group-time interactions for strength, LM, FM, and biomarkers. Both groups significantly increased upper (+31 ± 18 kg) and lower (+19 ± 12 kg) body strength, LM (+0.9 ± 1.0 kg) and decreased FM (-0.5 ± 1.2 kg), and percent body fat (-1.0% ± 1.2%). Serum levels of IGF-1 significantly increased from baseline to 12 wk in both RT (102 ± 34 to 115 ± 33 ng·mL) and RT + protein (110 ± 40 to 119 ± 37 ng·mL); adiponectin and CRP did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of RT at 65%-81% of 1-RM, 2 d·wk in BCS, was well tolerated and significantly improved strength, body composition, and IGF-1. Supplemental protein (40 g·d) did not induce a change in any variable. However, on the basis of food logs, reductions in total calories and dietary protein intake from whole foods resulted in only a net protein increase of 17 g·d for RT + protein, which may have influenced the results.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
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