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3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339356

RESUMO

Rationale Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for IPF; however, the extent to which there is additional overlap with IPF, or unique associations among those with ILA is not known. Objectives To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILA. Methods: ILA and the subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES, COPDGene, Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE, MESA, and SPIROMICS studies. We performed a GWAS of ILA in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF. Measurements and Main Results Genome-wide genotyping data were available in 1,699 ILA cases and 10,274 controls. The MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILA (p=2.6x10-27) and subpleural ILA (p=1.6x10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, p=3.8x10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, p=4.8x10-8) with ILA, and HTRE1 (rs7744971, p=4.2x10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILA. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Of 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, 5 (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (p<0.05/12) with ILA. Conclusions In a GWAS of ILA in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common and suggest distinct genetically-driven biologic pathways between ILA and IPF.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925230

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with numerous genetic variants, yet the extent to which its genetic risk is mediated by variation in lung structure remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To characterize associations between a genetic risk score (GRS) associated with COPD susceptibility and lung structure on computed tomography (CT). METHODS: We analyzed data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study, a US general population-based cohort, and SPIROMICS, a study of COPD. A weighted GRS was calculated from 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with lung function. Lung density, spatially-matched airway dimensions, and airway counts were assessed on full-lung CT. Generalized linear models were adjusted for age, age-squared, sex, height , principal components of genetic ancestry, smoking status, pack-years, CT model, milliamperes, and total lung volume. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: MESA Lung and SPIROMICS contributed 2,517 and 2,339 participants, respectively. Higher GRS was associated with lower lung function and increased COPD risk, as well as lower lung density, smaller airway lumens, and fewer small airways, without effect modification by smoking. Adjustment for CT lung structure, particularly small airways measures, attenuated associations between the GRS and FEV1/FVC by 100% and 60% in MESA and SPIROMICS, respectively. Lung structure (P<.0001), but not the GRS (P>.10), improved discrimination of moderate-to-severe COPD cases relative to clinical factors alone. CONCLUSIONS: A GRS associated with COPD susceptibility was associated with CT lung structure. Lung structure may be an important mediator of heritability and determinant of personalized COPD risk.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 416-425.e7, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of bronchoprotection (LOBP) with a regularly used long-acting ß2-adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA) is well documented. LOBP has been attributed to ß2-adrenergic receptor (B2AR) downregulation, a process requiring farnesylation, which is inhibited by alendronate. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether alendronate can reduce LABA-associated LOBP in inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-treated patients. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design, proof-of-concept trial. Seventy-eight participants with persistent asthma receiving 250 µg of fluticasone twice daily for 2 weeks were randomized to receive alendronate or placebo while initiating salmeterol for 8 weeks. Salmeterol-protected methacholine challenges (SPMChs) and PBMC B2AR numbers (radioligand binding assay) and signaling (cyclic AMP ELISA) were assessed before randomization and after 8 weeks of ICS plus LABA treatment. LOBP was defined as a more than 1 doubling dose reduction in SPMCh PC20 value. RESULTS: The mean doubling dose reduction in SPMCh PC20 value was 0.50 and 0.27 with alendronate and placebo, respectively (P = .62). Thirty-eight percent of participants receiving alendronate and 33% receiving placebo had LOBP (P = .81). The after/before ICS plus LABA treatment ratio of B2AR number was 1.0 for alendronate (P = .86) and 0.8 for placebo (P = .15; P = .31 for difference between treatments). The B2AR signaling ratio was 0.89 for alendronate (P = .43) and 1.02 for placebo (P = .84; P = .44 for difference). Changes in lung function and B2AR number and signaling were similar between those who did and did not experience LOBP. CONCLUSION: This study did not find evidence that alendronate reduces LABA-associated LOBP, which relates to the occurrence of LOBP in only one third of participants. LOBP appears to be less common than presumed in concomitant ICS plus LABA-treated asthmatic patients. B2AR downregulation measured in PBMCs does not appear to reflect LOBP.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2052-2061, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in asthma care, disparities persist. Black patients are disproportionally affected by asthma and also have poorer outcomes compared with white patients. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine associations between black and white patients and asthma-related health care use, accounting for complex relationships. METHODS: This study was completed as part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program, a prospective observational cohort. Between November 2012 and February 2015, it enrolled 579 participants 6 years and older with 1 year of observation time and complete data. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance racial groups with respect to community and family socioeconomic variables and environmental exposure variables. The primary outcome was emergency department (ED) use for asthma. Secondary outcomes included inhaled corticosteroid use, outpatient physician's office visits for asthma, and asthma-related hospitalization. RESULTS: Black patients had greater odds of ED use over 1 year (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.43-3.35) but also differed in the majority (>50%) of baseline variables measured. After statistical balancing of the racial groups, the difference between black and white patients with respect to ED use no longer reached the level of significance. Instead, in secondary analyses black patients were less likely to see an outpatient physician for asthma management (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: The disparity in ED use was eliminated after consideration of multiple variables. Social and environmental policies and interventions tailored to black populations with a high burden of asthma are critical to reduction (or elimination) of these disparities.

11.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 223, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of smoking-related lung disease in current and former smokers with normal FEV1 is complex, leading to debate regarding using a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of less than 0.70 versus the predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) for diagnosis of airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that the discordant group of ever-smokers with FEV1/FVC between the LLN and 0.70 is heterogeneous, and aimed to characterize the burden of smoking-related lung disease in this group. METHODS: We compared spirometry, chest CT characteristics, and symptoms between 161 ever-smokers in the discordant group and 940 ever-smokers and 190 never-smokers with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC > 0.70 in the SPIROMICS cohort. We also estimated sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing objective radiographic evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using different FEV1/FVC criteria thresholds. RESULTS: The discordant group had more CT defined emphysema and non-emphysematous gas trapping, lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FEF25-75, and higher respiratory medication use compared with the other two groups. Within the discordant group, 44% had radiographic CT evidence of either emphysema or non-emphysematous gas trapping; an FEV1/FVC threshold of 0.70 has greater sensitivity but lower specificity compared with LLN for identifying individuals with CT abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: Ever-smokers with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC <  0.70 but > LLN are a heterogeneous group that includes significant numbers of individuals with and without radiographic evidence of smoking-related lung disease. These findings emphasize the limitations of diagnosing COPD based on spirometric criteria alone.

12.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

14.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206298

RESUMO

Short-acting ß2-adrenergic receptor agonists (SABAs) are the most commonly prescribed asthma medications worldwide. Response to SABAs is measured as bronchodilator drug response (BDR), which varies among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, the genetic variation that contributes to BDR is largely undefined in African Americans with asthma. To identify genetic variants that may contribute to differences in BDR in African Americans with asthma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR in 949 African-American children with asthma, genotyped with the Axiom World Array 4 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) followed by imputation using 1000 Genomes phase III genotypes. We used linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and genetic ancestry to test for an association between BDR and genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To increase power and distinguish between shared vs. population-specific associations with BDR in children with asthma, we performed a meta-analysis across 949 African Americans and 1830 Latinos (total = 2779). Finally, we performed genome-wide admixture mapping to identify regions whereby local African or European ancestry is associated with BDR in African Americans. We identified a population-specific association with an intergenic SNP on chromosome 9q21 that was significantly associated with BDR (rs73650726, p = 7.69 × 10-9). A trans-ethnic meta-analysis across African Americans and Latinos identified three additional SNPs within the intron of PRKG1 that were significantly associated with BDR (rs7903366, rs7070958 and rs7081864, p ≤ 5 × 10-8). Our results failed to replicate in three additional populations of 416 Latinos and 1615 African Americans. Our findings indicate that both population-specific and shared genetic variation contributes to differences in BDR in minority children with asthma, and that the genetic underpinnings of BDR may differ between racial/ethnic groups.

15.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 134, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify genetic loci associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1, and develop a multi-gene predictive model for lung function in COPD. METHODS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1 was performed in 1645 non-Hispanic White European descent smokers. RESULTS: A functional rare variant in SERPINA1 (rs28929474: Glu342Lys) was significantly associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC (p = 1.2 × 10- 8) and FEV1 (p = 2.1 × 10- 9). In addition, this variant was associated with COPD (OR = 2.3; p = 7.8 × 10- 4) and severity (OR = 4.1; p = 0.0036). Heterozygous subjects (CT genotype) had significantly lower lung function and higher percentage of COPD and more severe COPD than subjects with the CC genotype. 8.6% of the variance of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC can be explained by SNPs in 10 genes with age, sex, and pack-years of cigarette smoking (P <  2.2 × 10- 16). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to show genome-wide significant association of rs28929474 in SERPINA1 with lung function. Of clinical importance, heterozygotes of rs28929474 (4.7% of subjects) have significantly reduced pulmonary function, demonstrating a major impact in smokers. The multi-gene model is significantly associated with CT-based emphysema and clinical outcome measures of severity. Combining genetic information with demographic and environmental factors will further increase the predictive power for assessing reduced lung function and COPD severity.

16.
Respir Med ; 140: 87-93, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) during COPD exacerbations is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The prognostic value of NT-proBNP measured during clinical stability has not been well characterized. METHODS: We studied SPIROMICS participants 40-80 years of age with COPD GOLD spirometric stages 1-4. The association between baseline NT-proBNP and incident COPD exacerbations within one year of follow-up was tested using zero-inflated Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, race, body mass index, current smoking status, smoking history, FEV1 percent predicted, COPD Assessment Test score, exacerbation history, total lung capacity on chest CT and cardiovascular disease (any of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure). RESULTS: Among 1051 participants (mean age 66.1 years, 41.4% women), mean NT-proBNP was 608.9 pg/ml. Subjects in GOLD stage D had the highest mean NT-proBNP. After one year of follow-up, 268 participants experienced one or more COPD exacerbations. One standard deviation increase in baseline NT-proBNP was associated with a 13% increase in the risk of incident exacerbations (incident risk ratio 1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.19; p < 0.0001). This association was maintained in participants with and without cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION: Baseline NT-proBNP in COPD is an independent predictor of respiratory exacerbations, even in individuals without overt cardiac disease. The impact of detection and treatment of early cardiovascular dysfunction on COPD exacerbation frequency warrants further investigation.

17.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 121(4): 444-450.e1, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of vitamin D3 serum concentrations as a biomarker of vitamin D status is questionable because of variation in vitamin D binding protein. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between free vitamin D3 concentrations and rates of treatment failure and exacerbations in patients with asthma participating in the Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma (VIDA) trial. METHODS: Free concentrations were directly measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and stratified into low, medium, and high groups: less than 5pg/mL (n = 65), 5 to 9pg/mL (n = 84), and greater than 9pg/mL (n = 48) after 12 weeks of supplementation with oral vitamin D3 and associated with outcomes. RESULTS: Outcomes did not associate with free concentrations: overall treatment failure rates were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.78), 0.53 (95%CI 0.40- 0.70), and 0.69 (95%CI 0.54-0.90)/person-year (P = .51), respectively; overall exacerbation rates were 0.28 (95%CI 0.17-0.48), 0.15 (95%CI 0.08-0.30) and 0.42 (95%CI 0.27-0.66)/person-year (P = .22). Mean (standard deviation) baseline free concentrations were lower in non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites: 4.10 (1.33) and 4.38 (1.11) pg/mL vs 5.16 (1.65) pg/ml, (P < .001 and P = 0.038), respectively. Mean (standard deviation) baseline free concentrations differed between females and males: 4.57 (1.58) and 5.08 (1.41) (P = .026); and between non-overweight (body mass index [BMI] < 25) and overweight (BMI > 25): 5.45 (1.86) vs 4.54 (1.39) (P < .001). The free fraction differed by race and sex but not by BMI. CONCLUSION: The use of free concentrations was inferior to total concentrations as a biomarker of efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in VIDA trial participants. Future studies of vitamin D status in patients with asthma should measure both free and total concentrations to better understand which marker of vitamin D function is most informative.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(2): 754-760.e3, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with asthma morbidity in observational studies, but the factors underlying this association are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether 3 SES correlates-low income, low education, and high perceived stress-were independent risk factors for treatment failure and asthma exacerbations in the context of a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The effect of low SES (household income of <$50,000/y and household educational level of less than a Bachelor's degree) and high perceived stress (defined as a score of >20 on a perceived stress scale) on asthma morbidity was analyzed in 381 participants by using Poisson regression models. The primary outcome was treatment failure (defined in the trial protocol as a significant clinical or airflow deterioration), and the secondary outcome was asthma exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent of participants had a low income, 40% had a low educational level, and 17% had high perceived stress levels. Even after adjusting for race and other important confounders, participants with lower income had higher rates of both treatment failures (rate ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3; P = .03) and exacerbations (rate ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3; P = .02). Adherence with inhaled corticosteroids was similarly high for both income categories. Education and perceived stress were not significantly associated with either outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a randomized controlled trial, participants with lower income were more likely to experience adverse asthma outcomes independent of education, perceived stress, race, and medication adherence.

20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 5(12): 956-967, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased concentrations of eosinophils in blood and sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased frequency of exacerbations, reduced lung function, and corticosteroid responsiveness. We aimed to assess whether high eosinophil concentrations in either sputum or blood are associated with a severe COPD phenotype, including greater exacerbation frequency, and whether blood eosinophils are predictive of sputum eosinophils. METHODS: We did a multicentre observational study analysing comprehensive baseline data from SPIROMICS in patients with COPD aged 40-80 years who had a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years, recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA between Nov 12, 2010, and April 21, 2015. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were SPIROMICS baseline visit data with complete blood cell counts and, in a subset, acceptable sputum counts. We stratified patients on the basis of blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations and compared their demographic characteristics, as well as results from questionnaires, clinical assessments, and quantitative CT (QCT). We also analysed whether blood eosinophil concentrations reliably predicted sputum eosinophil concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). FINDINGS: Of the 2737 patients recruited to SPIROMICS, 2499 patients were smokers and had available blood counts, and so were stratified by mean blood eosinophil count: 1262 patients with low (<200 cells per µL) and 1237 with high (≥200 cells per µL) blood eosinophil counts. 827 patients were eligible for stratification by mean sputum eosinophil percentage: 656 with low (<1·25%) and 171 with high (≥1·25%) sputum eosinophil percentages. The high sputum eosinophil group had significantly lower median FEV1 percentage predicted than the low sputum eosinophil group both before (65·7% [IQR 51·8-81·3] vs 75·7% [59·3-90·2], p<0·0001) and after (77·3% [63·1-88·5] vs 82·9% [67·8-95·9], p=0·001) bronchodilation. QCT density measures for emphysema and air trapping were significantly higher in the high sputum eosinophil group than the low sputum eosinophil group. Exacerbations requiring corticosteroids treatment were more common in the high versus low sputum eosinophil group (p=0·002). FEV1 percentage predicted was significantly different between low and high blood eosinophil groups, but differences were less than those observed between the sputum groups. The high blood eosinophil group had slightly increased airway wall thickness (0·02 mm difference, p=0·032), higher St George Respiratory Questionnaire symptom scores (p=0·037), and increased wheezing (p=0·018), but no evidence of an association with COPD exacerbations (p=0·35) or the other indices of COPD severity, such as emphysema measured by CT density, COPD assessment test scores, Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index, or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage. Blood eosinophil counts showed a weak but significant association with sputum eosinophil counts (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0·64, p<0·0001), but with a high false-discovery rate of 72%. INTERPRETATION: In a large, well characterised cohort of former and current smoking patients with a broad range of COPD severity, high concentrations of sputum eosinophils were a better biomarker than high concentrations of blood eosinophils to identify a patient subgroup with more severe disease, more frequent exacerbations, and increased emphysema by QCT. Blood eosinophils alone were not a reliable biomarker for COPD severity or exacerbations, or for sputum eosinophils. Clinical trials targeting eosinophilic inflammation in COPD should consider assessing sputum eosinophils. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escarro/citologia , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Curva ROC , Escarro/imunologia
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