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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative roles of mucus plugs and emphysema in mechanisms of airflow limitation and hypoxemia in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed computed tomography (CT) lung images and lung function in participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study. Radiologists scored mucus plugs on CT lung images and imaging software automatically quantified percent emphysema. Unadjusted and adjusted relationships between mucus plug score, percent emphysema, and lung function were determined using regression. RESULTS: Among 400 smokers, 229 (57%) had mucus plugs and 207 (52%) had emphysema and subgroups could be identified with mucus dominant and emphysema dominant disease. Only 33% of smokers with high mucus plug scores had mucus symptoms. Mucus plug score and percent emphysema were independently associated with lower values for forced expiratory volume in one second and peripheral oxygen saturation (p values < 0.001). The relationships between mucus plug score and lung function outcomes were strongest in smokers with limited emphysema (p values <0.001). Compared to smokers with low mucus plug scores, those with high scores had worse COPD Assessment Test scores (17.4 ± 7.7 vs. 14.4 ± 13.3), more frequent annual exacerbations (0.75 ± 1.1 vs. 0.43 ± 0.85), and shorter 6-minute walk distance (329 ± 115 vs. 392 ± 117 meters)(p values < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Symptomatically silent mucus plugs are highly prevalent in smokers and independently associate with lung function outcomes. These data provide rationale for targeting mucus-high/emphysema-low COPD patients in clinical trials of muco-active treatments.

2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking and oxidative stress are common risk factors for the multi-morbidities associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Elevated levels of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity and mortality. The enzyme fructosamine-3-kinase (FN3K) reduces this risk by lowering AGE levels. METHODS: The distribution and expression of FN3K protein in lung tissues from stable COPD and control subjects, as well as an animal model of COPD, was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Serum FN3K protein and AGE levels were assessed by ELISA in patients with COPD exacerbations receiving metformin. Genetic variants within the FN3K and FN3K-RP genes were evaluated for associations with cardiorespiratory function in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study cohort. RESULTS: This pilot study demonstrates that FN3K expression in the blood and human lung epithelium is distributed at either high or low levels irrespective of disease status. The percentage of lung epithelial cells expressing FN3K was higher in control smokers with normal lung function, but this induction was not observed in COPD patients nor in a smoking model of COPD. The top five nominal FN3K polymorphisms with possible association to decreased cardiorespiratory function (p<0.008-0.02), all failed to reach the threshold (p<0.0028) to be considered highly significant following multi-comparison analysis. Metformin enhanced systemic levels of FN3K in COPD subjects independent of their high-expression or low-expression status. DISCUSSION: The data highlight that low and high FN3K expressors exist within our study cohort and metformin induces FN3K levels, highlighting a potential mechanism to reduce the risk of CVD comorbidity and mortality.

3.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 66: 136-142, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171417

RESUMO

In this review, we summarize recent published work interrogating the relationship between genetic variation or gene expression regulation across the genome and asthma or asthma treatment outcomes. This includes 11 genome-wide association studies of asthma phenotypes that collectively identified 64 novel loci; transcriptome-wide asthma association studies which identified genes involved in virus recognition, bacterial infection, lung tissue remodeling, eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation and genes in the chromosome 17q12 asthma susceptibility locus; and three epigenome-wide studies of asthma that had robust sample sizes and replicated findings. We also highlight pharmacogenomic studies of corticosteroids, bronchodilator response to albuterol and zileuton, although finding from these studies may still be preliminary due to their relatively small sample sizes and limited availability of replication cohorts.

4.
Indoor Air ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037695

RESUMO

Increased outdoor concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO2 , NOx ) are associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity in adults and children. However, people spend most of their time indoors and this is particularly true for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both outdoor and indoor air pollution may accelerate lung function loss in individuals with COPD, but it is not feasible to measure indoor pollutant concentrations in all participants in large cohort studies. We aimed to understand indoor exposures in a cohort of adults (SPIROMICS Air, the SubPopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study, Air pollution). We developed models for the entire cohort based on monitoring in a subset of homes, to predict mean 2-week measured concentrations of PM2.5 , NO2 , NOx , and nicotine, using home and behavioral questionnaire responses available in the full cohort. Models incorporating socioeconomic, meteorological, behavioral and residential information together explained about 60% of the variation in indoor concentration of each pollutant. Cross validated R2 for best indoor prediction models ranged from 0.43 (NOx ) to 0.51 (NO2 ). Models based on questionnaire responses and estimated outdoor concentrations successfully explained most variation in indoor PM2.5 , NOx , NO2 , and nicotine concentrations.

5.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2467-2476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116463

RESUMO

Background: Chronic cough and phlegm are frequently reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms. Prior research classified chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) based on the presence of these symptoms for ≥3 months, called chronic bronchitis (CB) if respiratory infection symptoms were present for 1-2 years (Medical Research Council [MRC] definition). We explored whether the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), a simple measure developed for routine clinical use, captures CMH populations and outcomes similarly to MRC and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) definitions. Methods: We identified CMH in the SPIROMICS COPD cohort using (a) MRC definitions, (b) SGRQ questions for cough and phlegm (both as most/several days a week), and (c) CAT cough and phlegm questions. We determined optimal cut-points for CAT items and described exacerbation frequencies for different CMH definitions. Moderate exacerbations required a new prescription for antibiotics/oral corticosteroids or emergency department visit; severe exacerbations required hospitalization. Results were stratified by smoking status. Results: In a population of 1431 participants (57% male; mean FEV1% predicted 61%), 47% and 49% of evaluable participants had SGRQ- or CAT-defined CMH, respectively. A cut-point of ≥2 for cough and phlegm items defined CMH in CAT. Among SGRQ-CMH+ participants, 80% were also defined as CMH+ by the CAT. CMH+ participants were more likely to be current smokers. A higher exacerbation frequency was observed for presence of CMH+ versus CMH- in the year prior to baseline for all CMH definitions; this trend continued across 3 years of follow-up, regardless of smoking status. Conclusion: Items from the CAT identified SGRQ-defined CMH, a frequent COPD trait that correlated with exacerbation frequency. The CAT is a short, simple questionnaire and a potentially valuable tool for telemedicine or real-world trials. CAT-based CMH is a novel approach for identifying clinically important characteristics in COPD that can be ascertained in these settings.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007162

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Black adults have worse health outcomes compared to white adults in certain chronic diseases, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). It is unclear if, and to what degree, disadvantage by individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to racial disparities in COPD outcomes. METHODS: Individual and neighborhood-scale sociodemographic characteristics were determined in 2649 current or former adult smokers, with and without COPD, at recruitment into the SPIROMICS study. We assessed whether racial differences in symptom, functional and imaging outcomes (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ], COPD Assessment Test [CAT] score; modified Medical Research Council [mMRC] dyspnea scale; six-minute walk test distance [6MWD], CT scan metrics) and severe exacerbation risk were explained by individual or neighborhood SES. Using generalized linear mixed models regression, we compared respiratory outcomes by race, adjusting for confounders and individual-level and neighborhood-level descriptors of SES, both separately and sequentially. RESULTS: After adjusting for COPD risk factors, black participants had significantly worse respiratory symptoms and quality of life (mMRC, CAT and SGRQ), higher risk of severe exacerbations and higher percent emphysema, thicker airways (Pi10), and more air trapping on CT metrics compared to whites. Additionally, the association between black race and respiratory outcomes was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual-level SES, which explained up to 12% to 35% of racial disparities. Further adjustment showed that neighborhood-level SES explained another 26% to 54% of the racial disparities in respiratory outcomes. Even after accounting for both individual and neighborhood SES factors, black individuals continued to have increased severe exacerbation risk and persistently worse CT outcomes (emphysema, air trapping and airway wall thickness). CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantages by individual and neighborhood-level SES each partly explain disparities in respiratory outcomes between black individuals and whites. Strategies to narrow the gap in SES disadvantages may help to reduce race-related health disparities in COPD; however, further work is needed to identify additional risk factors contributing to persistent disparities.

7.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(4): 346-361, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877963

RESUMO

Background: Risk factor identification is a proven strategy in advancing treatments and preventive therapy for many chronic conditions. Quantifying the impact of those risk factors on health outcomes can consolidate and focus efforts on individuals with specific high-risk profiles. Using multiple risk factors and longitudinal outcomes in 2 independent cohorts, we developed and validated a risk score model to predict mortality in current and former cigarette smokers. Methods: We obtained extensive data on current and former smokers from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study at enrollment. Based on physician input and model goodness-of-fit measures, a subset of variables was selected to fit final Weibull survival models separately for men and women. Coefficients and predictors were translated into a point system, allowing for easy computation of mortality risk scores and probabilities. We then used the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort for external validation of our model. Results: Of 9867 COPDGene participants with standard baseline data, 17.6% died over 10 years of follow-up, and 9074 of these participants had the full set of baseline predictors (standard plus 6-minute walk distance and computed tomography variables) available for full model fits. The average age of participants in the cohort was 60 for both men and women, and the average predicted 10-year mortality risk was 18% for women and 25% for men. Model time-integrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve statistics demonstrated good predictive model accuracy (0.797 average), validated in the external cohort (0.756 average). Risk of mortality was impacted most by 6-minute walk distance, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and age, for both men and women. Conclusions: Current and former smokers exhibited a wide range of mortality risk over a 10- year period. Our models can identify higher risk individuals who can be targeted for interventions to reduce risk of mortality, for participants with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using current Global initiative for obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria.

8.
Chest ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the concordance of atopy with asthma COPD overlap. Among individuals with COPD, a better understanding of the phenotypes characterized by asthma overlap and atopy is needed to better target therapies. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the overlap between atopy and asthma status among individuals with COPD, and how are categories defined by the presence of atopy and asthma status associated with clinical and radiologic phenotypes and outcomes in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) and Subpopulation and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Four hundred three individuals with COPD from SPIROMICS and 696 individuals from COPDGene with data about specific IgEs to 10 common allergens and mixes (simultaneous assessment of combination of allergens in similar category) were included. Comparison groups were defined by atopic and asthma status (neither, atopy alone, atopic asthma, nonatopic asthma, with atopy defined as any positive specific IgE (≥0.35 KU/L) to any of the 10 allergens or mixes and asthma defined as self-report of doctor-diagnosed current asthma). Multivariable regression analyses (linear, logistic, and zero inflated negative binomial where appropriate) adjusted for age, sex, race, lung function, smoking status, pack-years smoked, and use of inhaled corticosteroids were used to determine characteristics of groups and relationship with outcomes (exacerbations, clinical outcomes, CT metrics) separately in COPDGene and SPIROMICS, and then adjusted results were combined using meta-analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of atopy was 35% and 36% in COPD subjects from SPIROMICS and COPDGene, respectively, and less than 50% overlap was seen between atopic status with asthma in both cohorts. In meta-analysis, individuals with nonatopic asthma had the most impaired symptom scores (effect size for St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 4.2; 95% CI, 0.4-7.9; effect size for COPD Assessment Test score, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.089-5.4), highest risk for exacerbations (incidence rate ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.88) compared with the group without atopy or asthma. Those with atopy and atopic asthma were not at increased risk for adverse outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Asthma and atopy had incomplete overlap among former and current smokers with COPD in COPDGene and SPIROMICS. Nonatopic asthma was associated with adverse outcomes and exacerbation risk in COPD, whereas groups having atopy alone and atopic asthma had less risk.

9.
Proteomics ; 20(12): e1900278, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386347

RESUMO

Novel proteomics platforms, such as the aptamer-based SOMAscan platform, can quantify large numbers of proteins efficiently and cost-effectively and are rapidly growing in popularity. However, comparisons to conventional immunoassays remain underexplored, leaving investigators unsure when cross-assay comparisons are appropriate. The correlation of results from immunoassays with relative protein quantification is explored by SOMAscan. For 63 proteins assessed in two chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cohorts, subpopulations and intermediate outcome measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), and COPDGene, using myriad rules based medicine multiplex immunoassays and SOMAscan, Spearman correlation coefficients range from -0.13 to 0.97, with a median correlation coefficient of ≈0.5 and consistent results across cohorts. A similar range is observed for immunoassays in the population-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and for other assays in COPDGene and SPIROMICS. Comparisons of relative quantification from the antibody-based Olink platform and SOMAscan in a small cohort of myocardial infarction patients also show a wide correlation range. Finally, cis pQTL data, mass spectrometry aptamer confirmation, and other publicly available data are integrated to assess relationships with observed correlations. Correlation between proteomics assays shows a wide range and should be carefully considered when comparing and meta-analyzing proteomics data across assays and studies.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) mediate viral infection of host cells. We reasoned that differences in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 gene expression in sputum cells among asthma patients may identify subgroups at risk for COVID19 morbidity. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression for ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)(rhinovirus receptor as a comparator), in sputum cells from 330 participants in the Severe Asthma Research Program-3 and 79 healthy controls. RESULTS: Gene expression of ACE2 was lower than TMPRSS2, and expression levels of both genes was similar in asthma and health. Among asthma patients, male gender, African Americans race, and history of diabetes mellitus, was associated with higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was associated with lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, but treatment with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) did not decrease expression of either gene. These findings differed from those for ICAM-1, where gene expression was increased in asthma and less consistent differences were observed related to gender, race, and use of ICS. CONCLUSION: Higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in males, African Americans, and patients with diabetes mellitus provides rationale for monitoring these asthma subgroups for poor COVID19 outcomes. The lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with ICS use warrants prospective study of ICS use as a predictor of decreased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased COVID19 morbidity. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(1): 83-90, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348692

RESUMO

Rationale: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), and TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine 2) mediate viral infection of host cells. We reasoned that differences in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 gene expression in sputum cells among patients with asthma may identify subgroups at risk for COVID-19 morbidity.Objectives: To determine the relationship between demographic features and sputum ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in asthma.Methods: We analyzed gene expression for ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and for ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) (rhinovirus receptor as a comparator) in sputum cells from 330 participants in SARP-3 (Severe Asthma Research Program-3) and 79 healthy control subjects.Measurements and Main Results: Gene expression of ACE2 was lower than TMPRSS2, and expression levels of both genes were similar in asthma and health. Among patients with asthma, male sex, African American race, and history of diabetes mellitus were associated with higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was associated with lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, but treatment with triamcinolone acetonide did not decrease expression of either gene. These findings differed from those for ICAM-1, where gene expression was increased in asthma and less consistent differences were observed related to sex, race, and use of ICS.Conclusions: Higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in males, African Americans, and patients with diabetes mellitus provides rationale for monitoring these asthma subgroups for poor COVID-19 outcomes. The lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with ICS use warrants prospective study of ICS use as a predictor of decreased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased COVID-19 morbidity.


Assuntos
Asma , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Corticosteroides , Betacoronavirus , Demografia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Escarro
12.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; : 1-9, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067514

RESUMO

Context: The chronic exposure to Cadmium (Cd) constitute an risk to develop hypertension and cardiovascular diseases associated with the increase of oxidative stress.Objective: In this study, we investigate the role of metabolic changes produced by exposure to Cd on the endothelial dysfunction via oxidative stress.Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to Cd (32.5-ppm) for 2-months. The zoometry and blood pressure were evaluated, also glucose and lipids profiles in serum and vascular reactivity evaluated in isolated aorta rings.Results: Rats exposed to Cd showed an increase of blood pressure and biochemical parameters similar to metabolic syndrome. Additionally, rats exposed to Cd showed a reduced relaxation in aortic rings, which was reversed after the addition of SOD and apocynin an inhibitor of NADPH.Conclusion: The Cd-exposition induced hypertension and endothelial injury by that modifying the vascular relaxation and develop oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase, superoxide and loss nitric oxide bioavailability.

13.
Chest ; 157(4): 856-865, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitamin D) and COPD outcomes remains unclear. Using the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we determined associations among baseline 25-OH-vitamin D and cross-sectional and longitudinal lung function and COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Serum 25-OH-vitamin D level was measured in stored samples from 1,609 SPIROMICS participants with COPD. 25-OH-vitamin D levels were modeled continuously and dichotomized as deficient (< 20 ng/mL) vs not deficient (≥ 20 ng/mL). Outcomes of interest included % predicted FEV1 (current and 1-year longitudinal decline) and COPD exacerbations (separately any and severe, occurring in prior year and first year of follow-up). RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency was present in 21% of the cohort and was more prevalent in the younger, active smokers, and blacks. Vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with lower % predicted FEV1 (by 4.11%) at enrollment (95% CI, -6.90% to -1.34% predicted FEV1; P = .004), 1.27% predicted greater rate of FEV1 decline after 1 year (95% CI, -2.32% to -0.22% predicted/y; P = .02), and higher odds of any COPD exacerbation in the prior year (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.00-1.74; P = .049). Each 10-ng/mL decrease in 25-OH-vitamin D was associated with lower baseline lung function (-1.04% predicted; 95% CI, -1.96% to -0.12% predicted; P = .03) and increased odds of any exacerbation in the year before enrollment (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cross-sectional and longitudinal lung function and increased odds of prior COPD exacerbations. These findings identify 25-OH-vitamin D levels as a potentially useful marker of adverse COPD-related outcomes.

14.
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 147-155, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Association studies between HLA and asthma were first reported in the 1970s, and yet, the precise role of HLA alleles in asthma is not fully understood. Numerous genome-wide association studies were recently conducted on asthma, but were always limited to simple genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and not complex HLA gene polymorphisms (alleles/haplotypes), therefore not capturing the biological relevance of this complex locus for asthma pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To run the first HLA-centric association study with asthma and specific asthma-related phenotypes in a large cohort of African-ancestry individuals. METHODS: We collected high-density genomics data for the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (N = 4993) participants. Using computer-intensive machine-learning attribute bagging methods to infer HLA alleles, and Easy-HLA to infer HLA 5-gene haplotypes, we conducted a high-throughput HLA-centric association study of asthma susceptibility and total serum IgE (tIgE) levels in subjects with and without asthma. RESULTS: Among the 1607 individuals with asthma, 972 had available tIgE levels, with a mean tIgE level of 198.7 IU/mL. We could not identify any association with asthma susceptibility. However, we showed that HLA-DRB1∗09:01 was associated with increased tIgE levels (P = 8.5 × 10-4; weighted effect size, 0.51 [0.15-0.87]). CONCLUSIONS: We identified for the first time an HLA allele associated with tIgE levels in African-ancestry individuals with asthma. Our report emphasizes that by leveraging powerful computational machine-learning methods, specific/extreme phenotypes, and population diversity, we can explore HLA gene polymorphisms in depth and reveal the full extent of complex disease associations.

16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 564-574, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710517

RESUMO

Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease characterized by scarring of the lung that is believed to result from an atypical response to injury of the epithelium. Genome-wide association studies have reported signals of association implicating multiple pathways including host defense, telomere maintenance, signaling, and cell-cell adhesion.Objectives: To improve our understanding of factors that increase IPF susceptibility by identifying previously unreported genetic associations.Methods: We conducted genome-wide analyses across three independent studies and meta-analyzed these results to generate the largest genome-wide association study of IPF to date (2,668 IPF cases and 8,591 controls). We performed replication in two independent studies (1,456 IPF cases and 11,874 controls) and functional analyses (including statistical fine-mapping, investigations into gene expression, and testing for enrichment of IPF susceptibility signals in regulatory regions) to determine putatively causal genes. Polygenic risk scores were used to assess the collective effect of variants not reported as associated with IPF.Measurements and Main Results: We identified and replicated three new genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) signals of association with IPF susceptibility (associated with altered gene expression of KIF15, MAD1L1, and DEPTOR) and confirmed associations at 11 previously reported loci. Polygenic risk score analyses showed that the combined effect of many thousands of as yet unreported IPF susceptibility variants contribute to IPF susceptibility.Conclusions: The observation that decreased DEPTOR expression associates with increased susceptibility to IPF supports recent studies demonstrating the importance of mTOR signaling in lung fibrosis. New signals of association implicating KIF15 and MAD1L1 suggest a possible role of mitotic spindle-assembly genes in IPF susceptibility.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Fuso Acromático , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 540-554, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661293

RESUMO

Rationale: The role of PI (protease inhibitor) type Z heterozygotes and additional rare variant genotypes in the gene encoding alpha-1 antitrypsin, SERPINA1 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 1), in determining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and severity is controversial.Objectives: To comprehensively evaluate the effects of rare SERPINA1 variants on lung function and emphysema phenotypes in subjects with significant tobacco smoke exposure using deep gene resequencing and alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations.Methods: DNA samples from 1,693 non-Hispanic white individuals, 385 African Americans, and 90 Hispanics with ≥20 pack-years smoking were resequenced for the identification of rare variants (allele frequency < 0.05) in 16.9 kB of SERPINA1.Measurements and Main Results: White PI Z heterozygotes confirmed by sequencing (MZ; n = 74) had lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 (P = 0.007), FEV1/FVC (P = 0.003), and greater computed tomography-based emphysema (P = 0.02) compared with 1,411 white individuals without PI Z, S, or additional rare variants denoted as VR. PI Z-containing compound heterozygotes (ZS/ZVR; n = 7) had lower FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase (P = 0.009). Nineteen white heterozygotes for five non-S/Z coding variants associated with lower alpha-1 antitrypsin had greater computed tomography-based emphysema compared with those without rare variants. In African Americans, a 5' untranslated region insertion (rs568223361) was associated with lower alpha-1 antitrypsin and functional small airway disease (P = 0.007).Conclusions: In this integrative deep sequencing study of SERPINA1 with alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations in a heavy smoker and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cohort, we confirmed the effects of PI Z heterozygote and compound heterozygote genotypes. We demonstrate the cumulative effects of multiple SERPINA1 variants on alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, lung function, and emphysema, thus significantly increasing the frequency of SERPINA1 variation associated with respiratory disease in at-risk smokers.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/epidemiologia , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Focalização Isoelétrica , Masculino , Fluxo Máximo Médio Expiratório , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Vital , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo
18.
Eur Respir J ; 55(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558662

RESUMO

This document provides clinical recommendations for the management of severe asthma. Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles. The evidence syntheses were discussed and recommendations formulated by a multidisciplinary Task Force of asthma experts, who made specific recommendations on six specific questions. After considering the balance of desirable and undesirable consequences, quality of evidence, feasibility, and acceptability of various interventions, the Task Force made the following recommendations: 1) suggest using anti-interleukin (IL)-5 and anti-IL-5 receptor α for severe uncontrolled adult eosinophilic asthma phenotypes; 2) suggest using a blood eosinophil cut-point ≥150 µL-1 to guide anti-IL-5 initiation in adult patients with severe asthma; 3) suggest considering specific eosinophil (≥260 µL-1) and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (≥19.5 ppb) cut-offs to identify adolescents or adults with the greatest likelihood of response to anti-IgE therapy; 4) suggest using inhaled tiotropium for adolescents and adults with severe uncontrolled asthma despite Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) step 4-5 or National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) step 5 therapies; 5) suggest a trial of chronic macrolide therapy to reduce asthma exacerbations in persistently symptomatic or uncontrolled patients on GINA step 5 or NAEPP step 5 therapies, irrespective of asthma phenotype; and 6) suggest using anti-IL-4/13 for adult patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and for those with severe corticosteroid-dependent asthma regardless of blood eosinophil levels. These recommendations should be reconsidered as new evidence becomes available.

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