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1.
J Community Psychol ; 48(2): 590-604, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705820

RESUMO

Street connected young people (SCYP) are at risk of encountering negative life experiences, such as abuse, neglect, violence and exploitation. Nonetheless, some demonstrate remarkable resilience. This study therefore aimed to explore protective factors that promote resilience in SCYP in Guatemala City. Using ethnographic interviews and image elicitation eight young people and four adult educational outreach project coordinators participated within this study. Three key protective factors emerged that help develop resilience; Empowerment, as educational projects support SCYP and provide opportunities; Belongingness, encapsulated creating positive relationships, a sense of affinity and positive family environments; and Motivation which highlighted the importance of the young peoples' willpower, engagement with learning and help-seeking behaviour. Educational projects working with SCYP can help to develop resilience by empowering them for change, providing a sense of belonging, while also acknowledging their individual motivation for change.

2.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1)2020. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121008

RESUMO

La prevalencia de enfermedad renal ha aumentado considerablemente en la última década y está previsto que crezca en los próximos años. Recientemente, diversos modelos se han utilizado para entender los procesos fisiopatológicos de daño renal y para la búsqueda de futuros candidatos farmacológicos. El objetivo de esta revisión es proporcionar una descripción de la evidencia actual de modelos in vitro e in vivo de nefrotoxicidad, nefropatía diabética y deshidratación, y los fundamentos de las principales vías de señalización fisiopatológicas, con el fin de proponer biomarcadores candidatos para futura investigación farmacológica. Actualmente, los roedores constituyen un pilar importante en estudios de daño renal, existiendo diferencias específicas según el estímulo nocivo, lo que sugiere considerar para un modelo relevante aspectos como especie, cepa, género y estructuras renales objetivo. Diversas estructuras renales se han complementado in vitro, principalmente a partir de líneas celulares, como del epitelio tubular, podocitos, células mesangiales glomerulares y conducto colector medular interno. Este enfoque se ha utilizado como complementario en modelos de nefrotoxicidad por exposición a aminoglucósidos (principalmente), deshidratación por cloruro de sodio hiperosmolar, y nefropatía diabética por medio de glucosa alta y productos derivados de glucólisis y glicación. Recientemente, estos modelos han mostrado similitud en diversas rutas de señalización celular, con algunos biomarcadores en común, entre múltiples causas de daño renal como el daño oxidativo, disfunción mitocondrial, procesos inflamatorios, desregulación de sistemas de defensa y sobrevivencia celular, y apoptosis. El enfoque en seleccionar biomarcadores relevantes contribuirá al diseño de estrategias terapéuticas de nefroprotectores sobre múltiples factores etiológicos.


The prevalence of kidney disease has increased considerably in the last decade and is expected to growth in the coming years. Recently, various models have been used to understand the pathophysiological processes of kidney damage and to search for future pharmacological candidates. The aim of this review is to provide a description of the current evidence of in vitro and in vivo models of nephrotoxicity, diabetic nephropathy and dehydration, and the foundations of the main pathophysiological signaling pathways, in order to propose candidate biomarkers for future drug discovery. Currently, rodents are an important pillar in studies of kidney damage, with specific differences depending on the noxious stimulus, which suggests considering aspects such as species, strain, gender and target structures for a relevant model. Several renal structures have been complemented through in vitro approaches, mainly using cell lines, such as the tubular epithelium, podocytes, glomerular mesangial cells and inner medullary collecting duct. These cells have been used as models of nephrotoxicity by exposure to aminoglycosides (mainly), dehydration by exposure to hyperosmolar sodium chloride, and diabetic nephropathy by exposure to high glucose and products derived from glycolysis and glycation. Recently, these models have shown common cell signaling pathways on multiple etiologies of kidney injury, sharing several biomarkers such as oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory processes, dysregulation of defense systems and cell survival, and apoptosis. Approaching kidney injury based on the selection of relevant biomarkers will contribute to the design of therapeutic strategies for nephroprotection on multiple etiological factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Ratos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Biomarcadores , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Roedores , Ratos Wistar , Apoptose , Epitélio , Células Mesangiais , Glucose/análise
3.
J Adolesc ; 64: 13-22, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408095

RESUMO

Adolescent attachment relationships formed with parents are salient predictors of mental health. Few studies, however, have demonstrated whether peer attachment or school connectedness can predict resilience to mental health difficulties when a young person is at risk due to poor parental attachment. Ninety adolescents (44 females and 46 males) living in economically disadvantaged areas and attending informal schooling projects in and around Guatemala City participated. Participants completed self-report measures of parental and peer attachment, school connectedness and mental health. Resilience to mental health difficulties was predicted by more secure school connectedness but lower levels of secure peer attachment. School connectedness may provide a role in promoting resilience for mental health for adolescents living in risk, whereas the potential negative influence that secure attachments to peers exerts, in context of poor parental attachment, needs to be explored further.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho , Grupo Associado , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
4.
J Groups Addict Recover ; 4(1-2): 71-81, 2009 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20827390

RESUMO

The present study compared the characteristics of individuals living with (42 men, 52 women) and without children (561 men, 241 women) residing in an communal-iving recovery program called Oxford Houses.. Results indicated that men living with children and women living without children had more general social support, compared to men living without children and women living with children. Additionally, women and residents of adult-only houses reported having more drug users in their social networks. However, men and women living with and without children reported similar levels of social support for abstinence. It is suggested that that men in recovery who take care of their children are in situations more advantageous to sustained recovery and have more resources compared to recovering women with children. Women in substance abuse recovery and taking care of children may require additional resources and assistance compared to men.

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