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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(1): 11-18, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732135

RESUMO

Although older adults are the fastest-growing age group among cardiovascular patients, nonagenarians with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are under-represented in clinical trials. The aims of this study are to analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of nonagenarian patients presenting with STEMI and to compare in-hospital and 1-year clinical outcomes between those treated with optimal medical treatment alone and those receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We included all consecutive nonagenarians presenting with STEMI admitted in 2 academic centers between 2006 and 2018. There were no exclusion criteria. All-cause mortality was assessed in-hospital and at 1-year follow-up. In total, 167 patients (mean age 91.9 ± 0.17 years; 60% females) were included. Emergent catheterization was performed in 60% of our patients, and pPCI was performed in 50% (n = 83). Overall mortality was 22% in-hospital and 41% at 1-year follow-up. The pPCI group had lower mortality than the medical treatment group: 12% versus 32% in-hospital (p <0.01) and 26% versus 45% at 1-year follow-up (p <0.01), respectively. Multivariable analysis identified 4 independent predictors of all-cause mortality at 1 year: mechanical complications (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 9.25, p <0.01), Killip class III/IV (adjusted OR 4.22, p <0.01), serum creatinine at admission (mg/dl; adjusted OR 1.8, p <0.01), and pPCI (adjusted OR 0.52; p <0.05). In conclusion, STEMI in nonagenarians is becoming increasingly common. pPCI may be the preferred strategy in this high-risk cohort when a high grade of disability is not present. Hemodynamic compromise, the presence of complications related to myocardial infarction, renal impairment, and early revascularization may be related to prognosis in these patients.

2.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(4): 561-572, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze whether scar characterization could improve the risk stratification for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND: Among patients with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) indication, appropriate defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy rates are low. METHODS: Primary prevention patients with a class I indication for CRT were prospectively enrolled and assigned to CRT-D or CRT pacemaker according to physician's criteria. Pre-procedure contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance was obtained and analyzed to identify scar presence or absence, quantify the amount of core and border zone (BZ), and depict BZ distribution. The presence, mass, and characteristics of BZ channels in the scar were recorded. The primary endpoint was appropriate defibrillator therapy or SCD. RESULTS: 217 patients (39.6% ischemic) were included. During a median follow-up of 35.5 months (12 to 62 months), the primary endpoint occurred in 25 patients (11.5%) and did not occur in patients without myocardial scar. Among patients with scar (n = 125, 57.6%), those with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies or SCD exhibited greater scar mass (38.7 ± 34.2 g vs. 17.9 ± 17.2 g; p < 0.001), scar heterogeneity (BZ mass/scar mass ratio) (49.5 ± 13.0 vs. 40.1 ± 21.7; p = 0.044), and BZ channel mass (3.6 ± 3.0 g vs. 1.8 ± 3.4 g; p = 0.018). BZ mass (hazard ratio: 1.06 [95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.08]; p < 0.001) and BZ channel mass (hazard ratio: 1.21 [95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 1.32]; p < 0.001) were the strongest predictors of the primary endpoint. An algorithm based on scar mass and the absence of BZ channels identified 148 patients (68.2%) without ICD therapy/SCD during follow-up with a 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, extension, heterogeneity, and qualitative distribution of BZ tissue of myocardial scar independently predict appropriate ICD therapies and SCD in CRT patients.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Cicatriz/complicações , Cicatriz/mortalidade , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Heart Rhythm ; 13(1): 85-95, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26165946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on the appropriate indications for the epicardial approach in substrate ablation of post-myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular tachycardia (VT). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether infarct transmurality (IT) could identify patients who would benefit from a combined first-line endo-epicardial approach. METHODS: Before ablation, IT was assessed by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (hyperenhancement ≥75% of the wall thickness in ≥1 segment), echocardiography (dyskinesia/akinesia + hyperrefringency + wall thinning), computed tomography (wall thinning), or scintigraphy (transmural necrosis). Prospectively from January 2011, an endocardial approach was used in patients with subendocardial MI (group 1) and a combined endo-epicardial approach in patients with transmural MI (group 2). Outcomes in both groups were compared with those in patients with transmural MI and only endocardial approach due to previous cardiac surgery or procedure performed before January 2011 (group 3). The primary end point was VT/ventricular fibrillation recurrence-free survival. RESULTS: Ninety patients (92.2% men; mean age 67.4 ± 9.8 years) undergoing VT substrate ablation were included: group 1, n = 34; group 2, n = 24; group 3, n = 32. During a mean follow-up duration of 22.5 ± 13.7 months, 5 patients in group 1 (14.7%), 3 patients in group 2 (12.5%), and 13 patients in group 3 (40.6%) had VT recurrences (P = .011). Time to recurrence was the shortest in group 3 (log-rank, P = .018). The endocardial approach in patients with transmural MI was associated with an increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio 4.01; 95% confidence interval 1.41-11.3; P = .009). CONCLUSION: The endocardial approach in patients with transmural MI undergoing VT substrate ablation is associated with an increased risk of recurrence. IT may be a useful criterion for the selection of a first-line combined endo-epicardial approach.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Endocárdio , Mapeamento Epicárdico/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Taquicardia Ventricular , Idoso , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Endocárdio/fisiopatologia , Endocárdio/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 14: 62, 2012 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22937750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of infarct size on left ventricular (LV) remodeling in heart failure after an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is well recognized. Infarct size, as determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), decreases over time. The amount, rate, and duration of infarct healing are unknown. METHODS: A total of 66 patients were prospectively enrolled after reperfusion for an acute STEMI. Patients underwent a CMR evaluation within 1 week, 4 months, and 14 months after STEMI. RESULTS: Mean infarct sizes for the 66 patients at baseline (acute necrosis), early follow-up (early scar), and late follow-up (late scar) were 25 ± 17 g, 17 ± 12 g, and 15 ± 11 g, respectively. Patients were stratified in tertiles, based on infarct size, with the largest infarcts having the greatest absolute decrease in mass at early and late scar. The percent reduction of infarct mass was independent of initial infarct size. There was an 8 g or 32% decrease in infarct mass between acute necrosis and early scar (p < 0.01) with a 2 g or 12% additional decrease in infarct mass between early and late scar (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Infarct healing is a continuous process after reperfusion for STEMI, with greatest reduction in infarct size in the first few months. The dynamic nature of infarct healing through the first year after STEMI indicates that decisions based on infarct size, and interventions to reduce infarct size, must take into consideration the time frame of measurement.


Assuntos
Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Miocárdio/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Card Fail ; 17(8): 643-8, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21807325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current treatment of hematologic malignancies includes diverse potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy agents, including high-dose myeloablative regimens used in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Many of these treatments could induce left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), and limit their efficacy. Angiotensin-converting enzime inhibitors and beta-blockers prevent LVD and prolong survival after infarction, and recent animal and pilot clinical studies suggest that they can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced cardiac toxicity. METHODS: This is a prevention, parallel-assignment, randomized, controlled, clinical efficacy study. Ninety patients recently diagnosed of acute leukemia or undergoing autologous HSCT and with normal LV ejection fraction will be randomized to enalapril and carvedilol or to the control group. Echocardiogram and a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies will be performed at baseline and 6-9 months after randomization. The primary efficacy endpoint is the change from baseline in LV ejection fraction. Secondary endpoints include the assessment of LV volumes and diastolic function, and the incidence of death, heart failure, or LVD. CONCLUSIONS: The OVERCOME study will be the first clinical trial to test the preventive efficacy on LVD of combined treatment with enalapril and carvedilol administered to patients with hematologic malignancies submitted to current treatment with intensive chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carbazóis/administração & dosagem , Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Propanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carvedilol , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Amostra , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(2): 105-110, feb. 2011. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-84933

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos. Los valores elevados de endotelina-1 (ET-1) se han relacionado con un mal pronóstico tras un infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del ST (IAMCEST). La vasoconstricción de la microcirculación coronaria parece ser el mecanismo causal. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los efectos de la ET-1 sobre la microcirculación coronaria, el tamaño del infarto, la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) y el miocardio rescatado tras un IAMCEST. Métodos. Se determinaron los valores de ET-1 de 127 pacientes (6-24h) tras un IAMCEST. En 97 pacientes se realizó una resonancia magnética para evaluar la obstrucción microvascular (OM), el tamaño del infarto y la FEVI. El índice de miocardio rescatado (IMR) se definió como el porcentaje de área en riesgo angiográfica sin necrosis en la resonancia. Resultados. La edad media de la población fue de 60,9±11,8 años (77% varones). Los pacientes con valores de ET-1 por encima de la mediana presentaron un mayor porcentaje de OM (77,7% si ET-1>6,8 pg/ml frente a 16,6% si ET-1 ≤ 6,8 pg/ml; p<0,001) y menor IMR (13,8%±26% si ET-1>6,8 pg/ml frente a 37,4%±26% si ET-1 ≤ 6,8 pg/ml; p=0,02). Los valores de ET-1 no se asociaron de manera significativa con el tamaño del infarto (p=0,11) ni con la FEVI (p=0,16). En el análisis multivariable, los valores de ET-1 fueron predictores de OM (odds ratio [OR]=2,78; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 1,16-6,66; p=0,021) e IMR ≤ percentil 25 (OR=1,69; IC del 95%, 1,01-2,81; p=0,04). Conclusiones. Los valores elevados de ET-1 tras un IAMCEST se asocian a un mayor porcentaje de OM y un menor IMR (AU)


Introduction and objectives: High endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been linked to poor clinical outcomes after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Vasoconstriction of the coronary microcirculation seems to be the underlying mechanism. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of ET-1 on microvascular integrity, infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and myocardial salvage in evolving myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: We measured ET-1 levels acutely (6-24 h) in 127 patients presenting with their first STEMI. Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (ce-CMR) was performed in 94 patients within 1 week to assess microvascular obstruction (MO), infarct size and LVEF. A myocardial salvage index (MSI) was defined as the percentage of at-risk angiographic area without necrosis on the ce-CMR. Results: Mean age was 60.9 >= 11.8 years and 98 (77%) were males. Median ET-1 level within the first 24 h was 6.8 pg/mL (25th –75th percentile range: 5.4–8.5 pg/mL). Patients with ET-1 concentrations over the median presented higher percentage of MO (77.7% for ET-1 > 6.8 pg/mL vs. 16.6% for ET-1 6.8 pg/mL, P < .001) and lower MSI values (13.8 <= 26% for ET-1 > 6.8 pg/mL vs. 37.4 (26%) for ET-1 <= 6.8 pg/mL, P = .02). ET-1 levels did not show a significant association with infarct size (P = .11) and LVEF (P = .16). Multivariate analysis found ET-1 to be a significant predictor of MO (OR = 2.78; CI 95% 1.16-6.66; P = .021) and MSI <= Percentile 25 (OR = 1.69, CI 95% 1.01-2.81; P = .04). Conclusions: High ET-1 levels after myocardial infarction are associated with the presence of microvascular obstruction and lower myocardial salvage index (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endotelina-1/administração & dosagem , Endotelina-1/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico , Microcirculação/patologia , Microcirculação , Vasoconstrição/fisiologia , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Angiografia Coronária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Razão de Chances , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervalos de Confiança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Prospectivos , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise Estatística
7.
Rev Esp Cardiol ; 64(2): 105-10, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21208707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: High endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been linked to poor clinical outcomes after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Vasoconstriction of the coronary microcirculation seems to be the underlying mechanism. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of ET-1 on microvascular integrity, infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and myocardial salvage in evolving myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: We measured ET-1 levels acutely (6-24h) in 127 patients presenting with their first STEMI. Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (ce-CMR) was performed in 94 patients within 1 week to assess microvascular obstruction (MO), infarct size and LVEF. A myocardial salvage index (MSI) was defined as the percentage of at-risk angiographic area without necrosis on the ce-CMR. RESULTS: Mean age was 60.9 ± 11.8 years and 98 (77%) were males. Median ET-1 level within the first 24h was 6.8 pg/mL (25(th) -75(th) percentile range: 5.4-8.5 pg/mL). Patients with ET-1 concentrations over the median presented higher percentage of MO (77.7% for ET-1>6.8 pg/mL vs. 16.6% for ET-1 ≤ 6.8 pg/mL, P<.001) and lower MSI values (13.8 ± 26% for ET-1>6.8 pg/mL vs. 37.4 (26%) for ET-1 ≤ 6.8 pg/mL, P=.02). ET-1 levels did not show a significant association with infarct size (P=.11) and LVEF (P=.16). Multivariate analysis found ET-1 to be a significant predictor of MO (OR=2.78; CI 95% 1.16-6.66; P=.021) and MSI ≤ Percentile 25 (OR=1.69, CI 95% 1.01-2.81; P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: High ET-1 levels after myocardial infarction are associated with the presence of microvascular obstruction and lower myocardial salvage index.


Assuntos
Endotelina-1/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Biomarcadores/sangue , Capilares/patologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
8.
Rev Esp Cardiol ; 63(9): 1028-34, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20804698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the frequency of recent cocaine use in patients attending an emergency department for acute chest pain, to describe the clinical characteristics of these patients, and to estimate the incidence of acute coronary syndrome in this population. METHODS: Observational cohort study using a standard questionnaire that includes items on recent cocaine consumption. RESULTS: During a 1-year period, 1240 patients aged under 55 years presented with chest pain. Of these, 63 (5%) had cocaine-related chest pain (7% of men and 1.8% of women). These patients were younger (35+/-10 years vs. 39+/-10 years; P=.002), were more frequently male (87% vs. 62%; P< .001), and were more frequently smokers (59% vs. 35%; P< .001). Patients who had used cocaine recently had a higher incidence of acute myocardial infarction (16 vs. 4%; P< .001), especially ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (11.1% vs. 1.6%; P< .01). After adjusting for coronary risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease and previous treatment, the odds ratio for myocardial infarction with recent cocaine consumption was 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 2-9.4). CONCLUSIONS: Cocaine-related chest pain is often encountered in emergency departments, especially in men aged under 55 years. It is associated with a four-fold increase in the risk of acute myocardial infarction. All male patients aged under 55 years with acute chest pain should be asked about cocaine use.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 63(9): 1028-1034, sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-81763

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos. Analizar la prevalencia de consumo reciente de cocaína entre los pacientes atendidos en urgencias por dolor torácico, estudiar las características clínicas de los pacientes y estimar la incidencia de síndromes coronarios agudos en esta población. Métodos. Estudio de cohortes observacional en el que se utilizó un cuestionario estándar que incluía el interrogatorio sobre consumo de cocaína. Resultados. Durante un periodo de 1 año, 1.240 pacientes de menos de 55 años consultaron por dolor torácico. De ellos, 63 (5%) lo sufrieron en relación con consumo de cocaína (el 7% de los varones y el 1,8% de las mujeres). Estos pacientes eran más jóvenes (35 ± 10 frente a 39 ± 10 años; p = 0,002) y más frecuentemente varones (el 87 frente al 62%; p < 0,001) y fumadores (el 59 frente al 35%; p < 0,001). Los pacientes consumidores de cocaína tuvieron una mayor incidencia de infarto de miocardio (el 16 frente al 4%; p < 0,001), especialmente con elevación del ST (el 11,1 frente al 1,6%; p < 0,01). Tras ajustar por los factores de riesgo coronario, los antecedentes cardiovasculares y el tratamiento previo, el consumo reciente de cocaína se asoció a una odds ratio de infarto de 4,3 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, 2-9,4). Conclusiones. El dolor torácico asociado al consumo de cocaína es un problema frecuente en los servicios de urgencias, especialmente en los varones de menos de 55 años, y se asocia a un riesgo 4 veces mayor de infarto de miocardio. Se debería preguntar sobre el consumo de cocaína a todos los varones de menos de 55 años con dolor torácico (AU)


Introduction and objectives. To investigate the frequency of recent cocaine use in patients attending an emergency department for acute chest pain, to describe the clinical characteristics of these patients, and to estimate the incidence of acute coronary syndrome in this population. Methods. Observational cohort study using a standard questionnaire that includes items on recent cocaine consumption. Results. During a 1-year period, 1240 patients aged under 55 years presented with chest pain. Of these, 63 (5%) had cocaine-related chest pain (7% of men and 1.8% of women). These patients were younger (35±10 years vs. 39±10 years; P=.002), were more frequently male (87% vs. 62%; P < .001), and were more frequently smokers (59% vs. 35%; P < .001). Patients who had used cocaine recently had a higher incidence of acute myocardial infarction (16 vs. 4%; P < .001), especially ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (11.1% vs. 1.6%; P < .01). After adjusting for coronary risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease and previous treatment, the odds ratio for myocardial infarction with recent cocaine consumption was 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 2-9.4). Conclusions. Cocaine-related chest pain is often encountered in emergency departments, especially in men aged under 55 years. It is associated with a four-fold increase in the risk of acute myocardial infarction. All male patients aged under 55 years with acute chest pain should be asked about cocaine use (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico , Emergências/epidemiologia , Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Dor no Peito/fisiopatologia , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Imunoensaio/métodos , Razão de Chances , Intervalos de Confiança
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 203(1-3): 99-105, 2010 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20705404

RESUMO

The usefulness of post-mortem mRNA analysis and its potential applications in forensic casework is currently of interest, especially because of several factors affecting the quality of RNA samples that are not practically predictable. In fact, post-mortem RNA degradation is a complex process that has not been studied systematically. The purpose of this work is to establish whether RNA analysis from post-mortem heart tissue could be used as a forensic tool to investigate the cause of death, with special regard to those cases where a cardiac disease is suspected as the manner of death. We analysed heart tissue from 16 individuals with normal cardiac function, 9 with long post-mortem intervals (L-PMI) and 7 from organ donors with very short PMIs (S-PMIs). Right ventricle tissue was homogenised, and the RNA was isolated and reverse transcribed. The resulting cDNA was used in real-time PCR reactions to quantify the gene expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUSB), Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 (NOS3), Collagen 1 (COL1A1) and Collagen 3 (COL3A1). The percentage of samples with high-quality RNA was higher in samples with S-PMI (7 out of 7) than in samples with L-PMI (4 out of 9, p<0.05). No differences in PMI time or cause of exitus were found between samples with degraded or non-degraded RNA in the L-PMI group. When comparing mRNA levels in samples with non-degraded RNA, we found similar values between the L-PMI and S-PMI groups for GUSB, COL1A1 and COL3A1. The NOS3 gene expression in the L-PMI subgroup was less than half that in the S-PMI. These results suggest that high-quality mRNA can be extracted from post-mortem human hearts only in some cases. Moreover, our data show that mRNA levels are independent from the PMI, even though there are mRNAs in which the expression levels are very susceptible to ischemia times. Clear knowledge about the relationship between mRNA integrity and expression and PMI could allow the use of several mRNAs as forensic tools to contribute to the determination of the cause of death with special regard to cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Miocárdio/patologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Colágeno Tipo III/metabolismo , Patologia Legal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glucuronidase/genética , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 139(1): 25-31, 2010 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18804880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of small areas of necrosis has been occasionally reported immediately following apical ballooning syndrome (ABS). However, their persistence at later stages and impact on long-term prognosis are currently unknown. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients admitted for ABS between 2004 and 2007 were prospectively evaluated. Demographic, clinical, angiographic, and echocardiographic data were collected during hospital admission. At a mean of 11+/-9 months follow-up, a contrast enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (ce-CMR) study was performed in 17 cases. The presence of hyperenhancement on ce-CMR images, reflecting irreversible myocardial damage, was recorded by two independent observers. RESULTS: Two of 3 patients with hyperenhancement on ce-CMR images presented in worse condition, including pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock, compared to just 2 of 14 patients without hyperenhancement (p=0.052). Segmental wall motion substantially improved in both of those cases; the third patient continued to have hypokinesis in a segment showing hyperenhancement. Segmental wall motion also significantly improved in all patients with no hyperenhancement. At a mean of 20+/-12 months follow-up, no deaths or major adverse cardiac events were documented among patients with or without hyperenhancement. CONCLUSIONS: Despite segmental wall motion recovery, an area of irreversible myocardial damage can sometimes be identified long after ABS. However, in this limited series of patients, the presence of scar, even when presenting with heart failure and a higher troponin release, was not associated with adverse long-term outcomes as compared to patients with intact myocardium.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem , Cicatriz/epidemiologia , Cicatriz/patologia , Meios de Contraste , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Miocárdio/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico por imagem , Choque Cardiogênico/epidemiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/patologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/epidemiologia , Troponina/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda
12.
Am Heart J ; 156(3): 498-505, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18760132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although ejection fraction (EF) both perimyocardial infarction (MI) and late post-MI are important prognostic factors, only implantable cardioverter-defibrillator trials of post-MI patients with depressed late EF have shown improved survival. This may relate to imprecision of early EF because of post-MI stunning. We sought to determine if peri-MI infarct size, as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), is superior to early EF to predict late post-MI EF. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with ST-elevation MI had infarct size and EF quantified using CMR early (<1 week) and late (>3 months) post-MI. RESULTS: Late EF was significantly correlated with early EF (R = 0.734, P < .001), and with infarct size (R = -0.661, P < .001), and both early EF and infarct size were significant predictors of late EF. Subgroup analyses showed that low late EF (35%. There was no difference in early EF between the subgroup with a late EF >35% compared to the subgroup with late EF

Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Miocárdio/patologia , Disfunção Ventricular/etiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 19(4): 374-9, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18266672

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) consists of creating extensive lesions in the left atrium (LA). The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in LA contractility after ablation and their relationship with procedure outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: A series of 90 consecutive patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 4-6 months after CPVA. Only patients in sinus rhythm during both imaging acquisitions were included in the study to measure LA end-diastolic (LAmax) and LA end-systolic (LAmin) volumes. Fifty-five patients were finally analyzed (41 men, 52 +/- 11 years, 74% paroxysmal AF). During a mean follow-up of 12 +/- 7 months and after 1.2 +/- 0.3 ablation procedures, 38 patients (69%) were arrhythmia-free (group I), and the remaining 17 patients had recurrences (group II). There was a significant decrease in mean LAmax volume in both groups, whereas mean LAmin volume only decreased in group I. Mean LA ejection fraction (EF) was preserved after CPVA in group I (40 +/- 11% vs 38 +/- 10%; P = 0.27) but decreased in patients with arrhythmia recurrences (37 +/- 10% vs 27 +/- 10%; P < 0.001). In fact, LA EF remained stable or increased in 68% of patients without arrhythmia recurrences. CONCLUSIONS: LAmax volume reduction following CPVA occurs regardless of the clinical efficacy of the procedure, whereas mean LAmin volume only decreased in patients without recurrences. LA EF was preserved or even increased in most patients with successful CPVA.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Contração Miocárdica , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 8(6): 461-7, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17078910

RESUMO

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is a common congenital heart valve abnormality accounting for a large number of valve replacements in the United States. Although still incompletely understood, the natural history of BAV disease is severe aortic stenosis and associated ascending aortic dilatation. In addition to the increased risk of endocarditis, aortic dissection and severe aortic valve dysfunction are responsible for most fatal complications. Thus, early and precise recognition of this condition is mandatory. The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommendations highlight the role of MRI and CT as complimentary tools to echocardiography for the diagnosis and surveillance of the morphology of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. Moreover, better understanding of the cellular mechanisms, including inflammation, bone formation, atherosclerotic-like processes, and aortic wall abnormalities, as well as the heritability and genetic predisposition for the disease, will define the potential for targeted medical therapies in the future. Currently, the treatment of this condition is primarily surgical. Although combined valve and ascending aorta replacement has been the most common surgical approach in the past, the increased cumulative risk of thrombotic and embolic events among these young patients has led to more conservative approaches. Several valve-sparing approaches with comparable mid-term results compared with the classic procedures have recently been reported. However, longer follow-up studies will be helpful to better define the advantages of these new surgical options. After a quick overview of the natural history of the BAV, this article provides an updated approximation of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology as well as the recommendations for the management and treatment of this disease.

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