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2.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 476-480, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166212

RESUMO

Landraces (traditional varieties) of domesticated species preserve useful genetic variation, yet they remain untapped due to the genetic linkage between the few useful alleles and hundreds of undesirable alleles. We integrated two approaches to characterize the diversity of 4,471 maize landraces. First, we mapped genomic regions controlling latitudinal and altitudinal adaptation and identified 1,498 genes. Second, we used F-one association mapping (FOAM) to map the genes that control flowering time, across 22 environments, and identified 1,005 genes. In total, we found that 61.4% of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with altitude were also associated with flowering time. More than half of the SNPs associated with altitude were within large structural variants (inversions, centromeres and pericentromeric regions). The combined mapping results indicate that although floral regulatory network genes contribute substantially to field variation, over 90% of the contributing genes probably have indirect effects. Our dual strategy can be used to harness the landrace diversity of plants and animals.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Flores/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Zea mays/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Ligação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo
3.
Plant Methods ; 12: 35, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27347001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low cost unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have great potential for rapid proximal measurements of plants in agriculture. In the context of plant breeding and genetics, current approaches for phenotyping a large number of breeding lines under field conditions require substantial investments in time, cost, and labor. For field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP), UAS platforms can provide high-resolution measurements for small plot research, while enabling the rapid assessment of tens-of-thousands of field plots. The objective of this study was to complete a baseline assessment of the utility of UAS in assessment field trials as commonly implemented in wheat breeding programs. We developed a semi-automated image-processing pipeline to extract plot level data from UAS imagery. The image dataset was processed using a photogrammetric pipeline based on image orientation and radiometric calibration to produce orthomosaic images. We also examined the relationships between vegetation indices (VIs) extracted from high spatial resolution multispectral imagery collected with two different UAS systems (eBee Ag carrying MultiSpec 4C camera, and IRIS+ quadcopter carrying modified NIR Canon S100) and ground truth spectral data from hand-held spectroradiometer. RESULTS: We found good correlation between the VIs obtained from UAS platforms and ground-truth measurements and observed high broad-sense heritability for VIs. We determined radiometric calibration methods developed for satellite imagery significantly improved the precision of VIs from the UAS. We observed VIs extracted from calibrated images of Canon S100 had a significantly higher correlation to the spectroradiometer (r = 0.76) than VIs from the MultiSpec 4C camera (r = 0.64). Their correlation to spectroradiometer readings was as high as or higher than repeated measurements with the spectroradiometer per se. CONCLUSION: The approaches described here for UAS imaging and extraction of proximal sensing data enable collection of HTP measurements on the scale and with the precision needed for powerful selection tools in plant breeding. Low-cost UAS platforms have great potential for use as a selection tool in plant breeding programs. In the scope of tools development, the pipeline developed in this study can be effectively employed for other UAS and also other crops planted in breeding nurseries.

4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(12): 3859-3864, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27185416

RESUMO

More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2 e yr-1 by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible agricultural development pathways with mitigation cobenefits deliver only 21-40% of needed mitigation. The target indicates that more transformative technical and policy options will be needed, such as methane inhibitors and finance for new practices. A more comprehensive target for the 2 °C limit should be developed to include soil carbon and agriculture-related mitigation options. Excluding agricultural emissions from mitigation targets and plans will increase the cost of mitigation in other sectors or reduce the feasibility of meeting the 2 °C limit.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Gases/análise , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Carbono/análise , Efeito Estufa/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional , Metano/análise , Política Pública , Solo/química
5.
J Nutr ; 139(10): 1920-5, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19710154

RESUMO

Biofortification of crops that provide major food staples to large, poor rural populations offers an appealing strategy for diminishing public health problems attributable to micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this first-stage human study was to determine the increase in quantity of zinc (Zn) absorbed achieved by biofortifying wheat with Zn. Secondary objectives included evaluating the magnitude of the measured increases in Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn and phytate. The biofortified and control wheats were extracted at high (95%) and moderate (80%) levels and Zn and phytate concentrations measured. Adult women with habitual diets high in phytate consumed 300 g of 95 or 80% extracted wheat as tortillas for 2 consecutive days using either biofortified (41 mg Zn/g) or control (24 mg Zn/g) wheat. All meals for the 2-d experiment were extrinsically labeled with Zn stable isotopes and fractional absorption of Zn determined by a dual isotope tracer ratio technique. Zn intake from the biofortified wheat diet was 5.7 mg/d (72%) higher at 95% extraction (P < 0.001) and 2.7 mg/d (68%) higher at 80% extraction compared with the corresponding control wheat (P = 0.007). Zn absorption from biofortified wheat meals was (mean +/- SD) 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.0 +/- 0.4 mg/d for 95 and 80% extraction, respectively, both of which were 0.5 mg/d higher than for the corresponding control wheat (P < 0.05). Results were consistent with those predicted by a trivariate model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn and phytate. Potentially valuable increases in Zn absorption can be achieved from biofortification of wheat with Zn.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Triticum/química , Zinco/química , Zinco/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , México , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/urina , Isótopos de Zinco
6.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 19(1): 75-82, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16240676

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, but is deficient in at least a billion people worldwide. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major dietary source of Se. The largest survey to date of Se status of Australians found a mean plasma Se concentration of 103 microg/l in 288 Adelaide residents, just above the nutritional adequacy level. In the total sample analysed (six surveys from 1977 to 2002; n = 834), plasma Se was higher in males and increased with age. This study showed that many South Australians consume inadequate Se to maximise selenoenzyme expression and cancer protection, and indicated that levels had declined around 20% from the 1970s. No significant genotypic variability for grain Se concentration was observed in modern wheat cultivars, but the diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii L. and rye (Secale cereale L.) were higher. Grain Se concentrations ranged 5-720 microg/kg and it was apparent that this variation was determined mostly by available soil Se level. Field trials, along with glasshouse and growth chamber studies, were used to investigate agronomic biofortification of wheat. Se applied as sodium selenate at rates of 4-120 g Se/ha increased grain Se concentration progressively up to 133-fold when sprayed on soil at seeding and up to 20-fold when applied as a foliar spray after flowering. A threshold of toxicity of around 325 mg Se/kg in leaves of young wheat plants was observed, a level that would not normally be reached with Se fertilisation. On the other hand sulphur (S) applied at the low rate of 30 kg/ha at seeding reduced grain Se concentration by 16%. Agronomic biofortification could be used by food companies as a cost-effective method to produce high-Se wheat products that contain most Se in the desirable selenomethionine form. Further studies are needed to assess the functionality of high-Se wheat, for example short-term clinical trials that measure changes in genome stability, lipid peroxidation and immunocompetence. Increasing the Se content of wheat is a food systems strategy that could increase the Se intake of whole populations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Nível de Saúde , Micronutrientes , Selênio/química , Triticum/química , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Selênio/deficiência , Triticum/genética
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 53(6): 2176-80, 2005 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15769153

RESUMO

A "whole-body" radioassay procedure was used to assess retention and absorption by rats of Zn in mature kernels of whole grain wheat harvested from 28 genotypes (Triticum spp.) grown in nutrient solution supplied with 2 microM ZnSO4 radiolabeled with 65Zn. Grain-Zn concentration differed among genotypes and ranged from 33 to 149 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW); similarly, grain-Fe concentration varied approximately 4-fold, from 80 to 368 microg g(-1) of DW. Concentrations of Zn and Fe in the grain were positively correlated. Therefore, selecting genotypes high in grain-Zn also tends to increase grain-Fe concentration. Concentrations of myo-inositolhexaphosphate (phytate) in the wheat grain varied from 8.6 to 26.1 micromol g(-1) of DW. Grain intrinsically labeled with 65Zn was incorporated into test meals fed to Zn-depleted rats. All rats readily ate the test meals, so that Zn intake varied directly with grain-Zn concentration. As determined by the percentage of 65Zn absorbed from the test meal, the bioavailability to rats of Zn in the wheat genotypes ranged from about 60 to 82%. The amount of bioavailable Zn (micrograms) in the grain was positively correlated to the amount of Zn accumulated in the grain. There was a significant negative correlation between grain-phytate levels and percentage of Zn absorbed from the wheat grain, but the effect was not large. These results demonstrate that concentrations of Zn in whole-wheat grain, as well as amounts of bioavailable Zn in the grain, can be increased significantly by using traditional plant-breeding programs to select genotypes with high grain-Zn levels. Increasing the amount of Zn in wheat grain through plant-breeding contrivances may contribute significantly to improving the Zn status of individuals dependent on whole grain wheat as a staple food.


Assuntos
Triticum/química , Triticum/genética , Zinco/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sementes/química , Zinco/análise
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