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BMC Hematol ; 18: 33, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459954


Background: Africa has the highest burden of Sickle cell disease (SCD) but there are few large, systematic studies providing reliable descriptions of the disease spectrum. Tanzania, with 11,000 SCD births annually, established the Muhimbili Sickle Cell program aiming to improve understanding of SCD in Africa. We report the profile of SCD seen in the first 10 years at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). Methods: Individuals seen at MNH known or suspected to have SCD were enrolled at clinic and laboratory testing for SCD, haematological and biochemical analyses done. Ethnicity was self-reported. Clinical and laboratory features of SCD were documented. Comparison was made with non-SCD population as well as within 3 different age groups (< 5, 5-17 and ≥ 18 years) within the SCD population. Results: From 2004 to 2013, 6397 individuals, 3751 (58.6%) SCD patients, were enrolled, the majority (47.4%) in age group 5-17 years. There was variation in the geographical distribution of SCD. Individuals with SCD compared to non-SCD, had significantly lower blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2). SCD patients had higher prevalence of severe anemia, jaundice and desaturation (SpO2 < 95%) as well as higher levels of reticulocytes, white blood cells, platelets and fetal hemoglobin. The main causes of hospitalization for SCD within a 12-month period preceding enrolment were pain (adults), and fever and severe anemia (children). When clinical and laboratory features were compared in SCD within 3 age groups, there was a progressive decrease in the prevalence of splenic enlargement and an increase in prevalence of jaundice. Furthermore, there were significant differences with monotonic trends across age groups in SpO2, hematological and biochemical parameters. Conclusion: This report confirms that the wide spectrum of clinical expression of SCD observed elsewhere is also present in Tanzania, with non-uniform geographical distribution across the country. Age-specific analysis is consistent with different disease-patterns across the lifespan.

Case Rep Hematol ; 2018: 5253625, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034890


Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) with blood transfusion an integral part in its management. Red cell exchange (RCE) transfusion is usually regarded as preferable to top-up transfusion, because it reduces the proportion of Hemoglobin (Hb) S while at the same time avoiding circulatory overload. Despite its obvious benefits, RCE is underutilized, particularly in low-resource settings which may be due to scarcity of blood products and of expertise in carrying out exchange transfusion. We report on a young woman with SCD with severe ACS who responded promptly and dramatically to a RCE of only 0.95 L (instead of the recommended 1.4 L) and had in the end an HbS level of 48% (instead of the recommended level below 30%). Limited RCE resulted in significant clinical improvement. We suggest that limited RCE may be of benefit than no RCE in SCD patients with ACS, particularly in settings where RCE is not available.

J Med Case Rep ; 11(1): 156, 2017 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610630


BACKGROUND: Metastatic cardiac tumors are far more common than primary tumors. Although the hematogenous spread of osteosarcoma is well known, the imaging findings of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma are seldom reported and can be difficult to recognize. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old man of African descent presented to our center complaining of shortness of breath, awareness of heart beats, easy fatigability, swelling of lower limbs, and left-side chest discomfort for the past 6 months getting worse for the last 3 months prior to his third readmission. In 2004 he was admitted with the diagnosis of osteosarcoma of his left calcaneus bone confirmed by bone biopsy and treated at an oncology center with several cycles of radiotherapy and chemotherapy; he was declared cured after 5 years of annual clinical and radiological skeletal survey follow-ups. In the current admission, a physical examination revealed bilateral lower limb swelling, pansystolic murmur on the left side of his sternum at fourth intercostal space (tricuspid area) grade three, hepatomegaly with a liver span of 17 cm, and a positive fluid test and shifting dullness. CONCLUSIONS: This case report presents a 21-year-old man with relapsed osteosarcoma manifesting as metastatic lesions to his right ventricle encroaching on his interventricular septum, which was identified by transthoracic/transesophageal echocardiography computed tomography scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/secundário , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Septo Interventricular/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Radioterapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Septo Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem