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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(18): 3542-3554, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255634

RESUMO

Ozonolysis of isoprene, one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds emitted into the Earth's atmosphere, generates two four-carbon unsaturated Criegee intermediates, methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide) and methacrolein oxide (MACR-oxide). The extended conjugation between the vinyl substituent and carbonyl oxide groups of these Criegee intermediates facilitates rapid electrocyclic ring closures that form five-membered cyclic peroxides, known as dioxoles. This study reports the first experimental evidence of this novel decay pathway, which is predicted to be the dominant atmospheric sink for specific conformational forms of MVK-oxide (anti) and MACR-oxide (syn) with the vinyl substituent adjacent to the terminal O atom. The resulting dioxoles are predicted to undergo rapid unimolecular decay to oxygenated hydrocarbon radical products, including acetyl, vinoxy, formyl, and 2-methylvinoxy radicals. In the presence of O2, these radicals rapidly react to form peroxy radicals (ROO), which quickly decay via carbon-centered radical intermediates (QOOH) to stable carbonyl products that were identified in this work. The carbonyl products were detected under thermal conditions (298 K, 10 Torr He) using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The main products (and associated relative abundances) originating from unimolecular decay of anti-MVK-oxide and subsequent reaction with O2 are formaldehyde (88 ± 5%), ketene (9 ± 1%), and glyoxal (3 ± 1%). Those identified from the unimolecular decay of syn-MACR-oxide and subsequent reaction with O2 are acetaldehyde (37 ± 7%), vinyl alcohol (9 ± 1%), methylketene (2 ± 1%), and acrolein (52 ± 5%). In addition to the stable carbonyl products, the secondary peroxy chemistry also generates OH or HO2 radical coproducts.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9733-9740, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321826

RESUMO

Isoprene has the highest emission into Earth's atmosphere of any nonmethane hydrocarbon. Atmospheric processing of alkenes, including isoprene, via ozonolysis leads to the formation of zwitterionic reactive intermediates, known as Criegee intermediates (CIs). Direct studies have revealed that reactions involving simple CIs can significantly impact the tropospheric oxidizing capacity, enhance particulate formation, and degrade local air quality. Methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide) is a four-carbon, asymmetric, resonance-stabilized CI, produced with 21 to 23% yield from isoprene ozonolysis, yet its reactivity has not been directly studied. We present direct kinetic measurements of MVK-oxide reactions with key atmospheric species using absorption spectroscopy. Direct UV-Vis absorption spectra from two independent flow cell experiments overlap with the molecular beam UV-Vis-depletion spectra reported recently [M. F. Vansco, B. Marchetti, M. I. Lester, J. Chem. Phys. 149, 44309 (2018)] but suggest different conformer distributions under jet-cooled and thermal conditions. Comparison of the experimental lifetime herein with theory indicates only the syn-conformers are observed; anti-conformers are calculated to be removed much more rapidly via unimolecular decay. We observe experimentally and predict theoretically fast reaction of syn-MVK-oxide with SO2 and formic acid, similar to smaller alkyl-substituted CIs, and by contrast, slow removal in the presence of water. We determine products through complementary multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry, observing SO3 and identifying organic hydroperoxide formation from reaction with SO2 and formic acid, respectively. The tropospheric implications of these reactions are evaluated using a global chemistry and transport model.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(32): 17939-17949, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384867

RESUMO

Product detection studies of the gas-phase oxidation of o-methylphenyl radicals and m-methylphenyl radicals are reported at ambient temperature (ca. 298 K) and 4 Torr (533.3 Pa) using VUV synchrotron photoionisation mass spectrometry. It is shown that cyclopentadienone (c-C5H4[double bond, length as m-dash]O) + CH3CO and o-quinone methide (o-CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C6H4[double bond, length as m-dash]O) + OH are unique product pathways to the o-methylphenyl + O2 reaction due to mechanisms requiring the CH3 group to be adjacent to the phenyl radical site. Common product pathways include methylphenoxy radical + O(3P) and isomers of methylcyclopentadienone (CH3C5H4[double bond, length as m-dash]O) + HCO. G3X-K quantum chemical calculations are deployed to rationalise experimental results for o-methylphenyl and m-methylphenyl radical oxidation. The o-quinone methide formation mechanism from o-methylphenyl + O2 is analogous to the formation of o-benzoquinone from o-hydroxyphenyl + O2 where, after O2 addition, the ortho-substituent in the phenylperoxyl intermediate undergoes a 1,5-H shift and eliminates OH. Other reaction products, including methylcyclopentadienone species and methylphenyoxy radicals, are rationalised by applying known phenyl oxidation mechanisms. Transition state bifurcations are present in both radical systems and have exclusive end products (with different molecular mass). Compared to previous o-hydroxyphenyl and charged-tagged methylphenyl radical oxidation studies, there are significantly more products owing to the activation in this radical system and the competitiveness of rate limiting pathways.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(26): 5472-5490, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241939

RESUMO

We investigate the gas-phase photochemistry of the enolone tautomer of acetylacetone (pentane-2,4-dione) following S2(ππ*) ← S0 excitation at λ = 266 and 248 nm, using three complementary time-resolved spectroscopic methods. Contrary to earlier reports, which claimed to study one-photon excitation of acetylacetone and found OH and CH3 as the only important gas-phase products, we detect 15 unique primary photoproducts and demonstrate that five of them, including OH and CH3, arise solely by multiphoton excitation. We assign the one-photon products to six photochemical channels and show that the most significant pathway is phototautomerization to the diketone form, which is likely an intermediate in several of the other product channels. Furthermore, we measure the equilibrium constant of the tautomerization of the enolone to diketone on S0 from 320 to 600 K and extract Δ H = 4.1 ± 0.3 kcal·mol-1 and Δ S = 6.8 ± 0.5 cal·mol-1·K-1 using a van't Hoff analysis. We correct the C-OH bond dissociation energy in acetylacetone, previously determined as 90 kcal·mol-1 by theory and experiment, to a new value of 121.7 kcal·mol-1. Our experiments and electronic structure calculations provide evidence that some of the product channels, including phototautomerization, occur on S0, while others likely occur on excited triplet surfaces. Although the large oscillator strength of the S2 ← S0 transition results from the (ππ*) excitation of the C═C-C═O backbone, similar to conjugated polyenes, the participation of triplets in the dissociation pathways of acetylacetone appears to have more in common with ketone photochemistry.

5.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(17): 3634-3646, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865470

RESUMO

Photolytically initiated oxidation experiments were conducted on cyclohexane and tetrahydropyran using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry to assess the impact of the ether functional group in the latter species on reaction mechanisms relevant to autoignition. Pseudo-first-order conditions, with [O2]0:[R•]0 > 2000, were used to ensure that R• + O2 → products were the dominant reactions. Quasi-continuous, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light from a synchrotron was employed over the range 8.0-11.0 eV to measure photoionization spectra of the products at two pressures (10 and 1520 Torr) and three temperatures (500, 600, and 700 K). Photoionization spectra of ketohydroperoxides were measured in both species and were qualitatively identical, within the limit of experimental noise, to those of analogous species formed in n-butane oxidation. However, differences were noted in the temperature dependence of ketohydroperoxide formation between the two species. Whereas the yield from cyclohexane is evident up to 700 K, ketohydroperoxides in tetrahydropyran were not detected above 650 K. The difference indicates that reaction mechanisms change due to the ether group, likely affecting the requisite •QOOH + O2 addition step. Branching fractions of nine species from tetrahydropyran were quantified with the objective of determining the role of ring-opening reactions in diminishing ketohydroperoxide. The results indicate that products formed from unimolecular decomposition of R• and •QOOH radicals via concerted C-C and C-O ß-scission are pronounced in tetrahydropyran and are insignificant in cyclohexane oxidation. The main conclusion drawn is that, under the conditions herein, ring-opening pathways reduce the already low steady-state concentration of •QOOH, which in the case of tetrahydropyran prevents •QOOH + O2 reactions necessary for ketohydroperoxide formation. Carbon balance calculations reveal that products from ring opening of both R• and •QOOH, at 700 K, account for >70% at 10 Torr and >55% at 1520 Torr. Three pathways are confirmed to contribute to the depletion of •QOOH in tetrahydropyran including (i) γ-•QOOH → pentanedial + •OH, (ii) γ-•QOOH → vinyl formate + ethene + •OH, and (iii) γ-•QOOH → 3-butenal + formaldehyde + •OH. Analogous mechanisms in cyclohexane oxidation leading to similar intermediates are compared and, on the basis of mass spectral results, confirm that no such ring-opening reactions occur. The implication from the comparison to cyclohexane is that the ether group in tetrahydropyran increases the propensity for ring-opening reactions and inhibits the formation of ketohydroperoxide isomers that precede chain-branching. On the contrary, the absence of such reactions in cyclohexane enables ketohydroperoxide formation up to 700 K and perhaps higher temperature.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(11): 2178-2193, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803230

RESUMO

Reactions of the methylidyne (CH) radical with ammonia (NH3), methylamine (CH3NH2), dimethylamine ((CH3)2NH), and trimethylamine ((CH3)3N) have been investigated under multiple collision conditions at 373 K and 4 Torr. The reaction products are detected by using soft photoionization coupled to orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron. Kinetic traces are employed to discriminate between CH reaction products and products from secondary or slower reactions. Branching ratios for isomers produced at a given mass and formed by a single reaction are obtained by fitting the observed photoionization spectra to linear combinations of pure compound spectra. The reaction of the CH radical with ammonia is found to form mainly imine, HN═CH2, in line with an addition-elimination mechanism. The singly methyl-substituted imine is detected for the CH reactions with methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine. Dimethylimine isomers are formed by the reaction of CH with dimethylamine, while trimethylimine is formed by the CH reaction with trimethylamine. Overall, the temporal profiles of the products are not consistent with the formation of aminocarbene products in the reaction flow tube. In the case of the reactions with methylamine and dimethylamine, product formation is assigned to an addition-elimination mechanism similar to that proposed for the CH reaction with ammonia. However, this mechanism cannot explain the products detected by the reaction with trimethylamine. A C-H insertion pathway may become more probable as the number of methyl groups increases.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(26): 14042-14052, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652179

RESUMO

Ammonia and amines are emitted into the troposphere by various natural and anthropogenic sources, where they have a significant role in aerosol formation. Here, we explore the significance of their removal by reaction with Criegee intermediates, which are produced in the troposphere by ozonolysis of alkenes. Rate coefficients for the reactions of two representative Criegee intermediates, formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) and acetone oxide ((CH3)2COO) with NH3 and CH3NH2 were measured using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Temperature-dependent rate coefficients, k(CH2OO + NH3) = (3.1 ± 0.5) × 10-20T2 exp(1011 ± 48/T) cm3 s-1 and k(CH2OO + CH3NH2) = (5 ± 2) × 10-19T2 exp(1384 ± 96/T) cm3 s-1 were obtained in the 240 to 320 K range. Both the reactions of CH2OO were found to be independent of pressure in the 10 to 100 Torr (N2) range, and average rate coefficients k(CH2OO + NH3) = (8.4 ± 1.2) × 10-14 cm3 s-1 and k(CH2OO + CH3NH2) = (5.6 ± 0.4) × 10-12 cm3 s-1 were deduced at 293 K. An upper limit of ≤2.7 × 10-15 cm3 s-1 was estimated for the rate coefficient of the (CH3)2COO + NH3 reaction. Complementary measurements were performed with mass spectrometry using synchrotron radiation photoionization giving k(CH2OO + CH3NH2) = (4.3 ± 0.5) × 10-12 cm3 s-1 at 298 K and 4 Torr (He). Photoionization mass spectra indicated production of NH2CH2OOH and CH3N(H)CH2OOH functionalized organic hydroperoxide adducts from CH2OO + NH3 and CH2OO + CH3NH2 reactions, respectively. Ab initio calculations performed at the CCSD(T)(F12*)/cc-pVQZ-F12//CCSD(T)(F12*)/cc-pVDZ-F12 level of theory predicted pre-reactive complex formation, consistent with previous studies. Master equation simulations of the experimental data using the ab initio computed structures identified submerged barrier heights of -2.1 ± 0.1 kJ mol-1 and -22.4 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1 for the CH2OO + NH3 and CH2OO + CH3NH2 reactions, respectively. The reactions of NH3 and CH3NH2 with CH2OO are not expected to compete with its removal by reaction with (H2O)2 in the troposphere. Similarly, losses of NH3 and CH3NH2 by reaction with Criegee intermediates will be insignificant compared with reactions with OH radicals.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(3): 1245-1251, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589541

RESUMO

The reaction of perfluorooctanoic acid with the smallest carbonyl oxide Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has been measured and is very rapid, with a rate coefficient of (4.9 ± 0.8) × 10-10 cm3 s-1, similar to that for reactions of Criegee intermediates with other organic acids. Evidence is shown for the formation of hydroperoxymethyl perfluorooctanoate as a product. With such a large rate coefficient, reaction with Criegee intermediates can be a substantial contributor to atmospheric removal of perfluorocarboxylic acids. However, the atmospheric fates of the ester product largely regenerate the initial acid reactant. Wet deposition regenerates the perfluorocarboxylic acid via condensed-phase hydrolysis. Gas-phase reaction with OH is expected principally to result in formation of the acid anhydride, which also hydrolyzes to regenerate the acid, although a minor channel could lead to destruction of the perfluorinated backbone.


Assuntos
Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos , Compostos Orgânicos , Óxidos
9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4343, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341291

RESUMO

Methanol is a benchmark for understanding tropospheric oxidation, but is underpredicted by up to 100% in atmospheric models. Recent work has suggested this discrepancy can be reconciled by the rapid reaction of hydroxyl and methylperoxy radicals with a methanol branching fraction of 30%. However, for fractions below 15%, methanol underprediction is exacerbated. Theoretical investigations of this reaction are challenging because of intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet surfaces - ∼45% of reaction products are obtained via intersystem crossing of a pre-product complex - which demands experimental determinations of product branching. Here we report direct measurements of methanol from this reaction. A branching fraction below 15% is established, consequently highlighting a large gap in the understanding of global methanol sources. These results support the recent high-level theoretical work and substantially reduce its uncertainties.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(29): 19373-19381, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999060

RESUMO

Methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are important intermediate products in atmospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds, especially of isoprene. This work investigates the reactions of the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, with its co-products from isoprene ozonolysis, MVK and MACR, using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), with either tunable synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source or Lyman-α (10.2 eV) radiation for photoionization. CH2OO was produced via pulsed laser photolysis of CH2I2 in the presence of excess O2. Time-resolved measurements of reactant disappearance and of product formation were performed to monitor reaction progress; first order rate coefficients were obtained from exponential fits to the CH2OO decays. The bimolecular reaction rate coefficients at 300 K and 4 Torr are k(CH2OO + MVK) = (5.0 ± 0.4) × 10-13 cm3 s-1 and k(CH2OO + MACR) = (4.4 ± 1.0) × 10-13 cm3 s-1, where the stated ±2σ uncertainties are statistical uncertainties. Adduct formation is observed for both reactions and is attributed to the formation of a secondary ozonides (1,2,4-trioxolanes), supported by master equation calculations of the kinetics and the agreement between measured and calculated adiabatic ionization energies. Kinetics measurements were also performed for a possible bimolecular CH2OO + CO reaction and for the reaction of CH2OO with CF3CHCH2 at 300 K and 4 Torr. For CH2OO + CO, no reaction is observed and an upper limit is determined: k(CH2OO + CO) < 2 × 10-16 cm3 s-1. For CH2OO + CF3CHCH2, an upper limit of k(CH2OO + CF3CHCH2) < 2 × 10-14 cm3 s-1 is obtained.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2584, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968712

RESUMO

Organic acids play a key role in the troposphere, contributing to atmospheric aqueous-phase chemistry, aerosol formation, and precipitation acidity. Atmospheric models currently account for less than half the observed, globally averaged formic acid loading. Here we report that acetaldehyde photo-tautomerizes to vinyl alcohol under atmospherically relevant pressures of nitrogen, in the actinic wavelength range, λ = 300-330 nm, with measured quantum yields of 2-25%. Recent theoretical kinetics studies show hydroxyl-initiated oxidation of vinyl alcohol produces formic acid. Adding these pathways to an atmospheric chemistry box model (Master Chemical Mechanism) demonstrates increased formic acid concentrations by a factor of ~1.7 in the polluted troposphere and a factor of ~3 under pristine conditions. Incorporating this mechanism into the GEOS-Chem 3D global chemical transport model reveals an estimated 7% contribution to worldwide formic acid production, with up to 60% of the total modeled formic acid production over oceans arising from photo-tautomerization.

12.
J Chem Phys ; 148(18): 184302, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764149

RESUMO

The absolute photoionization spectrum of the hydroxyl (OH) radical from 12.513 to 14.213 eV was measured by multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with time-resolved radical kinetics. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation was generated at the Advanced Light Source. OH radicals were generated from the reaction of O(1D) + H2O in a flow reactor in He at 8 Torr. The initial O(1D) concentration, where the atom was formed by pulsed laser photolysis of ozone, was determined from the measured depletion of a known concentration of ozone. Concentrations of OH and O(3P) were obtained by fitting observed time traces with a kinetics model constructed with literature rate coefficients. The absolute cross section of OH was determined to be σ(13.436 eV) = 3.2 ± 1.0 Mb and σ(14.193 eV) = 4.7 ± 1.6 Mb relative to the known cross section for O(3P) at 14.193 eV. The absolute photoionization spectrum was obtained by recording a spectrum at a resolution of 8 meV (50 meV steps) and scaling to the single-energy cross sections. We computed the absolute VUV photoionization spectrum of OH and O(3P) using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster Dyson orbitals and a Coulomb photoelectron wave function and found good agreement with the observed absolute photoionization spectra.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(8): 5785-5794, 2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411804

RESUMO

The initial oxidation products of methyl butyrate (MB) and ethyl butyrate (EB) are studied using a time- and energy-resolved photoionization mass spectrometer. Reactions are initiated with Cl˙ radicals in an excess of oxygen at a temperature of 550 K and a pressure of 6 Torr. Ethyl crotonate is the sole isomeric product that is observed from concerted HO2-elimination from initial alkylperoxy radicals formed in the oxidation of EB. Analysis of the potential energy surface of each possible alkylperoxy radical shows that the CH3CH(OO)CH2C([double bond, length as m-dash]O)OCH2CH3 (RγO2) and CH3CH2CH(OO)C([double bond, length as m-dash]O)OCH2CH3 (RßO2) radicals are the isomers that could undergo this concerted HO2-elimination. Two lower-mass products (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) are observed in both methyl and ethyl butyrate reactions. Secondary reactions of alkylperoxy radicals with HO2 radicals can decompose into the aforementioned products and smaller radicals. These pathways are the likely explanation for the formation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(3): 534-539, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290108

RESUMO

We investigated the simplest alkylperoxy radical, CH3OO, formed by reacting photolytically generated CH3 radicals with O2, using the new combustion reactions followed by photoelectron photoion coincidence (CRF-PEPICO) apparatus at the Swiss Light Source. Modeling the experimental photoion mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectrum using Franck-Condon simulations including transitions to triplet and singlet cationic states yielded the adiabatic ionization energy of 10.265 ± 0.025 eV. Dissociative photoionization of CH3OO generates the CH3+ fragment ion at the appearance energy of 11.164 ± 0.010 eV. Combining these two values with ΔfH0K°(CH3) yields ΔfH0K°(CH3OO) = 22.06 ± 0.97 kJ mol-1, reducing the uncertainty of the previously determined value by a factor of 5. Statistical simulation of the CH3OO breakdown diagram provides a molecular thermometer of the free radical's internal temperature, which we measured to be 330 ± 30 K.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(33): 21970-21979, 2017 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805226

RESUMO

The rapid reaction of the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, with water dimers is the dominant removal mechanism for CH2OO in the Earth's atmosphere, but its products are not well understood. This reaction was recently suggested as a significant source of the most abundant tropospheric organic acid, formic acid (HCOOH), which is consistently underpredicted by atmospheric models. However, using time-resolved measurements of reaction kinetics by UV absorption and product analysis by photoionization mass spectrometry, we show that the primary products of this reaction are formaldehyde and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), with direct HCOOH yields of less than 10%. Incorporating our results into a global chemistry-transport model further reduces HCOOH levels by 10-90%, relative to previous modeling assumptions, which indicates that the reaction CH2OO + water dimer by itself cannot resolve the discrepancy between the measured and predicted HCOOH levels.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 147(1): 013944, 2017 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688391

RESUMO

Photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy could become a powerful tool for the time-resolved study of multi-channel gas phase chemical reactions. Toward this goal, we have designed and tested electron and ion optics that form the core of a new PEPICO spectrometer, utilizing simultaneous velocity map imaging for both cations and electrons, while also achieving good cation mass resolution through space focusing. These optics are combined with a side-sampled, slow-flow chemical reactor for photolytic initiation of gas-phase chemical reactions. Together with a recent advance that dramatically increases the dynamic range in PEPICO spectroscopy [D. L. Osborn et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 164202 (2016)], the design described here demonstrates a complete prototype spectrometer and reactor interface to carry out time-resolved experiments. Combining dual velocity map imaging with cation space focusing yields tightly focused photoion images for translationally cold neutrals, while offering good mass resolution for thermal samples as well. The flexible optics design incorporates linear electric fields in the ionization region, surrounded by dual curved electric fields for velocity map imaging of ions and electrons. Furthermore, the design allows for a long extraction stage, which makes this the first PEPICO experiment to combine ion imaging with the unimolecular dissociation rate constant measurements of cations to detect and account for kinetic shifts. Four examples are shown to illustrate some capabilities of this new design. We recorded the threshold photoelectron spectrum of the propargyl and the iodomethyl radicals. While the former agrees well with a literature threshold photoelectron spectrum, we have succeeded in resolving the previously unobserved vibrational structure in the latter. We have also measured the bimolecular rate constant of the CH2I + O2 reaction and observed its product, the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO. Finally, the second dissociative photoionization step of iodocyclohexane ions, the loss of ethylene from the cyclohexyl cation, is slow at threshold, as illustrated by the asymmetric threshold photoionization time-of-flight distributions.

17.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 313-330, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604897

RESUMO

The reactions of Criegee intermediates with NO2 have been proposed as a potentially significant source of the important nighttime oxidant NO3, particularly in urban environments where concentrations of ozone, alkenes and NOx are high. However, previous efforts to characterize the yield of NO3 from these reactions have been inconclusive, with many studies failing to detect NO3. In the present work, the reactions of formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) and acetaldehyde oxide (CH3CHOO) with NO2 are revisited to further explore the product formation over a pressure range of 4-40 Torr. NO3 is not observed; however, temporally resolved and [NO2]-dependent signal is observed at the mass of the Criegee-NO2 adduct for both formaldehyde- and acetaldehyde-oxide systems, and the structure of this adduct is explored through ab initio calculations. The atmospheric implications of the title reaction are investigated through global modelling.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(21): 13731-13745, 2017 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503692

RESUMO

Product formation, in particular ketohydroperoxide formation and decomposition, were investigated in time-resolved, Cl-atom initiated neopentane oxidation experiments in the temperature range 550-675 K using a photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ionization light was provided either by Advanced Light Source tunable synchrotron radiation or ∼10.2 eV fixed energy radiation from a H2-discharge lamp. Experiments were performed both at 1-2 atm pressure using a high-pressure reactor and also at ∼9 Torr pressure employing a low-pressure reactor for comparison. Because of the highly symmetric structure of neopentane, ketohydroperoxide signal can be attributed to a 3-hydroperoxy-2,2-dimethylpropanal isomer, i.e. from a γ-ketohydroperoxide (γ-KHP). The photoionization spectra of the γ-KHP measured at low- and high pressures and varying oxygen concentrations agree well with each other, further supporting they originate from the single isomer. Measurements performed in this work also suggest that the "Korcek" mechanism may play an important role in the decomposition of 3-hydroperoxy-2,2-dimethylpropanal, especially at lower temperatures. However, at higher temperatures where γ-KHP decomposition to hydroxyl radical and oxy-radical dominates, oxidation of the oxy-radical yields a new important channel leading to acetone, carbon monoxide, and OH radical. Starting from the initial neopentyl + O2 reaction, this channel releases altogether three OH radicals. A strongly temperature-dependent reaction product is observed at m/z = 100, likely attributable to 2,2-dimethylpropanedial.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(19): 3679-3688, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436675

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared spectra of isolated 1-propenol and 2-propenol in the gas-phase have been collected in the range of 900-3800 cm-1, and the absolute infrared absorption cross sections reported for the first time. Both cis and trans isomers of 1-propenol were observed with the trans isomer in greater abundance. Syn and anti conformers of both 1- and 2-propenol were also observed, with abundance consistent with thermal population. The FTIR spectrum of the smaller ethenol (vinyl alcohol) was used as a benchmark for our computational results. As a consequence, its spectrum has been partially reassigned resulting in the first report of the anti-ethenol conformer. Electronic structure calculations were used to support our experimental results and assign vibrational modes for the most abundant isomers, syn-trans-1-propenol and syn-2-propenol.

20.
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 68: 233-260, 2017 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301761

RESUMO

Chemical reactions occurring on a potential energy surface with multiple wells are ubiquitous in low-temperature combustion and in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds in Earth's atmosphere. The rich variety of structural isomerizations that compete with collisional stabilization makes characterizing such complex-forming reactions challenging. This review describes recent experimental and theoretical advances that deliver increasingly complete views of their reaction mechanisms. New methods for creating reactive intermediates coupled with multiplexed measurements provide many experimental observables simultaneously. Automated methods to explore potential energy surfaces can uncover hidden reactive pathways, and master equation methods enable a holistic treatment of both sequential and well-skipping pathways. Our ability to probe and understand nonequilibrium effects and reaction sequences is increasing. These advances provide the fundamental science base for predictive models of combustion and the atmosphere that are crucial to address global challenges.

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