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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042003

RESUMO

Insulin-induced hypoglycemia is a major limiting factor in maintaining optimal blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes and advanced type 2 diabetes. Luckily, a counterregulatory response (1) system exists to help minimize and reverse hypoglycemia, although more studies are needed to better characterize its components. Recently, we showed that the hormone ghrelin is permissive for the normal CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia when assessed in mice without diabetes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ghrelin also is protective against insulin-induced hypoglycemia in the streptozotocin (2) mouse model of type 1 diabetes. STZ-treated ghrelin-knockout (KO) (3) mice as well as STZ-treated wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to a low-dose hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp procedure. The STZ-treated ghrelin-KO mice required a much higher glucose infusion rate than the STZ-treated WT mice. Also, the STZ-treated ghrelin-KO mice exhibited attenuated plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine responses to the insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Taken together, our data suggest that without ghrelin, STZ-treated mice modeling type 1 diabetes are unable to mount the usual CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

2.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(2): E330-E337, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543942

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a predominantly stomach-derived peptide hormone with many actions including regulation of food intake, body weight, and blood glucose. Plasma ghrelin levels are robustly regulated by feeding status, with its levels increasing upon caloric restriction and decreasing after food intake. At least some of this regulation might be due to direct responsiveness of ghrelin cells to changes in circulating nutrients, including glucose. Indeed, oral and parental glucose administration to humans and mice lower plasma ghrelin. Also, dissociated mouse gastric mucosal cell preparations, which contain ghrelin cells, decrease ghrelin secretion when cultured in high ambient glucose. Here, we used primary cultures of mouse gastric mucosal cells in combination with an array of pharmacological tools to examine the potential role of changed intracellular oxidative stress in glucose-restricted ghrelin secretion. The antioxidants resveratrol, SRT1720, and curcumin all markedly increased ghrelin secretion. Furthermore, three different selective activators of Nuclear factor erythroid-derived-2-like 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative cellular response to oxidative stress, increased ghrelin secretion. These antioxidant compounds blocked the inhibitory effects of glucose on ghrelin secretion. Therefore, we conclude that lowering oxidative stress within ghrelin cells stimulates ghrelin secretion and blocks the direct effects of glucose on ghrelin cells to inhibit ghrelin secretion.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Curcumina/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia
3.
Mol Metab ; 39: 101004, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Binding of ghrelin to its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), stimulates GH release, induces eating, and increases blood glucose. These processes may also be influenced by constitutive (ghrelin-independent) GHSR activity, as suggested by findings in short people with naturally occurring GHSR-A204E mutations and reduced food intake and blood glucose in rodents administered GHSR inverse agonists, both of which impair constitutive GHSR activity. In this study, we aimed to more fully determine the physiologic relevance of constitutive GHSR activity. METHODS: We generated mice with a GHSR mutation that replaces alanine at position 203 with glutamate (GHSR-A203E), which corresponds to the previously described human GHSR-A204E mutation, and used them to conduct ex vivo neuronal electrophysiology and in vivo metabolic assessments. We also measured signaling within COS-7 and HEK293T cells transfected with wild-type GHSR (GHSR-WT) or GHSR-A203E constructs. RESULTS: In COS-7 cells, GHSR-A203E resulted in lower baseline IP3 accumulation than GHSR-WT; ghrelin-induced IP3 accumulation was observed in both constructs. In HEK293T cells co-transfected with voltage-gated CaV2.2 calcium channel complex, GHSR-A203E had no effect on basal CaV2.2 current density while GHSR-WT did; both GHSR-A203E and GHSR-WT inhibited CaV2.2 current in the presence of ghrelin. In cultured hypothalamic neurons from GHSR-A203E and GHSR-deficient mice, native calcium currents were greater than those in neurons from wild-type mice; ghrelin inhibited calcium currents in cultured hypothalamic neurons from both GHSR-A203E and wild-type mice. In brain slices, resting membrane potentials of arcuate NPY neurons from GHSR-A203E mice were hyperpolarized compared to those from wild-type mice; the same percentage of arcuate NPY neurons from GHSR-A203E and wild-type mice depolarized upon ghrelin exposure. The GHSR-A203E mutation did not significantly affect body weight, body length, or femur length in the first ∼6 months of life, yet these parameters were lower in GHSR-A203E mice after 1 year of age. During a 7-d 60% caloric restriction regimen, GHSR-A203E mice lacked the usual marked rise in plasma GH and demonstrated an exaggerated drop in blood glucose. Administered ghrelin also exhibited reduced orexigenic and GH secretagogue efficacies in GHSR-A203E mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the A203E mutation ablates constitutive GHSR activity and that constitutive GHSR activity contributes to the native depolarizing conductance of GHSR-expressing arcuate NPY neurons. Although the A203E mutation does not block ghrelin-evoked signaling as assessed using in vitro and ex vivo models, GHSR-A203E mice lack the usual acute food intake response to administered ghrelin in vivo. The GHSR-A203E mutation also blunts GH release, and in aged mice leads to reduced body length and femur length, which are consistent with the short stature of human carriers of the GHSR-A204E mutation.

4.
Diabetes ; 69(2): 228-237, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685528

RESUMO

Insulin-induced hypoglycemia leads to far-ranging negative consequences in patients with diabetes. Components of the counterregulatory response (CRR) system that help minimize and reverse hypoglycemia and coordination between those components are well studied but not yet fully characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that acyl-ghrelin, a hormone that defends against hypoglycemia in a preclinical starvation model, is permissive for the normal CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Ghrelin knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates underwent an insulin bolus-induced hypoglycemia test and a low-dose hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp procedure. Clamps also were performed in ghrelin-KO mice and C57BL/6N mice administered the growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonist HM01 or vehicle. Results show that hypoglycemia, as induced by an insulin bolus, was more pronounced and prolonged in ghrelin-KO mice, supporting previous studies suggesting increased insulin sensitivity upon ghrelin deletion. Furthermore, during hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamps, ghrelin-KO mice required a 10-fold higher glucose infusion rate (GIR) and exhibited less robust corticosterone and growth hormone responses. Conversely, HM01 administration, which reduced the GIR required by ghrelin-KO mice during the clamps, increased plasma corticosterone and growth hormone. Thus, our data suggest that endogenously produced acyl-ghrelin not only influences insulin sensitivity but also is permissive for the normal CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Grelina/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Insulina/toxicidade , Animais , Grelina/genética , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Grelina/agonistas
5.
Neuroscience ; 447: 53-62, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520709

RESUMO

Ghrelin administration increases food intake, body weight (BW), adiposity, and blood glucose. In contrast, although mouse models lacking ghrelin or its receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHSR)) exhibit life-threatening hypoglycemia in starvation-like states, they do not exhibit appreciable reductions in food intake, BW, adiposity, blood glucose, or survival when food availability is unrestricted. This suggests the existence of a parallel neuromodulatory system that can compensate for disruptions in the ghrelin system in certain settings. Here, we hypothesized that the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) may encode this putative redundancy, and as such, that genetic deletion of both GHSR and CB1R would exaggerate the metabolic deficits associated with deletion of GHSR alone. To test this hypothesis, we assessed food intake, BW, blood glucose, survival, and plasma acyl-ghrelin in ad libitum-fed male wild-type mice and those that genetically lack GHSR (GHSR-nulls), CB1R (CB1R-nulls), or both GHSR and CB1R (double-nulls). BW, fat mass, and lean mass were similar in GHSR-nulls and wild-types, lower in CB1R-nulls, but not further reduced in double-nulls. Food intake, plasma acyl-ghrelin, and blood glucose were similar among genotypes. Deletion of either GHSR or CB1R alone did not have a statistically-significant effect on survival, but double-nulls demonstrated a statistical trend towards decreased survival (p = 0.07). We conclude that CB1R is not responsible for the normal BW, adiposity, food intake, and blood glucose observed in GHSR-null mice in the setting of unrestricted food availability. Nor is CB1R required for plasma acyl-ghrelin secretion in that setting. However, GHSR may be protective against exaggerated mortality associated with CB1R deletion.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 129(9): 3909-3923, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424424

RESUMO

Acyl-ghrelin administration increases food intake, body weight, and blood glucose. In contrast, mice lacking ghrelin or ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) exhibit life-threatening hypoglycemia during starvation-like conditions, but do not consistently exhibit overt metabolic phenotypes when given ad libitum food access. These results, and findings of ghrelin resistance in obese states, imply nutritional state dependence of ghrelin's metabolic actions. Here, we hypothesized that liver-enriched antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP2), a recently characterized endogenous GHSR antagonist, blunts ghrelin action during obese states and postprandially. To test this hypothesis, we determined changes in plasma LEAP2 and acyl-ghrelin due to fasting, eating, obesity, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), oral glucose administration, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using humans and/or mice. Our results suggest that plasma LEAP2 is regulated by metabolic status: its levels increased with body mass and blood glucose and decreased with fasting, RYGB, and in postprandial states following VSG. These changes were mostly opposite of those of acyl-ghrelin. Furthermore, using electrophysiology, we showed that LEAP2 both hyperpolarizes and prevents acyl-ghrelin from activating arcuate NPY neurons. We predict that the plasma LEAP2/acyl-ghrelin molar ratio may be a key determinant modulating acyl-ghrelin activity in response to body mass, feeding status, and blood glucose.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/cirurgia
7.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(7): 1319-1327, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758330

RESUMO

The ghrelin system is a key component of the mood and metabolic responses to chronic psychosocial stress. For example, circulating acyl-ghrelin rises in several rodent and human stress models, administered acyl-ghrelin induces antidepressant-like behavioral responses in mice, and mice with deleted ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) exhibit exaggerated depressive-like behaviors, changed eating behaviors, and altered metabolism in response to chronic stress. However, the mechanisms mediating stress-induced rises in ghrelin are unknown and ghrelin's antidepressant-like efficacy in the setting of chronic stress is incompletely characterized. Here, we used a pharmacological approach in combination with a 10-day chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model in male mice to investigate whether the sympathoadrenal system is involved in the ghrelin response to stress. We also examined the antidepressant-like efficacy of administered ghrelin and the synthetic GHSR agonist GHRP-2 during and/or after CSDS. We found that administration of the ß1-adrenergic receptor (ß1AR) blocker atenolol during CSDS blunts the elevation of plasma acyl-ghrelin and exaggerates depressive-like behavior. Neither acute injection of acyl-ghrelin directly following CSDS nor its chronic administration during or after CSDS nor chronic delivery of GHRP-2 during and after CSDS improved stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Thus, ß1ARs drive the acyl-ghrelin response to CSDS, but supplementing the natural increases in acyl-ghrelin with exogenous acyl-ghrelin or GHSR agonist does not further enhance the antidepressant-like actions of the endogenous ghrelin system in the setting of CSDS.


Assuntos
Depressão/fisiopatologia , Grelina/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Animais , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , Depressão/etiologia , Grelina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
8.
Endocrinology ; 159(12): 4006-4022, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380028

RESUMO

In the current study, we sought to determine the significance of the ghrelin system in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). PWS is characterized by hypotonia and difficulty feeding in neonates and hyperphagia and obesity beginning later in childhood. Other features include low GH, neonatal hypoglycemia, hypogonadism, and accelerated mortality. Although the hyperphagia and obesity in PWS have been attributed to elevated levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, this link has never been firmly established, nor have ghrelin's potentially protective actions to increase GH secretion, blood glucose, and survival been investigated in a PWS context. In the current study, we show that placing Snord116del mice modeling PWS on ghrelin-deficient or ghrelin receptor [GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR)]-deficient backgrounds does not impact their characteristically reduced body weight, lower plasma IGF-1, delayed sexual maturation, or increased mortality in the period prior to weaning. However, blood glucose was further reduced in male Snord116del pups on a ghrelin-deficient background, and percentage body weight gain and percentage fat mass were further reduced in male Snord116del pups on a GHSR-deficient background. Strikingly, 2 weeks of daily administration of the GHSR agonist HM01 to Snord116del neonates markedly improved survival, resulting in a nearly complete rescue of the excess mortality owing to loss of the paternal Snord116 gene. These data support further exploration of the therapeutic potential of GHSR agonist administration in limiting PWS mortality, especially during the period characterized by failure to thrive.


Assuntos
Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/mortalidade , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Receptores de Grelina/agonistas , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/patologia
9.
Mol Metab ; 9: 114-130, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exercise training has several well-established health benefits, including many related to body weight, appetite control, and blood glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms and, in particular, the hormonal systems that mediate and integrate these beneficial effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of the hormone ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor), in mediating the effects of exercise on food intake and blood glucose following exercise as well as in regulating exercise endurance capacity. METHODS: We used two mouse models of treadmill running to characterize the changes in plasma ghrelin with exercise. We also assessed the role of the ghrelin system to influence food intake and blood glucose after exercise, exercise endurance, and parameters potentially linked to responses to exercise. Mice lacking GHSRs (GHSR-null mice) and wild-type littermates were studied. RESULTS: An acute bout of exercise transiently elevated plasma acyl-ghrelin. Without the action of this increased ghrelin on GHSRs (as in GHSR-null mice), high intensity interval exercise markedly reduced food intake compared to control mice. The effect of exercise to acutely raise blood glucose remained unmodified in GHSR-null mice. Exercise-induced increases in plasma ghrelin positively correlated with endurance capacity, and time to exhaustion was reduced in GHSR-null mice as compared to wild-type littermates. In an effort to mechanistically explain their reduced exercise endurance, exercised GHSR-null mice exhibited an abrogated sympathoadrenal response, lower overall insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, and altered glycogen utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise transiently increases plasma ghrelin. GHSR-null mice exhibit decreased food intake following high intensity interval exercise and decreased endurance when submitted to an exercise endurance protocol. These data suggest that an intact ghrelin system limits the capacity of exercise to restrict food intake following exercise, although it enhances exercise endurance.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Grelina/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Resistência Física , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Animais , Grelina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo
10.
Mol Metab ; 6(8): 882-896, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that affects food intake and regulates blood glucose. The best-characterized actions of ghrelin are mediated by its binding to and activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor). Adequate examination of the identity, function, and relevance of specific subsets of GHSR-expressing neurons has been hampered by the absence of a suitable Cre recombinase (Cre)-expressing mouse line with which to manipulate gene expression in a targeted fashion within GHSR-expressing neurons. The present study aims to characterize the functional significance and neurocircuitry of GHSR-expressing neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), as they relate to ghrelin-induced food intake and fasting-associated rebound hyperphagia, using a novel mouse line in which Cre expression is controlled by the Ghsr promoter. METHODS: A Ghsr-IRES-Cre mouse line that expresses Cre directed by the Ghsr promoter was generated. The line was validated by comparing Cre activity in reporter mice to the known brain distribution pattern of GHSR. Next, the requirement of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal activity in mediating food intake in response to administered ghrelin and in response to fasting was assessed after stereotaxic delivery of inhibitory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) virus to the MBH. In a separate cohort of Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice, stereotaxic delivery of stimulatory DREADD virus to the MBH was performed to assess the sufficiency of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal activity on food intake. Finally, the distribution of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal axonal projections was assessed in the DREADD virus-injected animals. RESULTS: The pattern of Cre activity in the Ghsr-IRES-Cre mouse line mostly faithfully reproduced the known GHSR expression pattern. DREADD-assisted inhibition of MBH GHSR neuronal activity robustly suppressed the normal orexigenic response to ghrelin and fasting-associated rebound food intake. DREADD-assisted stimulation of MBH GHSR neuronal activity was sufficient to induce food intake. Axonal projections of GHSR-expressing MBH neurons were observed in a subset of hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that 1) activation of GHSR-expressing neurons in the MBH is required for the normal feeding responses following both peripheral administration of ghrelin and fasting, 2) activation of MBH GHSR-expressing neurons is sufficient to induce feeding, and 3) axonal projections to a subset of hypothalamic and/or extra-hypothalamic regions likely mediate these responses. The Ghsr-IRES-Cre line should serve as a valuable tool to further our understanding of the functional significance of ghrelin-responsive/GHSR-expressing neurons and the neuronal circuitry within which they act.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Jejum/metabolismo , Grelina/farmacologia , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Jejum/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo
11.
Diabetes ; 66(7): 1847-1857, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487437

RESUMO

Glucagon receptor (GcgR) blockade has been proposed as an alternative to insulin monotherapy for treating type 1 diabetes since deletion or inhibition of GcgRs corrects hyperglycemia in models of diabetes. The factors regulating glycemia in a setting devoid of insulin and glucagon function remain unclear but may include the hormone ghrelin. Not only is ghrelin release controlled by glucose but also ghrelin has many actions that can raise or reduce falls in blood glucose level. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ghrelin rises to prevent hypoglycemia in the absence of glucagon function. Both GcgR knockout (Gcgr-/-) mice and db/db mice that were administered GcgR monoclonal antibody displayed lower blood glucose levels accompanied by elevated plasma ghrelin levels. Although treatment with the pancreatic ß-cell toxin streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia and raised plasma ghrelin levels in wild-type mice, hyperglycemia was averted in similarly treated Gcgr-/- mice and the plasma ghrelin level was further increased. Notably, administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist further reduced blood glucose levels into the markedly hypoglycemic range in overnight-fasted, streptozotocin-treated Gcgr-/- mice. A lowered blood glucose level also was observed in overnight-fasted, streptozotocin-treated ghrelin receptor-null mice that were administered GcgR monoclonal antibody. These data suggest that when glucagon activity is blocked in the setting of type 1 diabetes, the plasma ghrelin level rises, preventing hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucagon/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Glucagon/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Atenolol/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Grelina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Simpatolíticos/farmacologia
12.
J Clin Invest ; 126(9): 3467-78, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548523

RESUMO

Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric peptide hormone secreted when caloric intake is limited. Ghrelin also regulates blood glucose, as emphasized by the hypoglycemia that is induced by caloric restriction in mouse models of deficient ghrelin signaling. Here, we hypothesized that activation of ß1-adrenergic receptors (ß1ARs) localized to ghrelin cells is required for caloric restriction-associated ghrelin release and the ensuing protective glucoregulatory response. In mice lacking the ß1AR specifically in ghrelin-expressing cells, ghrelin secretion was markedly blunted, resulting in profound hypoglycemia and prevalent mortality upon severe caloric restriction. Replacement of ghrelin blocked the effects of caloric restriction in ß1AR-deficient mice. We also determined that treating calorically restricted juvenile WT mice with beta blockers led to reduced plasma ghrelin and hypoglycemia, the latter of which is similar to the life-threatening, fasting-induced hypoglycemia observed in infants treated with beta blockers. These findings highlight the critical functions of ghrelin in preventing hypoglycemia and promoting survival during severe caloric restriction and the requirement for ghrelin cell-expressed ß1ARs in these processes. Moreover, these results indicate a potential role for ghrelin in mediating beta blocker-associated hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals, such as young children.


Assuntos
Grelina/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/deficiência , Animais , Atenolol/química , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Grelina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Mol Endocrinol ; 29(11): 1658-71, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26352512

RESUMO

Chromogranin A (ChgA) is an acidic protein found in large dense-core secretory vesicles and generally considered to be expressed in all enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we characterize a novel reporter mouse for ChgA, ChgA-humanized Renilla reniformis (hr)GFP. The hrGFP reporter was found in the monoamine-storing chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, where ChgA was originally discovered. hrGFP also was expressed in enteroendocrine cells throughout the GI tract, faithfully after the expression of ChgA, as characterized by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified cells, although the expression in the small intestine was weak compared with that of the stomach and colon. In the stomach, hrGFP was highly expressed in almost all histamine-storing enterochromaffin (EC)-like cells, at a lower level in the majority of serotonin-storing EC cells and ghrelin cells, in a small fraction of somatostatin cells, but was absent from gastrin cells. In the small intestine, the hrGFP reporter was selectively, but weakly expressed in EC cells, although not in any peptide-storing enteroendocrine cells. In the colon, hrGFP was exclusively expressed in EC cells but absent from the peptide-storing enteroendocrine cells. In contrast, in the pancreas, hrGFP was expressed in ß-cells, α-cells, and a fraction of pancreatic polypeptide cells. It is concluded that ChgA-hrGFP in the GI tract functions as an effective reporter, particularly for the large populations of still poorly characterized monoamine-storing enteroendocrine cells. Furthermore, our findings substantiate the potential function of ChgA as a monoamine-binding protein that facilitates the regulated endocrine secretion of large amounts of monoamines from enteroendocrine cells.


Assuntos
Cromogranina A/genética , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Liberação de Histamina/fisiologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Células Enterocromafins/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Genes Reporter/genética , Histamina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ligação Proteica
14.
Mol Metab ; 3(1): 64-72, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24567905

RESUMO

The hormone ghrelin stimulates eating and helps maintain blood glucose upon caloric restriction. While previous studies have demonstrated that hypothalamic arcuate AgRP neurons are targets of ghrelin, the overall relevance of ghrelin signaling within intact AgRP neurons is unclear. Here, we tested the functional significance of ghrelin action on AgRP neurons using a new, tamoxifen-inducible AgRP-CreER(T2) transgenic mouse model that allows spatiotemporally-controlled re-expression of physiological levels of ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) specifically in AgRP neurons of adult GHSR-null mice that otherwise lack GHSR expression. AgRP neuron-selective GHSR re-expression partially restored the orexigenic response to administered ghrelin and fully restored the lowered blood glucose levels observed upon caloric restriction. The normalizing glucoregulatory effect of AgRP neuron-selective GHSR expression was linked to glucagon rises and hepatic gluconeogenesis induction. Thus, our data indicate that GHSR-containing AgRP neurons are not solely responsible for ghrelin's orexigenic effects but are sufficient to mediate ghrelin's effects on glycemia.

15.
Endocrinology ; 155(1): 98-107, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24189139

RESUMO

Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone secreted principally from a distinct population of gastric endocrine cells. Molecular mechanisms regulating ghrelin secretion are mostly unknown. Recently, norepinephrine (NE) was shown to enhance ghrelin release by binding to ß1-adrenergic receptors on ghrelin cells. Here, we use an immortalized stomach-derived ghrelin cell line to further characterize the intracellular signaling pathways involved in NE-induced ghrelin secretion, with a focus on the roles of Ca(2+) and cAMP. Several voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) family members were found by quantitative PCR to be expressed by ghrelin cells. Nifedipine, a selective L-type VGCC blocker, suppressed both basal and NE-stimulated ghrelin secretion. NE induced elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Ca(2+)-sensing synaptotagmins Syt7 and Syt9 were also highly expressed in ghrelin cell lines, suggesting that they too help mediate ghrelin secretion. Raising cAMP with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine also stimulated ghrelin secretion, although such a cAMP-mediated effect likely does not involve protein kinase A, given the absence of a modulatory response to a highly selective protein kinase A inhibitor. However, pharmacological inhibition of another target of cAMP, exchange protein-activated by cAMP (EPAC), did attenuate both basal and NE-induced ghrelin secretion, whereas an EPAC agonist enhanced basal ghrelin secretion. We conclude that constitutive ghrelin secretion is primarily regulated by Ca(2+) influx through L-type VGCCs and that NE stimulates ghrelin secretion predominantly through release of intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, cAMP and its downstream activation of EPAC are required for the normal ghrelin secretory response to NE.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/química , Animais , Cloreto de Cádmio/química , Linhagem Celular , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Ácido Egtázico/química , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Nifedipino/química , Transdução de Sinais , Sinaptotagminas/metabolismo
16.
Mol Metab ; 2(4): 376-92, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24327954

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms regulating secretion of the orexigenic-glucoregulatory hormone ghrelin remain unclear. Based on qPCR analysis of FACS-purified gastric ghrelin cells, highly expressed and enriched 7TM receptors were comprehensively identified and functionally characterized using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo methods. Five Gαs-coupled receptors efficiently stimulated ghrelin secretion: as expected the ß1-adrenergic, the GIP and the secretin receptors but surprisingly also the composite receptor for the sensory neuropeptide CGRP and the melanocortin 4 receptor. A number of Gαi/o-coupled receptors inhibited ghrelin secretion including somatostatin receptors SSTR1, SSTR2 and SSTR3 and unexpectedly the highly enriched lactate receptor, GPR81. Three other metabolite receptors known to be both Gαi/o- and Gαq/11-coupled all inhibited ghrelin secretion through a pertussis toxin-sensitive Gαi/o pathway: FFAR2 (short chain fatty acid receptor; GPR43), FFAR4 (long chain fatty acid receptor; GPR120) and CasR (calcium sensing receptor). In addition to the common Gα subunits three non-common Gαi/o subunits were highly enriched in ghrelin cells: GαoA, GαoB and Gαz. Inhibition of Gαi/o signaling via ghrelin cell-selective pertussis toxin expression markedly enhanced circulating ghrelin. These 7TM receptors and associated Gα subunits constitute a major part of the molecular machinery directly mediating neuronal and endocrine stimulation versus metabolite and somatostatin inhibition of ghrelin secretion including a series of novel receptor targets not previously identified on the ghrelin cell.

17.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e60276, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23555941

RESUMO

Histamine is a potent biogenic amine that mediates numerous physiological processes throughout the body, including digestion, sleep, and immunity. It is synthesized by gastric enterochromaffin-like cells, a specific set of hypothalamic neurons, as well as a subset of white blood cells, including mast cells. Much remains to be learned about these varied histamine-producing cell populations. Here, we report the validation of a transgenic mouse line in which Cre recombinase expression has been targeted to cells expressing histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of histamine. This was achieved by crossing the HDC-Cre mouse line with Rosa26-tdTomato reporter mice, thus resulting in the expression of the fluorescent Tomato (Tmt) signal in cells containing Cre recombinase activity. As expected, the Tmt signal co-localized with HDC-immunoreactivity within the gastric mucosa and gastric submucosa and also within the tuberomamillary nucleus of the brain. HDC expression within Tmt-positive gastric cells was further confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis of mRNA isolated from highly purified populations of Tmt-positive cells obtained by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). HDC expression within these FACS-separated cells was found to coincide with other markers of both ECL cells and mast cells. Gastrin expression was co-localized with HDC expression in a subset of histaminergic gastric mucosal cells. We suggest that these transgenic mice will facilitate future studies aimed at investigating the function of histamine-producing cells.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Histamina/metabolismo , Histidina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Histidina Descarboxilase/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Integrases/genética , Integrases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
18.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e58698, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23505551

RESUMO

The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is required for normal pubertal maturation in mice and humans and, therefore, leptin has been recognized as a crucial metabolic cue linking energy stores and the onset of puberty. Several lines of evidence have suggested that leptin acts via kisspeptin expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus to exert its effects. Using conditional knockout mice, we have previously demonstrated that deletion of leptin receptors (LepR) from kisspeptin cells cause no puberty or fertility deficits. However, developmental adaptations and system redundancies may have obscured the physiologic relevance of direct leptin signaling in kisspeptin neurons. To overcome these putative effects, we re-expressed endogenous LepR selectively in kisspeptin cells of mice otherwise null for LepR, using the Cre-loxP system. Kiss1-Cre LepR null mice showed no pubertal development and no improvement of the metabolic phenotype, remaining obese, diabetic and infertile. These mice displayed decreased numbers of neurons expressing Kiss1 gene, similar to prepubertal control mice, and an unexpected lack of re-expression of functional LepR. To further assess the temporal coexpression of Kiss1 and Lepr genes, we generated mice with the human renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) driven by Kiss1 regulatory elements and crossed them with mice that express Cre recombinase from the Lepr locus and the R26-tdTomato reporter gene. No coexpression of Kiss1 and LepR was observed in prepubertal mice. Our findings unequivocally demonstrate that kisspeptin neurons are not the direct target of leptin in the onset of puberty. Leptin signaling in kisspeptin neurons arises only after completion of sexual maturation.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fenótipo , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética
19.
Front Syst Neurosci ; 6: 23, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22509157

RESUMO

The histaminergic neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus are involved in the control of arousal. These neurons are sensitive to hypercapnia as has been shown in experiments examining c-Fos expression, a marker for increased neuronal activity. We investigated the mechanisms through which TMN neurons respond to changes in extracellular levels of acid/CO(2). Recordings in rat brain slices revealed that acidification within the physiological range (pH from 7.4 to 7.0), as well as ammonium chloride (5 mM), excite histaminergic neurons. This excitation is significantly reduced by antagonists of type I metabotropic glutamate receptors and abolished by benzamil, an antagonist of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, or by ouabain which blocks Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. We detected variable combinations of 4 known types of ASICs in single TMN neurons, and observed activation of ASICs in single dissociated TMN neurons only at pH lower than 7.0. Thus, glutamate, which is known to be released by glial cells and orexinergic neurons, amplifies the acid/CO(2)-induced activation of TMN neurons. This amplification demands the coordinated function of metabotropic glutamate receptors, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. We also developed a novel HDC-Cre transgenic reporter mouse line in which histaminergic TMN neurons can be visualized. In contrast to the rat, the mouse histaminergic neurons lacked the pH 7.0-induced excitation and displayed only a minimal response to the mGluR I agonist DHPG (0.5 µM). On the other hand, ammonium-induced excitation was similar in mouse and rat. These results are relevant for the understanding of the neuronal mechanisms controlling acid/CO(2)-induced arousal in hepatic encephalopathy and obstructive sleep apnoea. Moreover, the new HDC-Cre mouse model will be a useful tool for studying the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the histaminergic system.

20.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 302(10): E1300-10, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22414807

RESUMO

The peptide hormone ghrelin is released from a distinct group of gastrointestinal cells in response to caloric restriction, whereas its levels fall after eating. The mechanisms by which ghrelin secretion is regulated remain largely unknown. Here, we have used primary cultures of mouse gastric mucosal cells to investigate ghrelin secretion, with an emphasis on the role of glucose. Ghrelin secretion from these cells upon exposure to different d-glucose concentrations, the glucose antimetabolite 2-deoxy-d-glucose, and other potential secretagogues was assessed. The expression profile of proteins involved in glucose transport, metabolism, and utilization within highly enriched pools of mouse ghrelin cells and within cultured ghrelinoma cells was also determined. Ghrelin release negatively correlated with d-glucose concentration. Insulin blocked ghrelin release, but only in a low d-glucose environment. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of high d-glucose exposure on ghrelin release. mRNAs encoding several facilitative glucose transporters, hexokinases, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit Kir6.2, and sulfonylurea type 1 receptor were expressed highly within ghrelin cells, although neither tolbutamide nor diazoxide exerted direct effects on ghrelin secretion. These findings suggest that direct exposure of ghrelin cells to low ambient d-glucose stimulates ghrelin release, whereas high d-glucose and glucose metabolism within ghrelin cells block ghrelin release. Also, low d-glucose sensitizes ghrelin cells to insulin. Various glucose transporters, channels, and enzymes that mediate glucose responsiveness in other cell types may contribute to the ghrelin cell machinery involved in regulating ghrelin secretion under these different glucose environments, although their exact roles in ghrelin release remain uncertain.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/citologia , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endotelina-1/farmacologia , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Secretina/farmacologia , Somatostatina/farmacologia
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