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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 205, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective was to estimate the disease burden attributable to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: Through a prospective cohort study conducted in Jinja and Mulago hospitals in Uganda from March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, hypertension-related cases were analyzed. Maternal near miss cases were defined according to the WHO criteria. Maternal deaths were also analyzed. The maternal near miss incidence ratio, the case-specific severe maternal outcome ratio, the case-specific maternal mortality ratio and the case-fatality ratio were computed. RESULTS: Of 403 women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, 218 (54.1 %) had severe preeclampsia, 172 (42.7 %) had eclampsia, and 13 had chronic hypertension or Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes or low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. The case-specific maternal near miss incidence ratios was 8.60 per 1,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, 3.06 per 1,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 5.11 per 1,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-specific severe maternal outcome ratio was 9.37 per 1,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, and was 3.25 per 1,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 5.61 per 1,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-specific maternal mortality ratio was 780 per 100,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, and was 1940 per 100,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 501 per 100,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-fatality ratio was 5.1 % overall (for all hypertensive disorders), but was 8 times higher for eclampsia compared to severe preeclampsia. Cyanosis, abnormal respiration, oliguria, circulatory collapse, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate were significantly associated with severe maternal outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is high morbidity attributable to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Since some of the complications associated with morbidity can be recognized early, it is possible to prevent severe morbidity through early intervention with delivery, antihypertensive therapy and prophylactic magnesium sulphate treatment. The findings highlight the feasibility of implementing a facility-based surveillance system for severe maternal morbidity due to hypertensive disorders.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/mortalidade , Mortalidade Materna , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Morbidade , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 7(6): 436-47, 2013 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23771287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-risk sexual behaviors such as multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, acquisition of sexually transmitted infection (STIs), and non-use of contraceptives persist in HIV patients undergoing care. We conducted a systematic review of studies conducted in the era of increased access to HAART (2000-2010) to assess whether wide-scale use of HAART was associated with high-risk behavior among HAART-using patients. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a comprehensive search of databases (AIDSLINE, National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINHAL and EMBASE) from January 2002 to January 2010, reviewed conference proceedings and journals, and contacted the researchers involved. We analyzed the association of high-risk behaviors (non-disclosure of sero-status to sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, unprotected sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, non-use of contraceptives and acquisition of STIs) with using HAART. Information from eligible studies was abstracted using a standardized checklist. Fourteen English-language studies met the selection criteria of having high-risk behavior as an outcome in patients using HAART in sub-Saharan Africa. RESULTS: Of the 92 eligible articles screened, 14 met the criteria for inclusion as primary articles, 10 showed that HAART is not associated with increased high-risk behavior, two showed increase in acquisition of STIs among HAART-using patients, (which was inconsistent with other measures of high-risk behavior), and two studies showed short-term increase in high-risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Persistence of high-risk behavior in HAART-using patients suggests that more effort needs to be incorporated in HIV care to reduce such behavior to reduce HIV transmission to uninfected populations.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 6(3): 276-82, 2012 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22421610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an epidemiological marker of high-risk sexual behavior in HIV-infected patients. We assessed the prevalence of STIs among patients attending an HIV care and support centre. METHODOLOGY: From January to August 2009, we assessed socio-demographic variables, sexuality, disclosure of sero-status and STI treatment for 400 patients attending the HIV care and support centre. Characteristics of those who had been treated and those who had never been treated for STIs were compared to identify factors independently associated with STIs. RESULTS: Of the 400 respondents, 25.3% were male, 47.3% were aged 25-34 years, over 85% were currently married or had ever been married, and 62% had primary level of education or less. Though 82.5% were on antiretroviral drugs, only 53.1% disclosed their sero-status to their regular partners and only 41.9% knew the sero-status of their regular partners. Furthermore, 151 (37.7%) had been treated for STIs. The STIs were gonorrhoea (15; 9.7%), chlamydia (11; 7.1%), Trichomonas vaginalis (5; 3.3%), syphilis (99; 64.3%), and mixed infections (21; 13.6%). Factors associated with STI treatment on univariable analysis were age at sexual debut, whether the respondent had had sex in the previous six months, frequency of sexual intercourse, having changed sexual partners, number of sexual partners, and age when the respondent had a first child. CONCLUSION: Unprotected sexual intercourse and STIs are common among patients seeking HIV care in Uganda. Only the age of sexual debut (odds ratio 0.82, confidence limits 0.71, 0.94) was independently (though inversely) associated with STIs.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/complicações , Uganda/epidemiologia , Sexo sem Proteção , Adulto Jovem
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