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1.
Public Health Nurs ; 37(5): 799-805, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716089

RESUMO

The World Health Organization declared 2020 the Year of the Nurse and the Midwife well before the world was plunged into a pandemic response to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Worldwide, nurses are advancing critical research and policy efforts to achieve all 17 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Nursing is best positioned to ask and answer how to achieve the SDGs over the next decade, and in this COVID-19 era. In this article, we summarize the state of the nursing and midwifery literature about the SDGs. Twenty-four publications met criteria for inclusion, with nearly half published in 2019. Findings emphasize a need for: (a) nursing curricula and training revisions to include SDG content and strengthen development of a future nursing workforce comprised of global citizens; (b) innovative and disruptive nursing research documenting advances toward achieving the SDG 2030 agenda; (c) nursing practice that operates within a SDG framework; and (d) responsive and proactive nursing policy development that foresees what is needed to achieve the SDGs. When the urgency of COVID-19 response subsides, the world will adjust to a new normal and nursing must be positioned to lead and contribute to micro- and macro-level efforts toward achieving the SDGs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Humanos , Liderança , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Pandemias
2.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 31(6): 632-645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604172

RESUMO

This study explored men's views of workplace-based HIV self-testing and the barriers and facilitators of linkage to posttest services. Six focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews were held with employers and employees in private security companies in Uganda (N = 70). Using content analysis, five categories emerged. The first category was the mitigation of potential harm, including reduction of stigma and discrimination, and the need for posttest support. The second category was a perceived need for on-site services where the men proposed on-site prevention services and HIV treatment and care. In the third category, which was strengthening linkage mechanisms, participants proposed expanded clinic hours, improved health facility efficiency, and provision of referral documentation. The fourth and fifth categories were organizational support and social support, respectively. There is need for employers and employees to work together for the success of workplace-based HIV initiatives.

3.
Int J Reprod Med ; 2020: 8053939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685438

RESUMO

Background: Hookworm infection in expectant mothers has adverse health effects on both the mothers and their unborn babies. Foetal effects are known to include intrauterine growth retardation and physical and mental growth retardation, while the mothers may develop anemia which could potentially result in death. Unfortunately, little is known about factors that may predispose a pregnant woman to infection by hookworm. In this study, we strived to determine not only the prevalence of hookworm infection among pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit during the current pregnancy in a local health center in northern Uganda but also factors that might predispose them to hookworm infection. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 pregnant women from Ogur Health Center IV located in Lira district, northern Uganda. Stool samples were collected from each study participant and analyzed for hookworms. The independent variables listed in this study (participant's sociodemographic characteristics, preconception care, and sanitation factors) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis, including calculation of adjusted ratios, was performed using STATA software (version 14). Results: Prevalence of hookworm infection among pregnant women who attended their first antenatal visit at Ogur Health Center IV was 11% (n = 38). After controlling for confounders, factors found to be significantly associated with this infection among pregnant women here were gardening barefooted (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6 to 7.5; P < 0.001) and fetching unsafe water shared with animals for domestic uses (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.2; P value of 0.002). Conclusion: Hookworm infection among pregnant women at Ogur Health Center IV in Lira district, at 11%, is a public health concern and significantly associated with barefoot gardening and fetching water from unsafe sources shared with animals. We, therefore, recommend that special emphasis during routine prenatal health education be placed on the use of protective footwear during farming and fetching water for domestic use from protected safe sources. Author Summary. Hookworm infection is a parasitic condition that more often goes unnoticed, yet it presents immense detrimental effects, especially to pregnant women and their unborn children. It is a chronic disease with accruing effects of blood depletion resulting in anemia. Anemia is, by far, one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Pregnant women are more prone to hookworm infection by virtue of their compromised immunity, secondary to the physiological process of pregnancy. We demonstrated here that hookworm infection still exists among pregnant women in Uganda. We also showed that gardening barefooted and fetching water for domestic uses from unsafe sources shared with animals were major factors associated with this helminthic infection. This study provides evidence necessary to influence decision making on prevention of hookworm infection in the study area.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1136, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, HIV remains a major public health challenge, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Literature indicates that men's involvement in HIV testing, care, and treatment services is lower compared to women, therefore novel approaches are required to engage men in the cascade of HIV care. This study aimed to explore men's perception on the provision of HIV testing services in venues where English Premier League football games are televised. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted between February and May 2018. Six focus group discussions were conducted with 50 conveniently selected men aged 18 years and older using a pre-tested discussion guide. All focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Overall, HIV testing at venues telecasting English Premier League football games was acceptable to men. There was a very strong preference for health workers providing testing and counseling services be external or unknown in the local community. Possible motivators for testing services provided in these settings include subsidizing or eliminating entrance fee to venues telecasting games, integrating testing and counseling with health promotion or screening for other diseases, use of local football games as mobilization tools and use of expert clients as role models. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that HIV testing services at venues where EPL football games are televised is generally acceptable to men. In implementing such services, consideration should be given to preferences for external or unknown health workers and the motivating factors contributing to the use of these services. Given that HIV testing is currently not conducted in these settings, further research should be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a means of enhancing HIV testing among Ugandan men.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol , Adulto , Idoso , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 950, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advancement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) services, the rate of MTCT of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is still high. This is partly due to low retention of HIV positive mothers in HIV care. We sought to determine the level of retention and the factors associated with retention among HIV positive pregnant and breastfeeding mothers following accreditation of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic to offer full time ART services in one of the lower health facilities in rural Western Uganda. METHODS: This study was a mixed methods study conducted in 5 health centres in rural Western Uganda from 10th April to 10th May 2017. A total of 132 retained and non-retained HIV positive pregnant and breastfeeding mothers were recruited. A Mother was categorized as retained if she had not missed her ART appointments at antenatal or postnatal clinic for ≥3 consecutive months. Questionnaires were administered and four focus group discussions were held. We used descriptive statistics to understand characteristics of mothers and their levels of retention. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: About a third (35.6%) of the mothers were aged 18-24 with a median age of 26 (IQR 23, minimum age of 16 and maximum age of 39). More than half, 73 (55.3%) of all mothers were in HIV care for 3-24 months and about 116(87.9%) of all mothers were retained in HIV care. This was an improvement from 53% reported in 2015. We found lack of formal education, lack of disclosure of HIV status to the spouse, perceived lack of confidentiality and self stigmatization as factors hindering retention. The desire to have an HIV free baby, fear of death and opportunistic infections, support from significant others and community groups were factors associated with retention. CONCLUSIONS: We observed improved retention in lower health centres and to achieve 100% retention, we recommend interventions such as sensitizing HIV positive mothers on disclosure of HIV status to spouse, maintaining confidentiality of client information at the clinic, support to girl child education and formation of community support groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered with the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST), registration receipt number 10961 on the 9th March, 2018.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Psychol ; 6(1): 50, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, sickle cell disease is recognized as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Caregivers and patients with such chronic illnesses experience economic, physical, social and psychological distresses which may lead to chronic sorrow. Chronic sorrow is viewed as a normal reaction to loss, however it can progress to a pathological state such as depression if the coping styles are ineffective. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the existence of chronic sorrow, triggers and coping with grief related feelings among caretakers of children with sickle cell disease. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with eligible participants who were purposively selected. Deductive thematic analysis methods were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Many (9 out of 12) of the caretakers experienced chronic sorrow. The grief related feelings were triggered by health worker related, disease related and support related factors. Caretakers used both external and internal coping strategies. External support was derived from community, family and health facility. Internal coping strategies were behavioral and cognitive. CONCLUSION: Caretakers of children with sickle cell disease experienced chronic sorrow and employed both internal and external coping strategies to deal with it, which could be either effective or ineffective. This study recommends that health workers should routinely screen for chronic sorrow among caretakers of children with sickle cell disease and assist caretakers to strengthen effective coping strategies to ameliorate the negative effects of chronic sorrow.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Anemia Falciforme/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda
7.
AIDS Res Treat ; 2017: 3458684, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209538

RESUMO

Limited data are available on the experiences of parental HIV disclosure to children in Uganda. We conducted a qualitative study comprising sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with parents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Analysis was done using Atlas.ti qualitative research software. Back-and-forth triangulation was done between transcripts of the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and themes and subthemes were developed. Barriers to parents' disclosure included perceptions that children are too young to understand what HIV infection means and fears of secondary disclosure by the children. Immediate outcomes of disclosure included children getting scared and crying, although such instances often gave way to more enduring positive experiences for the parents, such as support in adherence to medical care, help in household chores, and a decrease in financial demands from the children. Country-specific interventions are needed to improve the process of parental HIV disclosure to children and this should encompass preparation on how to deal with the immediate psychological challenges associated with the parent's disclosure.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 547, 2016 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disclosure of parental HIV status is associated with a number of positive outcomes such as improved adherence to clinic appointments, lower levels of parental anxiety and depression, and mutual emotional support between parents and their children. Very few studies in low-resource settings have addressed the issues of parental disclosure of their HIV status to their children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult parents attending HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment clinic at Makerere University Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), Kampala, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the Parent Disclosure Interview (PDI) questionnaire which is a standard tool developed specifically for HIV infected parents. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13.1. RESULTS: Of 344 participants, only 37 % had told at least one of their children that they were HIV positive. Barriers to disclosure were fear that children may tell other people about the parent's HIV status, desire not to worry or upset children and perceptions that children may not understand. Age of the parent, religion and having someone committed to care of the children were positively associated with parental disclosure of their HIV positives status. Attainment of tertiary level of education was negatively associated with parental disclosure of their HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: Parental disclosure of a positive HIVstatus to their children is still low in urban Kampala. There is therefore need to develop locally relevant interventions so as to increase rates of parental disclosure of a positive HIV status to their children and thus promote open and honest discussions about HIV/AIDS at family level.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Pobreza , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 319, 2015 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26219840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High disease burden and scarcity of healthcare resources present complex ethical dilemmas for nurses working in developing countries. We assessed nurses' knowledge in ethics and their perceptions about Continuous Nurses' Ethics Education (CNEE) for in-service nurses. METHODS: Using an anonymous, pre-tested self-administered questionnaire, we assessed nurses' knowledge in basic ethics concepts at three regional hospitals in Uganda. Adequate knowledge was measured by a score ≥50% in the knowledge assessment test. Nurses' perceptions on CNEE were assessed using a six-point Likert scale. RESULTS: Of 114 nurses, 91% were female; with mean age 44.7 (SD 10) years. Half were diploma, 47 (41%) certificates, 6 (5%) bachelors' degrees and one masters' level training. Overall, 18 (16%) scored ≥50% in the ethics knowledge test. Nurses with diploma or higher level of nursing training were less likely to fail the ethics knowledge than certificate-level nurses (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.02-0.7). Only 45% had ever attended at least one CNEE session and up to 93% agreed that CNEE is required to improve nurses' ethics knowledge and practice. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses exhibited low knowledge in ethics and positive attitudes towards CNEE. We recommend structured CNEE programs to address basic concepts in nursing ethics and their application in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Ética em Enfermagem/educação , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/ética , Centros de Atenção Terciária/ética , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Recursos Humanos
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