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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1924-1928, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated 8, 12, or 24 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in patients with hepatitis C virus and end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis. METHODS: Primary efficacy end point was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment. Primary safety end point was treatment discontinuation because of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Ninety-four percent (89/95) achieved sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment. Six patients died during treatment (n = 4) or before study completion (n = 2); no deaths were related to treatment. No patients discontinued treatment because of AEs. Thirteen percent had serious AEs; none were related to treatment. DISCUSSION: Treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was safe and effective in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Remdesivir shortens time to recovery in adults with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its efficacy and safety in children are unknown. We describe outcomes in children with severe COVID-19 treated with remdesivir. METHODS: Seventy-seven hospitalized patients <18 years old with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection received remdesivir through a compassionate-use program between March 21 and April 22, 2020. The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200 mg on day 1 and 100 mg daily subsequently for children ≥40 kg and 5 mg/kg on day 1 and 2.5 mg/kg daily subsequently for children <40 kg, given intravenously). Clinical data through 28 days of follow-up were collected. RESULTS: Median age was 14 years (interquartile range 7-16, range <2 months to 17 years). Seventy-nine percent of patients had ≥1 comorbid condition. At baseline, 90% of children required supplemental oxygen and 51% required invasive ventilation. By day 28 of follow-up, 88% of patients had a decreased oxygen-support requirement, 83% recovered, and 73% were discharged. Among children requiring invasive ventilation at baseline, 90% were extubated, 80% recovered, and 67% were discharged. There were 4 deaths, of which 3 were attributed to COVID-19. Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (16%). Most adverse events were related to COVID-19 or comorbid conditions. Laboratory abnormalities, including elevations in transaminase levels, were common; 61% were grades 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS: Among 77 children treated with remdesivir for severe COVID-19, most recovered and the rate of serious adverse events was low.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Oxigenoterapia , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 60(5): 569-583, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782830

RESUMO

Remdesivir (RDV, Veklury®) is a once-daily, nucleoside ribonucleic acid polymerase inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication. Remdesivir has been granted approvals in several countries for use in adults and children hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Inside the cell, remdesivir undergoes metabolic activation to form the intracellular active triphosphate metabolite, GS-443902 (detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells), and ultimately, the renally eliminated plasma metabolite GS-441524. This review discusses the pre-clinical pharmacology of RDV, clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics/concentration-QT analysis, rationale for dose selection for treatment of patients with COVID-19, and drug-drug interaction potential based on available in vitro and clinical data in healthy volunteers. Following single-dose intravenous administration over 2 h of an RDV solution formulation across the dose range of 3-225 mg in healthy participants, RDV and its metabolites (GS-704277and GS-441524) exhibit linear pharmacokinetics. Following multiple doses of RDV 150 mg once daily for 7 or 14 days, major metabolite GS-441524 accumulates approximately 1.9-fold in plasma. Based on pharmacokinetic bridging from animal data and available human data in healthy volunteers, the RDV clinical dose regimen of a 200-mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 100-mg maintenance doses for 4 or 9 days was selected for further evaluation of pharmacokinetics and safety. Results showed high intracellular concentrations of GS-443902 suggestive of efficient conversion from RDV into the triphosphate form, and further supporting this clinical dosing regimen for the treatment of COVID-19. Mathematical drug-drug interaction liability predictions, based on in vitro and phase I data, suggest RDV has low potential for drug-drug interactions, as the impact of inducers or inhibitors on RDV disposition is minimized by the parenteral route of administration and extensive extraction. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, RDV is not predicted to be a clinically significant inhibitor of drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters in patients infected with COVID-19 at therapeutic RDV doses.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacocinética , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alanina/farmacocinética , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Furanos/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Pirróis/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazinas/metabolismo
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is efficacious for severe COVID-19 in adults, but data in pregnant women are limited. We describe outcomes in the first 86 pregnant women with severe COVID-19 who were treated with remdesivir. METHODS: Reported data span March 21 to June 16, 2020 for hospitalized pregnant women with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and room air oxygen saturation ≤94% whose clinicians requested remdesivir through the compassionate use program. The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200mg on Day 1, followed by 100mg for Days 2-10, given intravenously). RESULTS: Nineteen of 86 women delivered before their first dose and were reclassified as immediate "postpartum" (median postpartum day=1; range 0-3). At baseline, 40% of pregnant women (median gestational age 28 weeks) required invasive ventilation, in contrast to 95% of postpartum women (median gestational age at delivery 30 weeks). By Day 28 of follow-up, the level of oxygen requirement decreased in 96% and 89% of pregnant and postpartum women, respectively. Among pregnant women, 93% of those on mechanical ventilation were extubated, 93% recovered, and 90% were discharged. Among postpartum women, 89% were extubated, 89% recovered, and 84% were discharged. Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (16%). Most adverse events were related to pregnancy and underlying disease; most laboratory abnormalities were Grades 1 or 2. There was one maternal death attributed to underlying disease and no neonatal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Among 86 pregnant and postpartum women with severe COVID-19 who received compassionate use remdesivir, recovery rates were high, with a low rate of serious adverse events.

8.
JAMA ; 324(11): 1048-1057, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821939

RESUMO

Importance: Remdesivir demonstrated clinical benefit in a placebo-controlled trial in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its effect in patients with moderate disease is unknown. Objective: To determine the efficacy of 5 or 10 days of remdesivir treatment compared with standard care on clinical status on day 11 after initiation of treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, open-label trial of hospitalized patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and moderate COVID-19 pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and room-air oxygen saturation >94%) enrolled from March 15 through April 18, 2020, at 105 hospitals in the United States, Europe, and Asia. The date of final follow-up was May 20, 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive a 10-day course of remdesivir (n = 197), a 5-day course of remdesivir (n = 199), or standard care (n = 200). Remdesivir was dosed intravenously at 200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg/d. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was clinical status on day 11 on a 7-point ordinal scale ranging from death (category 1) to discharged (category 7). Differences between remdesivir treatment groups and standard care were calculated using proportional odds models and expressed as odds ratios. An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates difference in clinical status distribution toward category 7 for the remdesivir group vs the standard care group. Results: Among 596 patients who were randomized, 584 began the study and received remdesivir or continued standard care (median age, 57 [interquartile range, 46-66] years; 227 [39%] women; 56% had cardiovascular disease, 42% hypertension, and 40% diabetes), and 533 (91%) completed the trial. Median length of treatment was 5 days for patients in the 5-day remdesivir group and 6 days for patients in the 10-day remdesivir group. On day 11, patients in the 5-day remdesivir group had statistically significantly higher odds of a better clinical status distribution than those receiving standard care (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.09-2.48; P = .02). The clinical status distribution on day 11 between the 10-day remdesivir and standard care groups was not significantly different (P = .18 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). By day 28, 9 patients had died: 2 (1%) in the 5-day remdesivir group, 3 (2%) in the 10-day remdesivir group, and 4 (2%) in the standard care group. Nausea (10% vs 3%), hypokalemia (6% vs 2%), and headache (5% vs 3%) were more frequent among remdesivir-treated patients compared with standard care. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with moderate COVID-19, those randomized to a 10-day course of remdesivir did not have a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care at 11 days after initiation of treatment. Patients randomized to a 5-day course of remdesivir had a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care, but the difference was of uncertain clinical importance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04292730.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Gravidade do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy of the antiviral agent, remdesivir, versus standard-of-care treatment in adults with severe COVID-19 using data from a phase 3 remdesivir trial and a retrospective cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with standard-of-care. METHODS: GS-US-540-5773 is an ongoing phase 3, randomized, open-label trial comparing two courses of remdesivir (remdesivir-cohort). GS-US-540-5807 is an ongoing real-world, retrospective cohort study of clinical outcomes in patients receiving standard-of-care treatment (non-remdesivir-cohort). Inclusion criteria were similar between studies: patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, were hospitalized, had oxygen saturation 94% or lower on room air or required supplemental oxygen, and had pulmonary infiltrates. Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the treatment effect of remdesivir versus standard-of-care. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with recovery on day 14, dichotomized from a 7-point clinical status ordinal scale. A key secondary endpoint was mortality. RESULTS: After the inverse probability of treatment weighting procedure 312 and 818 patients were counted in the remdesivir- and non-remdesivir-cohorts, respectively. At day 14, 74.4% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had recovered versus 59.0% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio 2.03: 95% confidence interval 1.34-3.08, p<0.001). At day 14, 7.6% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had died versus 12.5% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.68, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this comparative analysis, by day 14, remdesivir was associated with significantly greater recovery and 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care treatment in patients with severe COVID-19.

10.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(5): 896-906, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589775

RESUMO

Remdesivir (RDV), a single diastereomeric monophosphoramidate prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has potent in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RDV received the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s emergency use authorization in the United States and approval in Japan for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This report describes two phase I studies that evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics (PKs) of single escalating and multiple i.v. doses of RDV (solution or lyophilized formulation) in healthy subjects. Lyophilized formulation was evaluated for potential future use in clinical trials due to its storage stability in resource-limited settings. All adverse events were grade 1 or 2 in severity. Overall, RDV exhibited a linear profile following single-dose i.v. administration over 2 hours of RDV solution formulation across the dose range of 3-225 mg. Both lyophilized and solution formulations provided comparable PK parameters. High intracellular concentrations of the active triphosphate (~ 220-fold to 370-fold higher than the in vitro half-maximal effective concentration against SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate) were achieved following infusion of 75 mg or 150 mg lyophilized formulation over 30 minutes or 2 hours. Following multiple-doses of RDV 150 mg once daily for 7 or 14 days, RDV exhibited a PK profile similar to single-dose administration. Metabolite GS-441524 accumulated ~ 1.9-fold after daily dosing. Overall, RDV exhibited favorable safety and PK profiles that supported once-daily dosing.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/farmacocinética , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 918-926, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a medical need for highly effective, safe, and well tolerated treatments for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with severe renal impairment. We investigated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir with ribavirin or ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir in a prospective study of patients with genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance by Cockcroft-Gault ≤30 mL/min) who were not on dialysis. METHODS: This phase 2b, open-label, non-randomised, multicentre study in the USA and New Zealand investigated three sequentially enrolled cohorts of patients. Patients were recruited from ten hospitals and clinical research centres and were included if they had genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection, a creatinine clearance less than or equal to 30 mL/min, and were not on dialysis. In cohorts 1 and 2, patients received sofosbuvir (200 mg in cohort 1 and 400 mg in cohort 2) plus ribavirin 200 mg once per day for 24 weeks. In cohort 3, 18 patients received ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir (90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir) once per day for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Safety and pharmacokinetic data were also collected. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01958281, and is completed. FINDINGS: This study was done between Oct 7, 2013, and Oct 29, 2017. In the sofosbuvir plus ribavirin cohorts, 32 patients were screened, of whom 20 were enrolled and assessed for efficacy and safety (ten patients in each cohort). In the ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir cohort, 33 patients were screened, of whom 18 were enrolled and assessed for treatment efficacy and safety. Four (40%, 95% CI 12-74) of ten patients in cohort 1 and six (60%, 26-88) of ten patients in cohort 2 achieved SVR12. All 18 (100%, 82-100) patients in cohort 3 achieved SVR12. Adverse events were mostly mild or moderate in severity. The most commonly reported adverse events overall were headache (eight [21%] of 38 patients), anaemia (seven [18%] of 38 patients), and fatigue (six [16%] of 38 patients). Eight patients had serious adverse events, none of which were treatment related. There were no treatment-related cardiac events or clinically significant changes in echocardiographic parameters or creatinine clearance by Cockcroft-Gault. INTERPRETATION: In this phase 2b study, ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir for 12 weeks was safe and effective in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease who were not on dialysis. FUNDING: Gilead Sciences.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/farmacocinética , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Fluorenos/farmacocinética , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/classificação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Ribavirina/farmacocinética , Segurança , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Sofosbuvir/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/efeitos adversos , Uridina Monofosfato/farmacocinética , Uridina Monofosfato/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): 1813-1826, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), no antiviral agents have yet been shown to be efficacious. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. The primary outcome was the time to recovery, defined by either discharge from the hospital or hospitalization for infection-control purposes only. RESULTS: A total of 1062 patients underwent randomization (with 541 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo). Those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 10 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 11), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 18) among those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.49; P<0.001, by a log-rank test). In an analysis that used a proportional-odds model with an eight-category ordinal scale, the patients who received remdesivir were found to be more likely than those who received placebo to have clinical improvement at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9, after adjustment for actual disease severity). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality were 6.7% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo by day 15 and 11.4% with remdesivir and 15.2% with placebo by day 29 (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.03). Serious adverse events were reported in 131 of the 532 patients who received remdesivir (24.6%) and in 163 of the 516 patients who received placebo (31.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ACTT-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04280705.).


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): 1827-1837, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity in vitro and efficacy in animal models of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air, and radiologic evidence of pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous remdesivir for either 5 days or 10 days. All patients received 200 mg of remdesivir on day 1 and 100 mg once daily on subsequent days. The primary end point was clinical status on day 14, assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale. RESULTS: In total, 397 patients underwent randomization and began treatment (200 patients for 5 days and 197 for 10 days). The median duration of treatment was 5 days (interquartile range, 5 to 5) in the 5-day group and 9 days (interquartile range, 5 to 10) in the 10-day group. At baseline, patients randomly assigned to the 10-day group had significantly worse clinical status than those assigned to the 5-day group (P = 0.02). By day 14, a clinical improvement of 2 points or more on the ordinal scale occurred in 64% of patients in the 5-day group and in 54% in the 10-day group. After adjustment for baseline clinical status, patients in the 10-day group had a distribution in clinical status at day 14 that was similar to that among patients in the 5-day group (P = 0.14). The most common adverse events were nausea (9% of patients), worsening respiratory failure (8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase level (7%), and constipation (7%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe Covid-19 not requiring mechanical ventilation, our trial did not show a significant difference between a 5-day course and a 10-day course of remdesivir. With no placebo control, however, the magnitude of benefit cannot be determined. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; GS-US-540-5773 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04292899.).


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
N Engl J Med ; 382(24): 2327-2336, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has shown in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We provided remdesivir on a compassionate-use basis to patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the illness caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Patients were those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who had an oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or who were receiving oxygen support. Patients received a 10-day course of remdesivir, consisting of 200 mg administered intravenously on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for the remaining 9 days of treatment. This report is based on data from patients who received remdesivir during the period from January 25, 2020, through March 7, 2020, and have clinical data for at least 1 subsequent day. RESULTS: Of the 61 patients who received at least one dose of remdesivir, data from 8 could not be analyzed (including 7 patients with no post-treatment data and 1 with a dosing error). Of the 53 patients whose data were analyzed, 22 were in the United States, 22 in Europe or Canada, and 9 in Japan. At baseline, 30 patients (57%) were receiving mechanical ventilation and 4 (8%) were receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. During a median follow-up of 18 days, 36 patients (68%) had an improvement in oxygen-support class, including 17 of 30 patients (57%) receiving mechanical ventilation who were extubated. A total of 25 patients (47%) were discharged, and 7 patients (13%) died; mortality was 18% (6 of 34) among patients receiving invasive ventilation and 5% (1 of 19) among those not receiving invasive ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients hospitalized for severe Covid-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, clinical improvement was observed in 36 of 53 patients (68%). Measurement of efficacy will require ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir therapy. (Funded by Gilead Sciences.).


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Canadá , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Virus Evol ; 5(2): vez041, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616569

RESUMO

Recombination is an important driver of genetic diversity, though it is relatively uncommon in hepatitis C virus (HCV). Recent investigation of sequence data acquired from HCV clinical trials produced twenty-one full-genome recombinant viruses belonging to three putative inter-subtype forms 2b/1a, 2b/1b, and 2k/1b. The 2k/1b chimera is the only known HCV circulating recombinant form (CRF), provoking interest in its genetic structure and origin. Discovered in Russia in 1999, 2k/1b cases have since been detected throughout the former Soviet Union, Western Europe, and North America. Although 2k/1b prevalence is highest in the Caucasus mountain region (i.e., Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), the origin and migration patterns of CRF 2k/1b have remained obscure due to a paucity of available sequences. We assembled an alignment which spans the entire coding region of the HCV genome containing all available 2k/1b sequences (>500 nucleotides; n = 109) sampled in ninteen countries from public databases (102 individuals), additional newly sequenced genomic regions (from 48 of these 102 individuals), unpublished isolates with newly sequenced regions (5 additional individuals), and novel complete genomes (2 additional individuals) generated in this study. Analysis of this expanded dataset reconfirmed the monophyletic origin of 2k/1b with a recombination breakpoint at position 3,187 (95% confidence interval: 3,172-3,202; HCV GT1a reference strain H77). Phylogeography is a valuable tool used to reveal viral migration dynamics. Inference of the timed history of spread in a Bayesian framework identified Russia as the ancestral source of the CRF 2k/1b clade. Further, we found evidence for migration routes leading out of Russia to other former Soviet Republics or countries under the Soviet sphere of influence. These findings suggest an interplay between geopolitics and the historical spread of CRF 2k/1b.

16.
Elife ; 82019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478832

RESUMO

Genetic polymorphism in the interferon lambda (IFN-λ) region is associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and response to interferon-based treatment. Here, we evaluate associations between IFN-λ polymorphism and HCV variation in 8729 patients (Europeans 77%, Asians 13%, Africans 8%) infected with various viral genotypes, predominantly 1a (41%), 1b (22%) and 3a (21%). We searched for associations between rs12979860 genotype and variants in the NS3, NS4A, NS5A and NS5B HCV proteins. We report multiple associations in all tested proteins, including in the interferon-sensitivity determining region of NS5A. We also assessed the combined impact of human and HCV variation on pretreatment viral load and report amino acids associated with both IFN-λ polymorphism and HCV load across multiple viral genotypes. By demonstrating that IFN-λ variation leaves a large footprint on the viral proteome, we provide evidence of pervasive viral adaptation to innate immune pressure during chronic HCV infection.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Interferons/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , África , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Humanos , Carga Viral
17.
J Hepatol ; 71(4): 660-665, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although off-label use of sofosbuvir-containing regimens occurs regularly in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection undergoing dialysis for severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), these regimens are not licensed for this indication, and there is an absence of dosing recommendations in this population. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir in patients with HCV infection with ESRD undergoing dialysis. METHODS: In this phase II, single-arm study, 59 patients with genotype 1-6 HCV infection with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis received open-label sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (400 mg/100 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. Patients were HCV treatment naive or treatment experienced without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. Patients previously treated with any HCV NS5A inhibitor were not eligible. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 weeks after discontinuation of treatment (SVR12). The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of patients who discontinued study drug due to adverse events. RESULTS: Overall, 56 of 59 patients achieved SVR12 (95%; 95% CI 86-99%). Of the 3 patients who did not achieve SVR12, 2 patients had virologic relapse determined at post-treatment Week 4 (including 1 who prematurely discontinued study treatment), and 1 patient died from suicide after achieving SVR through post-treatment Week 4. The most common adverse events were headache (17%), fatigue (14%), nausea (14%), and vomiting (14%). Serious adverse events were reported for 11 patients (19%), and all were deemed to be unrelated to sofosbuvir/velpatasvir. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks was safe and effective in patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis. LAY SUMMARY: Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir is a combination direct-acting antiviral that is approved for treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Despite the lack of dosing recommendations, sofosbuvir-containing regimens (including sofosbuvir/velpatasvir) are frequently used for HCV-infected patients undergoing dialysis. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in patients with HCV infection who were undergoing dialysis. Treatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir was safe and well tolerated, resulting in a cure rate of 95% in patients with HCV infection and end-stage renal disease. Clinical Trial Number: NCT03036852.


Assuntos
Carbamatos , Hepatite C Crônica , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Falência Renal Crônica , Diálise Renal/métodos , Sofosbuvir , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(10): 1229-1232, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216086

RESUMO

Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir is approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this single-arm, open-label, phase 3, deferred treatment study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir among patients randomized to the placebo group in the ASTRAL-1 study. Patients received sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (400/100 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12). The primary safety endpoint was any adverse events (AEs) leading to the permanent discontinuation of study drug. Overall, 108/111 (97%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-99%) achieved SVR12, and only one patient had virological failure. SVR12 was achieved by 61/63 (97%, 95%CI, 89%-100%) genotype 1 patients, 20/20 (100%; 95%CI, 83%-100%) with genotype 2, 19/19 (100%; 95%CI, 82%-100%) with genotype 4 and 8/9 (89%; 95% CI, 52%-100%) with genotype 6. All (19/19; 95%CI, 82-100) patients with cirrhosis and all (31/31, 95%CI, 89-100) with prior treatment experience achieved SVR12. The safety profile during treatment was similar to that observed in patients receiving placebo treatment. The most common AEs were headache, fatigue and nausea. One patient (1%) discontinued treatment due to an AE of gallbladder carcinoma, which was not considered related to treatment. Of five reported serious AEs, none were considered related to study drug. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks was effective and well tolerated among untreated and previously treated patients with HCV genotype 1, 2, 4 or 6 infection, including those with compensated cirrhosis (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02346721).


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 13(3): e1800006, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058111

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the interferon era of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies, genotype/subtype, cirrhosis, prior treatment failure, sex, and race predicted relapse. Our objective is to validate a targeted proteomics platform of 17 peptides to predict sustained virologic response (SVR). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Stored plasma from three, open-label, trials of HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects receiving interferon-containing regimens is identified. LC-MS/MS is used to quantitate the peptides directly from plasma, and IL28B genotyping is completed using stored peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A logistic regression model is built to analyze the probability of SVR using responders and nonresponders to interferon-based regimens. RESULTS: The cohort (N = 35) is predominantly black (51.4%), male (86%), and with median age 48 years. Most patients achieve SVR (54%). Using multivariable models, it is verified that three human corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) peptides are predictive of SVR in patients with the unfavorable IL28B genotypes (CT/TT). The model performs better than IL28B alone, with an area under the curve of 0.870. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, three human CBG peptides that accurately predict treatment response with interferon-based therapy are identified. This study suggests that a stepwise approach combining a genetic predictor followed by targeted proteomics can improve the accuracy of clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Farmacogenética , Proteômica , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/genética , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Gut ; 68(4): 721-728, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir alone and with ribavirin for 8 and 12 weeks in Egyptian patients with and without cirrhosis, who were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4, including those who had failed previous treatment with sofosbuvir regimens. DESIGN: In this open-label, multicentre, phase III study, treatment-naive patients were randomised to receive 8 or 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir±ribavirin. Interferon treatment-experienced patients were randomised to receive 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir±ribavirin, while sofosbuvir-experienced or ledipasvir/sofosbuvir-experienced patients received 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir+ribavirin. Randomisation was stratified by cirrhosis status. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). RESULTS: We enrolled 255 patients from four centres in Egypt. Among treatment-naive patients, SVR12 rates were 95% and 90% for those receiving 8 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir alone and with ribavirin, respectively, and 98% for those receiving 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir both alone and with ribavirin. Among interferon-experienced patients, SVR rates were 94% for those receiving 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and 100% for those receiving 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir plus ribavirin. All patients previously treated with sofosbuvir regimens who received ledipasvir/sofosbuvir plus ribavirin achieved SVR12. The most common adverse events, headache and fatigue, were more common among patients receiving ribavirin. CONCLUSION: Among non-cirrhotic treatment-naive patients with HCV genotype 4, 8 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir±ribavirin was highly effective. Twelve weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir±ribavirin was highly effective regardless of presence of cirrhosis or prior treatment experience, including previous treatment with sofosbuvir or ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02487030.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Egito , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir , Resultado do Tratamento , Uridina Monofosfato/uso terapêutico
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