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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444093

RESUMO

Respiratory diseases contribute to high healthcare utilization rates among children. Although social inequalities play a major role in these conditions, little is known about the impact of geography as a determinant of health, particularly with regard to the difference between rural and urban centers. A regional geographic analysis was conducted using health repository data on singleton births between 2005 and 2010 in Alberta, Canada. Data were aggregated according to regional health sub-zones in the province and standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) were determined for eight respiratory diseases (asthma, influenza, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, croup, pneumonia, and other upper and other lower respiratory tract infections). The results indicate that there are higher rates of healthcare utilization in northern compared to southern regions and in rural and remote regions compared to urban ones, after accounting for both material and social deprivation. Geography plays a role in discrepancies of healthcare utilization for pediatric respiratory diseases, and this can be used to inform the provision of health services and resource allocation across various regions.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alberta/epidemiologia , Criança , Geografia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444546

RESUMO

Wildfires are increasing in frequency, size, and intensity, and increasingly affect highly populated areas. Wildfire smoke impacts cardiorespiratory health; children are at increased risk due to smaller airways, a higher metabolic rate and ongoing development. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the risk of pediatric respiratory symptoms and healthcare visits following exposure to wildfire smoke. Medical and scientific databases and the grey literature were searched from inception until December 2020. Included studies evaluated pediatric respiratory-related healthcare visits or symptoms associated with wildfire smoke exposure. Prescribed burns, non-respiratory symptoms and non-pediatric studies were excluded. Risk of bias was evaluated using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation Risk of Bias Rating Tool. Data are presented narratively due to study heterogeneity. Of 2138 results, 1167 titles and abstracts were screened after duplicate removal; 65 full text screens identified 5 pre-post and 11 cross-sectional studies of rural, urban and mixed sites from the USA, Australia, Canada and Spain. There is a significant increase in respiratory emergency department visits and asthma hospitalizations within the first 3 days of exposure to wildfire smoke, particularly in children < 5 years old.


Assuntos
Incêndios Florestais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
3.
Environ Int ; 156: 106644, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal wildfire exposure (e.g., smoke, stress) has been associated with poor birth outcomes with effects potentially mediated through air pollution and psychosocial stress. Despite the recent hike in the intensity and frequency of wildfires in some regions of the world, a critical appraisal of the evidence on the association between maternal wildfire exposure and adverse birth outcomes has not yet been undertaken. We conducted a systematic review that evaluated the scientific evidence on the association between wildfire exposure during pregnancy and the risk of adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Comprehensive searches in nine bibliographic databases were conducted from database inception up to June 2020. Observational epidemiological studies that evaluated associations between exposure to wildfire during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes were eligible for inclusion. Studies were assessed using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP OHAT) risk of bias tool and certainty of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Screening of retrieved articles, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Study results were synthesized descriptively. RESULTS: Eight epidemiological studies conducted in four countries and involving 1,702,252 births were included in the review. The exposure to wildfire during pregnancy was assessed in individual studies by measurement of PM2.5 (n = 2), PM10 (n = 1), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)aerosol index (n = 1), heat spots (n = 1), and by proximity of maternal residence to wildfire-affected areas (n = 3). There is some evidence indicating that maternal wildfire exposure associates with birth weight reduction (n = 7) and preterm birth (n = 4), particularly when exposure to wildfire smoke occurred in late pregnancy. The association between wildfire exposure and small for gestational age (n = 2) and infant mortality (n = 1) was inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Current evidence suggests that maternal exposure to wildfire during late pregnancy is linked to reduced birth weight and preterm birth. Well-designed comprehensive studies are needed to better understand the perinatal effects of wildfires.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Incêndios Florestais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both high and low placental weights are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal hemoglobin levels can influence placental weight, but the evidence is conflicting. Since maternal hemoglobin does not invariably correlate with fetal/neonatal blood hemoglobin levels, we sought to determine whether cord blood hemoglobin or maternal hemoglobin status more closely associates with placental weight in women undergoing elective cesarean section at term. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Canada, involving 202 women with term singleton pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean section. Maternal blood and mixed cord blood hemoglobin levels were analyzed using a HemoCue Hb201+ system. Birth weight, placental weight, one- and five-minute APGAR scores, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical state classification, maternal age, and maternal height were also recorded. Relationships between maternal and cord blood hemoglobin levels with placental weight, birth weight, and birth weight to placental weight ratio were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: A total of 182 subjects were included in the analysis. Regression analysis showed that cord blood hemoglobin, but not maternal hemoglobin, was inversely related with placental weight (ß = -2.4, p = 0.001) and positively related with the birth weight to placental weight ratio (ß = 0.015, p = 0.001 and p = 0.63, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that measuring cord blood hemoglobin levels, rather than maternal hemoglobin levels, may provide important diagnostic information about in utero fetal adaptation to suboptimal placental function and neonatal health.

5.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 34(4): 530-537, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727190

RESUMO

Although most studies show that adolescent pregnant women are at a higher risk for adverse birth outcomes, there has been limited research examining this relationship in Canada. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the prevalence of low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and stillbirth in Canadian adolescent women compared to adult women. Studies were included if they were primary research and included a sample of adolescent mothers (≤19 years) and adult mothers (≥20 years) who gave birth to singleton infants in Canada. Birth outcomes must have been measured consistently in at least 3 studies for inclusion. Comprehensive electronic literature searches were conducted from database inception until August 2020 in 5 databases. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate pooled odds ratios (pOR) for LBW, PTB, and stillbirth between adolescent and adult pregnant women. Outcomes reported included PTB (8 studies), LBW (6 studies), and stillbirth (3 studies). Compared to adult mothers, adolescent mothers had a 56% increase in the prevalence of LBW (pOR 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24, 1.97), a 23% increase in PTB (pOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06, 1.42), a 20% increase in stillbirth (pOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05, 1.37). Heterogeneity, as assessed by I2, was high for LBW and PTB and was low for stillbirth. A subgroup analysis did not remove the high heterogeneity, and some studies did not adjust for confounding variables and were missing information on sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Future research is needed to investigate the mechanisms surrounding these differences by maternal age.


Assuntos
Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Prevalência
6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adverse birth outcomes have important consequences for future lung health. We evaluated patterns of respiratory health services utilization in early childhood among children born preterm (PTB), small and large for gestational age at term (SGA and LGA, respectively), and appropriate-for-gestational age at term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using administrative health data of all singleton live births in Alberta, Canada between 2005-2010. Data on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits from birth to 5 years were collected for asthma, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, croup, influenza, pneumonia, and other acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections (other URTI and other LRTI, respectively). Adjusted rate ratios were estimated for respiratory ED visits and hospitalizations for adverse birth outcomes using the appropriate-for-gestational age at term group as reference. Age-specific trajectories of total respiratory health services utilization rates for each group were estimated in Poisson models. RESULTS: A total of 293,764 episodes of respiratory care from 206,994 children were analyzed. Very PTB children had the highest rates of health services use for all respiratory conditions, particularly for asthma, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis hospitalizations. Moderate/late PTB children also had elevated ED visits and hospitalizations for all respiratory conditions. Children born SGA showed high rates of ED visits for other LRTI, and of hospitalizations for bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and other URTI. Children born LGA had high rates of croup and other URTI ED visits, and of bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis hospitalizations. Age-specific trajectories showed a decreasing trend in the rates of total respiratory health service utilization from birth to five years of age for all groups studied. Children born PTB and LGA at term significantly required more respiratory health services over time compared to the reference group. CONCLUSION: Patterns of paediatric respiratory health services utilization vary according to gestational age and fetal growth.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412304

RESUMO

Decreasing insulin requirements in pregnant women with preexisting or gestational diabetes has been attributed to placental insufficiency, which results in increased surveillance or early delivery. This practice is not evidence based. A 5-item questionnaire was administered electronically to a convenience sample of Canadian resident and staff obstetrician-gynaecologists and maternal-fetal medicine specialists. Practice patterns varied widely among the 142 survey respondents, and this variation did not correlate to their level of training. There is a paucity of evidence to guide the management of patients with decreasing insulin requirements, which is reflected in varied and possibly unnecessary clinical interventions.

8.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 12(1): 50-57, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937387

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease with complex etiology. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to asthma in adulthood. Underlying potential mechanisms for the ACE-asthma relationship include stress-induced inflammatory pathways and immune dysregulation. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the 2013 Alberta ACE Survey to explore the relationship between latent ACE factors and self-reported adult asthma. We evaluated the underlying correlation structure among eight different ACEs using exploratory factor analysis. We conducted a logistic regression model to evaluate whether ACE factors retained from the factor analysis predicted self-reported asthma in adulthood. Results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We analyzed ACE survey results from 1207 participants. Factor analysis yielded four ACE latent factors: factor 1/relational violence, factor 2/negative home environment, factor 3/illness at home, and factor 4/sexual abuse. Results of the logistic regression showed that experiencing sexual abuse (OR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.89, 5.23), relational violence (OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.38), and being exposed to a negative home environment (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.35) were predictive of a diagnosis of asthma in adulthood, whereas living in a household with someone experiencing illness did not show an effect (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.75, 2.56). Factor analysis provides an effectual approach to understand the long-term impact of ACEs on respiratory health. Our findings have important implications to understand the developmental origins of asthma in adulthood and inform interventions aimed at reducing the lasting negative impact of childhood adversities on future respiratory health.

9.
Pediatr Res ; 89(3): 679-685, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) crowding may delay assessment and management and compromise outcomes. The association between the crowding metric time to physician initial assessment (PIA) and outcomes for children presenting for acute asthma is examined. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort of all presentations to 18 high-volume EDs during 2010-2014 in Alberta, Canada was created. Hourly, facility-specific median PIAs were calculated. Physician claims and hospitalizations data were linked for children (2-17 years) presenting for asthma. RESULTS: Twenty-five thousand three hundred and eighty-three presentations (16,053 children) were made for asthma. Crowding was common in all hospitals and affected PIA more for lower acuity presentations. For every 1-h increase in median facility PIA, the individual-level PIA increased by 13 min (95% CI: 12, 14) for high, 43 min (95% CI: 42, 44) for moderate, and 60 min (95% CI: 58, 61) for the low acuity groups, when adjusted by predictors. Similarly, length of stay increased by 6, 36, and 45 min for the high, moderate, and low acuity groups, respectively. Increased PIA resulted in more departures prior to completion of care for the lower acuity groups. CONCLUSIONS: Crowding adversely affects short-term outcomes of less ill children more than those who are more ill. When EDs experience increased crowding, care to patients with asthma is delayed; effective strategies to reduce crowding and delays to care are urgently needed. IMPACT: For children presenting to EDs for asthma, increased time to physician initial assessment adversely affects short-term outcomes of patients with less severe presentations to a greater extent compared to those who are most severe. Times to physician initial assessment are below recommended benchmarks; however, delays in care exist that impact LOS, odds of admission, and premature patient departures. Pediatric patients with severe asthma are seen quickly and their outcomes are excellent. Since crowding adversely affects short-term outcomes of pediatric patients with asthma, efforts to reduce ED crowding and assess patients with asthma in a more timely manner are needed.

11.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(4): 107804, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The antepartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has re-emerged as associated with risk of diabetes among women with gestational diabetes (GDM). This systematic review summarized evidence on associations between antepartum OGTT and risk of diabetes in GDM (PROSPERO CRD42018100316). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CENTRAL were searched from January 1, 1982 to February 2020. Studies assessing associations between antepartum OGTT and risk of diabetes among women with GDM were included. Data on study characteristics, participants, OGTT values, and diabetes outcomes were extracted. Estimates on the association between antepartum OGTT and diabetes at follow-up were recorded. Pooled odds ratios for developing diabetes were calculated by study design. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 6423 citations, 17 studies were included. Both elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG; OR: 3.62 ([95% CI 1.30, 10.12], I2 = 36%, p < 0.05)) and 2 h OGTT (OR: 3.96 [1.17, 13.40], I2 = 87%, p < 0.05) were associated with diabetes. These associations were attenuated (FBG: OR: 1.91 ([95% CI 0.80, 24.54], I2 = 83%, p = NS) and 1.58 ([95% CI 0.92, 2.74] I2 = 83%, p = NS) for prospective and retrospective data, respectively; 2 h OGTT: ORa: 1.95 ([95% CI 0.43, 8.93], I2 = 94%, p = NS)) after adjustments for common confounders. Further research is needed before clinical recommendations can be made.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276583

RESUMO

Young children are susceptible to respiratory diseases. Inequalities exist across socioeconomic groups for paediatric respiratory health services utilization in Alberta. However, the geographic distribution of those inequalities has not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to identify geographic inequalities in respiratory health services utilization in early childhood in Calgary and Edmonton, two major urban centres in Western Canada. We conducted a geographic analysis of data from a retrospective cohort of all singleton live births occurred between 2005 and 2010. We aggregated at area-level the total number of episodes of respiratory care (hospitalizations and emergency department visits) that occurred during the first five years of life for bronchiolitis, pneumonia, lower/upper respiratory tract infections, influenza, and asthma-wheezing. We used spatial filters to identify geographic inequalities in the prevalence of acute paediatric respiratory health services utilization in Calgary and Edmonton. The average health gap between areas with the highest and the lowest prevalence of respiratory health services utilization was 1.5-fold in Calgary and 1.4-fold in Edmonton. Geographic inequalities were not completely explained by the spatial distribution of socioeconomic status, suggesting that other unmeasured factors at the neighbourhood level may explain local variability in the use of acute respiratory health services in early childhood.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Unidades de Cuidados Respiratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Alberta/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100555, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205030

RESUMO

Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is the leading single-nutrient deficiency in the world. Anaemia is a common outcome of ID that affects half of pregnancies worldwide with serious consequences for child development. Whether haematologic indices and biomarkers of iron status in pregnant women correlate with those of their neonates is unclear. This systematic review evaluated studies comparing haematologic and iron status indices in pregnant women and their newborns/neonates. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science from database inception until March 2020 for primary studies comparing haematologic and iron status indices between women and their newborns up to 48 h after birth. We summarized the results descriptively and calculated pooled correlation coefficients in mothers and newborns/neonates using the Schmidt-Hunter method. The protocol was registered at PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (Registration number: CRD42018093094). Findings: Sixty-five studies were included. Pooled correlation coefficients for biomarkers of iron status in mothers and newborns/neonates were 0.13 (ferritin), 0.42 (hepcidin), 0.30 (serum/plasma iron), 0.09 (transferrin), 0.20 (transferrin saturation), and 0.16 (total iron binding capacity). Pooled correlation coefficients for haematological indices in mothers and newborns/neonates were 0.15 (haemoglobin), 0.15 (haematocrit), 0.25 (mean cell/corpuscular haemoglobin), 0.22 (mean cell/corpuscular volume). Interpretation: Maternal biomarkers of iron and haematologic status correlate poorly with those in newborns/neonates. These results underscore a need for alternative approaches to estimate foetal/neonatal iron status and haematological indices. Funding: MBO and SLB hold Canada Research Chairs, and grants from the Women and Children's Health Research Institute and Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924018

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in high-income countries. In addition to the high costs of initial hospitalization, COPD patients frequently return to the emergency department (ED) and are readmitted to hospital within 30 days of discharge. A COPD acute care discharge care bundle focused on optimizing care for patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD has been shown to reduce ED revisits and hospital readmissions. The aim of this study was to explore and understand factors influencing implementation and uptake of COPD discharge care bundle items in acute care facilities from the perspective of health care providers and patients. Methods: Qualitative methodology was adopted. Nine focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured guide: seven with acute and primary/community health care providers and two with patients/family members. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and coded and analyzed using a thematic approach. Results: Forty-six health care providers and 14 patients/family members participated in the focus groups. Health care providers and patients identified four factors that can challenge the implementation of COPD discharge care bundles: process of care complexities, human capacity in care settings, communication and engagement, and attitudes and perceptions towards change. Both health care providers and patients recognized process of care complexity as the most important determinant of the COPD discharge bundle uptake. Processes of care complexity include patient activities in seeking and receiving care, as well as practitioner activities in making a diagnosis and recommending or implementing treatment. Important issues linked to human capacity in care settings included time constraints, high patient volume, and limited staffing. Communication during transitions in care across settings and patient engagement were also broadly discussed. Other important issues were linked to patients', providers', and system attitudes towards change and level of involvement in COPD discharge bundle implementation. Conclusions: Complexities in the process of care were perceived as the most important determinant of COPD discharge bundle implementation. Early engagement of health providers and patients in the uptake of COPD discharge bundle items as well as clear communication between acute and post-acute settings can contribute positively to bundle uptake and implementation success.

15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(5): e681-e698, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indigenous peoples in countries with similar colonial histories have disproportionate burdens of disease compared with non-Indigenous peoples. We aimed to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes, and compare the prevalence of these conditions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, an information specialist did a comprehensive search of eight databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Global Health, CINAHL [EBSCO], Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, PROSPERO, and the Wiley Cochrane Library) in June, 2019, for studies published between inception and June 25, 2019, without restrictions on language, publication type, or year of publication. Database searches were supplemented by grey literature searches of the Bielefield Academic Search Engine and Google Scholar, and the reference lists of relevant articles were also manually searched. We included observational epidemiological studies comparing the prevalence of pre-existing diabetes or gestational diabetes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA. Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility and risk of bias. We used a standardised data extraction form to collect information from the published reports of eligible studies, and, if needed, we contacted authors for further information. We did a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects meta-analysis to obtain the pooled unadjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) of pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes in Indigenous women compared with non-Indigenous women. We stratified meta-analyses by country and type of diabetes. The study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018095971. FINDINGS: Our search identified 1348 studies, of which 43 studies with 32 952 441 participants from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA were included in the systematic review, and 39 of these studies were included in the meta-analysis. 40 of the included studies used a cohort design. Pre-existing diabetes was more prevalent in Indigenous women than in non-Indigenous women, with pooled PORs ranging from 1·81 (95% CI 1·53-2·13) for women in the USA to 3·63 (2·35-5·62) for women in Australia. Similarly, gestational diabetes was more prevalent in Indigenous women than in non-Indigenous women, with PORs ranging from 1·42 (1·24-1·63) for women in Australia to 2·04 (1·46-2·84) for women in Canada. Risk of bias was low in 37·2% of studies, unclear in 34·8% of studies, and high in 27·9% of studies. Heterogeneity between studies was predominantly high (I2=97-100%), with one exception of moderate heterogeneity (I2=48%); however, the magnitude and direction of the PORs from individual studies indicated an association between pre-existing diabetes or gestational diabetes and indigeneity among pregnant women. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes was higher in Indigenous pregnant women than in non-Indigenous pregnant women in four countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA) with similar histories of colonialism. These findings have implications for prenatal care services and the monitoring of Indigenous women in industrialised countries. FUNDING: Canadian Institute of Health Research and the Women's and Children's Health Research Institute.

16.
Clin Transplant ; 34(7): e13870, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271967

RESUMO

Canadian lung transplant centers currently use a subjective and dichotomous "Status" ranking to prioritize waitlisted patients for lung transplantation. The lung allocation score (LAS) is an objective composite score derived from clinical parameters associated with both waitlist and post-transplant survival. We performed a retrospective cohort study to determine whether clinical judgment (Status) or LAS better predicted waitlist mortality. All adult patients listed for lung transplantation between 2007 and 2012 at three Canadian lung transplant programs were included. Status and LAS were compared in their ability to predict waitlist mortality using Cox proportional hazards models and C-statistics. Status and LAS were available for 1122 patients. Status 2 patients had a higher LAS compared to Status 1 patients (mean 40.8 (4.4) vs 34.6 (12.5), P = .0001). Higher LAS was associated with higher risk of waitlist mortality (HR 1.06 per unit LAS, 95% CI 1.05, 1.07, P < .001). LAS predicted waitlist mortality better than Status (C-statistic 0.689 vs 0.674). Patients classified as Status 2 and LAS ≥ 37 had the worst survival awaiting transplant, HR of 8.94 (95% CI 5.97, 13.37). LAS predicted waitlist mortality better than Status; however, the best predictor of waitlist mortality may be a combination of both LAS and clinical judgment.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Transplante de Pulmão , Listas de Espera , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pulmão , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate assessment of the adequacy of prenatal care utilization is critical to inform the relationship between prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes. This systematic review critically appraises the evidence on measurement properties of prenatal care utilization indices and provides recommendations about which index is the most useful for this purpose. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science were systematically searched from database inception to October 2018 using keywords related to indices of prenatal care utilization. No language restrictions were imposed. Studies were included if they evaluated the reliability, validity, or responsiveness of at least one index of adequacy of prenatal care utilization. We used the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. We conducted an evidence synthesis using predefined criteria to appraise the measurement properties of the indices. RESULTS: From 2664 studies initially screened, 13 unique studies evaluated the measurement properties of at least one index of prenatal care utilization. Most of the indices of adequacy of prenatal care currently used in research and clinical practice have been evaluated for at least some form of reliability and/or validity. Evidence about the responsiveness to change of these indices is absent from these evaluations. The Adequacy Perinatal Care Utilization Index (APNCUI) and the Kessner Index are supported by moderate evidence regarding their reliability, predictive and concurrent validity. CONCLUSION: The scientific literature has not comprehensively reported the measurement properties of commonly used indices of prenatal care utilization, and there is insufficient research to inform the choice of the best index. Lack of strong evidence about which index is the best to measure prenatal care utilization has important implications for tracking health care utilization and for formulating prenatal care recommendations.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 34(2): 150-160, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socio-economically deprived children face a disproportionate burden of respiratory diseases. The association between area-level material and social deprivation and emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalisations for paediatric respiratory diseases has not been explored. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated health inequalities in emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalisations for paediatric respiratory diseases according to material and social deprivation indexes. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study deterministically linked birth, ED visits and hospitalisation data, and census-based, area-level deprivation indexes for all singleton children born in the province of Alberta, Canada, between 2005 and 2010 who had at least one recorded ED visit or hospitalisation for respiratory diseases in their first five years of life. We classified ED visits and hospitalisations for seven respiratory diseases by deprivation indexes. Concentration indexes (CInd) and area-level concentration curves measured health gradients across deprivation groups. Rate ratios (RR) evaluated associations between deprivation indexes and respiratory episodes of care. RESULTS: The study cohort included 198 572 newborns. The highest CInd were found in ED visits for other acute lower respiratory tract infections (oLRTI; CInd -0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.32, -0.12) and bronchiolitis (CInd -0.21, 95% CI -0.29, -0.12), and for pneumonia hospitalisations (CInd -0.23, 95% CI -0.33, -0.13). Croup ED visits had a low inequality degree. Compared to social deprivation, the material deprivation index presented a more consistent health gradient of increased episodes of care with increasing deprivation. oLRTI ED visits (RR 2.60, 95% CI 2.34, 2.92) and pneumonia hospitalisations (RR 2.57, 95% CI 2.31, 2.86) presented the largest inequalities between the least and most materially deprived groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found a concentration of ED visits and hospitalisations for paediatric respiratory diseases in the most deprived groups. However, health inequalities are present across the material and social deprivation spectrum. Compared to the social deprivation index, the material index presented clearer paediatric respiratory health gradients.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Alberta/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/terapia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 41(12): 1752-1759, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health issue in Canada. Current evidence highlights the individual role of social determinants of health such as maternal residence and socioeconomic status (SES) on teen pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated the joint association between residence/SES and adverse adolescent pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of all singleton, live deliveries (2010-2015) from women aged 15 to 19 who were registered in the Alberta Perinatal Health Program. Information on maternal residence and SES was extracted from the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index data set. The study categorized mothers into four risk dyads: rural/high SES, rural/low SES, urban/high SES, and urban/low SES. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of adverse pregnancy outcomes were calculated in logistic regression models (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2). RESULTS: A total of 9606 births from adolescent mothers were evaluated. Thirty percent of adolescent mothers were classified as urban/high SES; 27% were urban/low SES; 7% were rural/high SES; and 36% were placed in the rural/low SES category. Compared with urban/high SES mothers, rural/low SES mothers had increased odds of postpartum hemorrhage (OR 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-1.74), operative vaginal delivery (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.60), Caesarean section (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.19-1.62), large for gestational age infants (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.16-1.66), low birth weight (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.65), and preterm birth (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.87). CONCLUSION: Rural pregnant adolescents of low SES have the highest odds for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Social determinants of health that affect adolescent pregnancies need further examination to identify high-risk subgroups and understand pathways to health disparities in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Alberta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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