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2.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 138, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in grey matter covariance networks have been reported in preclinical and clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been associated with amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition and cognitive decline. However, the role of tau pathology on grey matter networks remains unclear. Based on previously reported associations between tau pathology, synaptic density and brain structural measures, tau-related connectivity changes across different stages of AD might be expected. We aimed to assess the relationship between tau aggregation and grey matter network alterations across the AD continuum. METHODS: We included 533 individuals (178 Aß-negative cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects, 105 Aß-positive CU subjects, 122 Aß-positive patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 128 patients with AD dementia) from the BioFINDER-2 study. Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from T1-weighted images and graph theory properties including degree, clustering coefficient, path length, and small world topology were calculated. Associations between tau positron emission tomography (PET) values and global and regional network measures were examined using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. Finally, we tested whether the association of tau pathology with cognitive performance was mediated by grey matter network disruptions. RESULTS: Across the whole sample, we found that higher tau load in the temporal meta-ROI was associated with significant changes in degree, clustering, path length, and small world values (all p < 0.001), indicative of a less optimal network organisation. Already in CU Aß-positive individuals associations between tau burden and lower clustering and path length were observed, whereas in advanced disease stages elevated tau pathology was progressively associated with more brain network abnormalities. Moreover, the association between higher tau load and lower cognitive performance was only partly mediated (9.3 to 9.5%) through small world topology. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a close relationship between grey matter network disruptions and tau pathology in individuals with abnormal amyloid. This might reflect a reduced communication between neighbouring brain areas and an altered ability to integrate information from distributed brain regions with tau pathology, indicative of a more random network topology across different AD stages.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
3.
Neurology ; 97(13): e1276-e1287, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and trajectories of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in relation to cognitive functioning in a cohort of ß-amyloid-positive (A+) individuals across the Alzheimer disease (AD) clinical spectrum. METHODS: In this single-center observational study, we included all individuals who visited the Alzheimer Center Amsterdam and had a clinical diagnosis of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or probable AD dementia and were A+. We measured NPS with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), examining total scores and the presence of specific NPI domains. Cognition was assessed across 5 cognitive domains and with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We examined trajectories including model-based trends for NPS and cognitive functioning over time. We used linear mixed models to relate baseline NPI scores to cognitive functioning at baseline (whole-sample) and longitudinal time points (subsample n = 520, mean 1.8 [SD 0.7] years follow-up). RESULTS: We included 1,524 A+ individuals from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort with A+ SCD (n = 113), A+ MCI (n = 321), or A+ AD dementia (n = 1,090). NPS were prevalent across all clinical AD stages (≥1 NPS 81.4% in SCD, 81.2% in MCI, 88.7% in dementia; ≥1 clinically relevant NPS 54.0% in SCD, 50.5% in MCI, 66.0% in dementia). Cognitive functioning showed a uniform gradual decline; while in contrast, large intraindividual heterogeneity of NPS was observed over time across all AD groups. At baseline, we found associations between NPS and cognition in dementia that were most pronounced for NPI total scores and MMSE (range ß = -0.18 to -0.11, false discovery rate [FDR]-adjusted p < 0.05), while there were no cross-sectional relationships in SCD and MCI (range ß = -0.32 to 0.36, all FDR-adjusted p > 0.05). There were no associations between baseline NPS and cognitive functioning over time in any clinical stage (range ß = -0.13 to 0.44, all FDR-adjusted p > 0.05). DISCUSSION: NPS and cognitive symptoms are both prevalent across the AD clinical spectrum, but show a different evolution during the course of the disease.

4.
J Neurol ; 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is divided into three prototypical subtypes that are all characterized by their single core symptom of aphasia. Although later in their course, other cognitive, behavioral, and motor domains may become involved, little is known about the progression profile of each subtype relative to the other subtypes. METHODS: In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, based on the recent biomarker-supported diagnostic criteria, 24 subjects diagnosed with semantic variant (svPPA), 22 with non-fluent variant (nfvPPA), and 18 with logopenic variant (lvPPA) were collected and followed up for 1-6 years. Symptom distribution, cognitive test and neuropsychiatric inventory scores, and progression into another syndrome were assessed. RESULTS: Over time, lvPPA progressed with broader language problems (PPA-extended) and nfvPPA progressed to mutism, whereas semantic impairment remained the major problem in svPPA. Apart from linguistic problems, svPPA developed pronounced behavioral disturbances, whereas lvPPA exhibited a greater cognitive decline. By contrast, in nfvPPA motor deficits were more common. Furthermore, within 5 years (IQR = 2.5) after clinical onset, 65.6% of the patients additionally fulfilled the clinical criteria for another neurodegenerative syndrome (PPA-plus). Fourteen out of 24 (58%) svPPA patients additionally met the diagnostic criteria of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (5.1 years, IQR = 1.1), whereas the clinical features of 15/18 (83%) lvPPA patients were consistent with Alzheimer disease dementia (4.5 years IQR = 3.4). Furthermore, 12/22 (54%) of the subjects with the nfvPPA progressed to meet the diagnostic criteria of corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, or motor neuron disease (5.1 years IQR = 3.4). DISCUSSION: Despite aphasia being the initial and unique hallmark of the syndrome, our longitudinal results showed that PPA is not a language limited disorder and progression differs widely for each subtype, both with respect to the nature of symptoms and disease duration.

6.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14398, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254442

RESUMO

PET, CSF and plasma biomarkers of tau pathology may be differentially associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related demographic, cognitive, genetic and neuroimaging markers. We examined 771 participants with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment or dementia from BioFINDER-2 (n = 400) and ADNI (n = 371). All had tau-PET ([18 F]RO948 in BioFINDER-2, [18 F]flortaucipir in ADNI) and CSF p-tau181 biomarkers available. Plasma p-tau181 and plasma/CSF p-tau217 were available in BioFINDER-2 only. Concordance between PET, CSF and plasma tau biomarkers ranged between 66 and 95%. Across the whole group, ridge regression models showed that increased CSF and plasma p-tau181 and p-tau217 levels were independently of tau PET associated with higher age, and APOEɛ4-carriership and Aß-positivity, while increased tau-PET signal in the temporal cortex was associated with worse cognitive performance and reduced cortical thickness. We conclude that biofluid and neuroimaging markers of tau pathology convey partly independent information, with CSF and plasma p-tau181 and p-tau217 levels being more tightly linked with early markers of AD (especially Aß-pathology), while tau-PET shows the strongest associations with cognitive and neurodegenerative markers of disease progression.

7.
Neurology ; 97(10): e1017-e1030, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the [18F]flortaucipir binding distribution across MAPT mutations in presymptomatic and symptomatic carriers. METHODS: We compared regional [18F]flortaucipir binding potential (BPND) derived from a 130-minute dynamic [18F]flortaucipir PET scan in 9 (pre)symptomatic MAPT mutation carriers (4 with P301L [1 symptomatic], 2 with R406W [1 symptomatic], 1 presymptomatic L315R, 1 presymptomatic S320F, and 1 symptomatic G272V carrier) with 30 cognitively normal controls and 52 patients with Alzheimer disease. RESULTS: [18F]Flortaucipir BPND images showed overall highest binding in the symptomatic carriers. This was most pronounced in the symptomatic R406W carrier in whom tau binding exceeded the normal control range in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, amygdala, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobe. Elevated medial temporal lobe BPND was observed in a presymptomatic R406W carrier. The single symptomatic carrier and 1 of the 3 presymptomatic P301L carriers showed elevated [18F]flortaucipir BPND in the insula, parietal, and frontal lobe compared to controls. The symptomatic G272V carrier exhibited a widespread elevated cortical BPND, with at neuropathologic examination a combination of 3R pathology and encephalitis. The L315R presymptomatic mutation carrier showed higher frontal BPND compared to controls. The BPND values of the S320F presymptomatic mutation carrier fell within the range of controls. CONCLUSION: Presymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers already showed subtle elevated tau binding, whereas symptomatic MAPT mutation carriers showed a more marked increase in [18F]flortaucipir BPND. Tau deposition was most pronounced in R406W MAPT (pre)symptomatic mutation carriers, which is associated with both 3R and 4R tau accumulation. Thus, [18F]flortaucipir may serve as an early biomarker for MAPT mutation carriers in mutations that cause 3R/4R tauopathies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Proteínas tau/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carbolinas , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
8.
Neurology ; 97(10): 474-488, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of consensus on how to optimally define and measure resistance and resilience in brain and cognitive aging. Residual methods use residuals from regression analysis to quantify the capacity to avoid (resistance) or cope (resilience) "better or worse than expected" given a certain level of risk or cerebral damage. We reviewed the rapidly growing literature on residual methods in the context of aging and Alzheimer disease (AD) and performed meta-analyses to investigate associations of residual method-based resilience and resistance measures with longitudinal cognitive and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science databases (consulted until March 2020) and subsequent screening led to 54 studies fulfilling eligibility criteria, including 10 studies suitable for the meta-analyses. RESULTS: We identified articles using residual methods aimed at quantifying resistance (n = 33), cognitive resilience (n = 23), and brain resilience (n = 2). Critical examination of the literature revealed that there is considerable methodologic variability in how the residual measures were derived and validated. Despite methodologic differences across studies, meta-analytic assessments showed significant associations of levels of resistance (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.12 [1.07-1.17]; p < 0.0001) and levels of resilience (HR [95% CI] 0.46 [0.32-0.68]; p < 0.001) with risk of progression to dementia/AD. Resilience was also associated with rate of cognitive decline (ß [95% CI] 0.05 [0.01-0.08]; p < 0.01). DISCUSSION: This review and meta-analysis supports the usefulness of residual methods as appropriate measures of resilience and resistance, as they capture clinically meaningful information in aging and AD. More rigorous methodologic standardization is needed to increase comparability across studies and, ultimately, application in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Envelhecimento , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Encéfalo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos
9.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153688

RESUMO

Disentangling biologically distinct subgroups of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may facilitate a deeper understanding of the neurobiology underlying clinical heterogeneity. We employed longitudinal [18F]FDG-PET standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) to map hypometabolism across cognitively-defined AD subgroups. Participants were 384 amyloid-positive individuals with an AD dementia diagnosis from ADNI who had a total of 1028 FDG-scans (mean time between first and last scan: 1.6 ± 1.8 years). These participants were categorized into subgroups on the basis of substantial impairment at time of dementia diagnosis in a specific cognitive domain relative to the average across domains. This approach resulted in groups of AD-Memory (n = 135), AD-Executive (n = 8), AD-Language (n = 22), AD-Visuospatial (n = 44), AD-Multiple Domains (n = 15) and AD-No Domains (for whom no domain showed substantial relative impairment; n = 160). Voxelwise contrasts against controls revealed that all AD-subgroups showed progressive hypometabolism compared to controls across temporoparietal regions at time of AD diagnosis. Voxelwise and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based linear mixed model analyses revealed there were also subgroup-specific hypometabolism patterns and trajectories. The AD-Memory group had more pronounced hypometabolism compared to all other groups in the medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, and faster decline in metabolism in the medial temporal lobe compared to AD-Visuospatial. The AD-Language group had pronounced lateral temporal hypometabolism compared to all other groups, and the pattern of metabolism was also more asymmetrical (left < right) than all other groups. The AD-Visuospatial group had faster decline in metabolism in parietal regions compared to all other groups, as well as faster decline in the precuneus compared to AD-Memory and AD-No Domains. Taken together, in addition to a common pattern, cognitively-defined subgroups of people with AD dementia show subgroup-specific hypometabolism patterns, as well as differences in trajectories of metabolism over time. These findings provide support to the notion that cognitively-defined subgroups are biologically distinct.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
10.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(8): 961-971, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180956

RESUMO

Importance: Tau positron emission tomography (PET) tracers have proven useful for the differential diagnosis of dementia, but their utility for predicting cognitive change is unclear. Objective: To examine the prognostic accuracy of baseline fluorine 18 (18F)-flortaucipir and [18F]RO948 (tau) PET in individuals across the Alzheimer disease (AD) clinical spectrum and to perform a head-to-head comparison against established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and amyloid PET markers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study collected data from 8 cohorts in South Korea, Sweden, and the US from June 1, 2014, to February 28, 2021, with a mean (SD) follow-up of 1.9 (0.8) years. A total of 1431 participants were recruited from memory clinics, clinical trials, or cohort studies; 673 were cognitively unimpaired (CU group; 253 [37.6%] positive for amyloid-ß [Aß]), 443 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI group; 271 [61.2%] positive for Aß), and 315 had a clinical diagnosis of AD dementia (315 [100%] positive for Aß). Exposures: [18F]Flortaucipir PET in the discovery cohort (n = 1135) or [18F]RO948 PET in the replication cohort (n = 296), T1-weighted MRI (n = 1431), and amyloid PET (n = 1329) at baseline and repeated Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) evaluation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Baseline [18F]flortaucipir/[18F]RO948 PET retention within a temporal region of interest, MRI-based AD-signature cortical thickness, and amyloid PET Centiloids were used to predict changes in MMSE using linear mixed-effects models adjusted for age, sex, education, and cohort. Mediation/interaction analyses tested whether associations between baseline tau PET and cognitive change were mediated by baseline MRI measures and whether age, sex, and APOE genotype modified these associations. Results: Among 1431 participants, the mean (SD) age was 71.2 (8.8) years; 751 (52.5%) were male. Findings for [18F]flortaucipir PET predicted longitudinal changes in MMSE, and effect sizes were stronger than for AD-signature cortical thickness and amyloid PET across all participants (R2, 0.35 [tau PET] vs 0.24 [MRI] vs 0.17 [amyloid PET]; P < .001, bootstrapped for difference) in the Aß-positive MCI group (R2, 0.25 [tau PET] vs 0.15 [MRI] vs 0.07 [amyloid PET]; P < .001, bootstrapped for difference) and in the Aß-positive CU group (R2, 0.16 [tau PET] vs 0.08 [MRI] vs 0.08 [amyloid PET]; P < .001, bootstrapped for difference). These findings were replicated in the [18F]RO948 PET cohort. MRI mediated the association between [18F]flortaucipir PET and MMSE in the groups with AD dementia (33.4% [95% CI, 15.5%-60.0%] of the total effect) and Aß-positive MCI (13.6% [95% CI, 0.0%-28.0%] of the total effect), but not the Aß-positive CU group (3.7% [95% CI, -17.5% to 39.0%]; P = .71). Age (t = -2.28; P = .02), but not sex (t = 0.92; P = .36) or APOE genotype (t = 1.06; P = .29) modified the association between baseline [18F]flortaucipir PET and cognitive change, such that older individuals showed faster cognitive decline at similar tau PET levels. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this prognostic study suggest that tau PET is a promising tool for predicting cognitive change that is superior to amyloid PET and MRI and may support the prognostic process in preclinical and prodromal stages of AD.

11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The BIN1 rs744373 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a key genetic risk locus for Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated with tau pathology. Because tau typically accumulates in response to amyloid beta (Aß), we tested whether BIN1 rs744373 accelerates Aß-related tau accumulation. METHODS: We included two samples (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [ADNI], n = 153; Biomarkers for Identifying Neurodegenerative Disorders Early and Reliably [BioFINDER], n = 63) with longitudinal 18 F-Flortaucipir positron emission tomography (PET), Aß biomarkers, and longitudinal cognitive assessments. We assessed whether BIN1 rs744373 was associated with faster tau-PET accumulation at a given level of Aß and whether faster BIN1 rs744373-associated tau-PET accumulation mediated cognitive decline. RESULTS: BIN1 rs744373 risk-allele carriers showed faster global tau-PET accumulation (ADNI/BioFINDER, P < .001/P < .001). We found significant Aß by rs744373 interactions on global tau-PET change (ADNI: ß/standard error [SE] = 0.42/0.14, P = 0.002; BioFINDER: ß/SE = -0.35/0.15, P = .021), BIN1 risk-allele carriers showed accelerated tau-PET accumulation at higher Aß levels. In ADNI, rs744373 effects on cognitive decline were mediated by faster global tau-PET accumulation (ß/SE = 0.20/0.07, P = .005). DISCUSSION: BIN1-associated AD risk is potentially driven by accelerated tau accumulation in the face of Aß.

12.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(7): 2295-2305, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to determine whether comparable target regions of interest (ROIs) and cut-offs can be used across [18F]flortaucipir, [18F]RO948, and [18F]MK6240 tau positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia vs either cognitively unimpaired (CU) individuals or non-AD neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: A total of 1755 participants underwent tau PET using either [18F]flortaucipir (n = 975), [18F]RO948 (n = 493), or [18F]MK6240 (n = 287). SUVR values were calculated across four theory-driven ROIs and several tracer-specific data-driven (hierarchical clustering) regions of interest (ROIs). Diagnostic performance and cut-offs for ROIs were determined using receiver operating characteristic analyses and the Youden index, respectively. RESULTS: Comparable diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) was observed between theory- and data-driven ROIs. The theory-defined temporal meta-ROI generally performed very well for all three tracers (AUCs: 0.926-0.996). An SUVR value of approximately 1.35 was a common threshold when using this ROI. CONCLUSION: The temporal meta-ROI can be used for differential diagnosis of dementia patients with [18F]flortaucipir, [18F]RO948, and [18F]MK6240 tau PET with high accuracy, and that using very similar cut-offs of around 1.35 SUVR. This ROI/SUVR cut-off can also be applied across tracers to define tau positivity.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Carbolinas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas tau
13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984177

RESUMO

The recent development of several tau positron emission tomography (PET) tracers represents a major milestone for the Alzheimer's disease (AD) field. These tau PET tracers bind tau neurofibrillary tangles, a key neuropathological characteristic of AD that is tightly linked to synaptic loss, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline. It is notable that these tau PET tracers show low uptake in most non-AD tauopathies and other neurodegenerative disorders, resulting in a diagnostic specificity that is superior to that of amyloid beta (Aß) PET and biofluid markers, especially at an older age when incidental Aß pathology is common. Furthermore, tau PET tracers diagnostically outperform widely used MRI markers. Given its excellent diagnostic performance due to the combination of high sensitivity and specificity for detecting tau pathology in AD dementia, we hypothesize that tau PET can become an important diagnostic tool in specialized clinics for the differential diagnosis of dementia syndromes where AD is among the major possible underlying diseases.

14.
Nat Med ; 27(5): 871-881, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927414

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the spread of tau pathology throughout the cerebral cortex. This spreading pattern was thought to be fairly consistent across individuals, although recent work has demonstrated substantial variability in the population with AD. Using tau-positron emission tomography scans from 1,612 individuals, we identified 4 distinct spatiotemporal trajectories of tau pathology, ranging in prevalence from 18 to 33%. We replicated previously described limbic-predominant and medial temporal lobe-sparing patterns, while also discovering posterior and lateral temporal patterns resembling atypical clinical variants of AD. These 'subtypes' were stable during longitudinal follow-up and were replicated in a separate sample using a different radiotracer. The subtypes presented with distinct demographic and cognitive profiles and differing longitudinal outcomes. Additionally, network diffusion models implied that pathology originates and spreads through distinct corticolimbic networks in the different subtypes. Together, our results suggest that variation in tau pathology is common and systematic, perhaps warranting a re-examination of the notion of 'typical AD' and a revisiting of tau pathological staging.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/classificação , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem/métodos , Fenótipo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Análise Espaço-Temporal
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical phenotype of the rare behavioural variant of Alzheimer's disease (bvAD) is insufficiently understood. Given the strong clinico-anatomical correlations of tau pathology in AD, we investigated the distribution of tau deposits in bvAD, in-vivo and ex-vivo, using positron emission tomography (PET) and postmortem examination. METHODS: For the tau PET study, seven amyloid-ß positive bvAD patients underwent [18F]flortaucipir or [18F]RO948 PET. We converted tau PET uptake values into standardised (W-)scores, adjusting for age, sex and mini mental state examination in a 'typical' memory-predominant AD (n=205) group. W-scores were computed within entorhinal, temporoparietal, medial and lateral prefrontal, insular and whole-brain regions-of-interest, frontal-to-entorhinal and frontal-to-parietal ratios and within intrinsic functional connectivity network templates. For the postmortem study, the percentage of AT8 (tau)-positive area in hippocampus CA1, temporal, parietal, frontal and insular cortices were compared between autopsy-confirmed patients with bvAD (n=8) and typical AD (tAD;n=7). RESULTS: Individual regional W-scores ≥1.96 (corresponding to p<0.05) were observed in three cases, that is, case #5: medial prefrontal cortex (W=2.13) and anterior default mode network (W=3.79), case #2: lateral prefrontal cortex (W=2.79) and salience network (W=2.77), and case #7: frontal-to-entorhinal ratio (W=2.04). The remaining four cases fell within the normal distributions of the tAD group. Postmortem AT8 staining indicated no group-level regional differences in phosphorylated tau levels between bvAD and tAD (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both in-vivo and ex-vivo, patients with bvAD showed heterogeneous distributions of tau pathology. Since key regions involved in behavioural regulation were not consistently disproportionally affected by tau pathology, other factors are more likely driving the clinical phenotype in bvAD.

16.
Neurocase ; 27(2): 181-189, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881963

RESUMO

A clinical syndrome with neuropsychiatric features of bvFTD without neuroimaging abnormalities and a lack of decline is a phenocopy of bvFTD (phFTD). Growing evidence suggests that psychological, psychiatric and environmental factors underlie phFTD. We describe a patient diagnosed with bvFTD prior to the revision of the diagnostic guidelines of FTD. Repeated neuroimaging was normal and there was no FTD pathology at autopsy, rejecting the diagnosis. We hypothesize on etiological factors that on hindsight might have played a role. This case report contributes to the understanding of phFTD and adds to the sparse literature of the postmortem assessment of phFTD.

17.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102660, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895633

RESUMO

The clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) varies widely across individuals but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity are largely unknown. Here, we compared regional gray matter (GM) volumes and associated gene expression profiles between cognitively-defined subgroups of amyloid-ß positive individuals clinically diagnosed with AD dementia (age: 66 ± 7, 47% male, MMSE: 21 ± 5). All participants underwent neuropsychological assessment with tests covering memory, executive-functioning, language and visuospatial-functioning domains. Subgroup classification was achieved using a psychometric framework that assesses which cognitive domain shows substantial relative impairment compared to the intra-individual average across domains, which yielded the following subgroups in our sample; AD-Memory (n = 41), AD-Executive (n = 117), AD-Language (n = 33), AD-Visuospatial (n = 171). We performed voxel-wise contrasts of GM volumes derived from 3Tesla structural MRI between subgroups and controls (n = 127, age 58 ± 9, 42% male, MMSE 29 ± 1), and observed that differences in regional GM volumes compared to controls closely matched the respective cognitive profiles. Specifically, we detected lower medial temporal lobe GM volumes in AD-Memory, lower fronto-parietal GM volumes in AD-Executive, asymmetric GM volumes in the temporal lobe (left < right) in AD-Language, and lower GM volumes in posterior areas in AD-Visuospatial. In order to examine possible biological drivers of these differences in regional GM volumes, we correlated subgroup-specific regional GM volumes to brain-wide gene expression profiles based on a stereotactic characterization of the transcriptional architecture of the human brain as provided by the Allen human brain atlas. Gene-set enrichment analyses revealed that variations in regional expression of genes involved in processes like mitochondrial respiration and metabolism of proteins were associated with patterns of regional GM volume across multiple subgroups. Other gene expression vs GM volume-associations were only detected in particular subgroups, e.g., genes involved in the cell cycle for AD-Memory, specific sets of genes related to protein metabolism in AD-Language, and genes associated with modification of gene expression in AD-Visuospatial. We conclude that cognitively-defined AD subgroups show neurobiological differences, and distinct biological pathways may be involved in the emergence of these differences.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transcriptoma
18.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(7): 2086-2096, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The research community has focused on defining reliable biomarkers for the early detection of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2017, the Geneva AD Biomarker Roadmap initiative adapted the framework for the systematic validation of oncological biomarkers to AD, with the aim to accelerate their development and implementation in clinical practice. The aim of this work was to assess the validation status of tau PET ligands of the THK family and PBB3 as imaging biomarkers for AD, based on the Biomarker Roadmap methodology. METHODS: A panel of experts in AD biomarkers convened in November 2019 at a 2-day workshop in Geneva. The level of clinical validity of tau PET ligands of the THK family and PBB3 was assessed based on the 5-phase development framework before the meeting and discussed during the workshop. RESULTS: PET radioligands of the THK family discriminate well between healthy controls and patients with AD dementia (phase 2; partly achieved) and recent evidence suggests an accurate diagnostic accuracy at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of the disease (phase 3; partly achieved). The phases 2 and 3 were considered not achieved for PBB3 since no evidence exists about the ligand's diagnostic accuracy. Preliminary evidence exists about the secondary aims of each phase for all ligands. CONCLUSION: Much work remains for completing the aims of phases 2 and 3 and replicating the available evidence. However, it is unlikely that the validation process for these tracers will be completed, given the presence of off-target binding and the development of second-generation tracers with improved binding and pharmacokinetic properties.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
19.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(7): 2070-2085, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2017 Alzheimer's disease (AD) Strategic Biomarker Roadmap (SBR) structured the validation of AD diagnostic biomarkers into 5 phases, systematically assessing analytical validity (Phases 1-2), clinical validity (Phases 3-4), and clinical utility (Phase 5) through primary and secondary Aims. This framework allows to map knowledge gaps and research priorities, accelerating the route towards clinical implementation. Within an initiative aimed to assess the development of biomarkers of tau pathology, we revised this methodology consistently with progress in AD research. METHODS: We critically appraised the adequacy of the 2017 Biomarker Roadmap within current diagnostic frameworks, discussed updates at a workshop convening the Alzheimer's Association and 8 leading AD biomarker research groups, and detailed the methods to allow consistent assessment of aims achievement for tau and other AD diagnostic biomarkers. RESULTS: The 2020 update applies to all AD diagnostic biomarkers. In Phases 2-3, we admitted a greater variety of study designs (e.g., cross-sectional in addition to longitudinal) and reference standards (e.g., biomarker confirmation in addition to clinical progression) based on construct (in addition to criterion) validity. We structured a systematic data extraction to enable transparent and formal evidence assessment procedures. Finally, we have clarified issues that need to be addressed to generate data eligible to evidence-to-decision procedures. DISCUSSION: This revision allows for more versatile and precise assessment of existing evidence, keeps up with theoretical developments, and helps clinical researchers in producing evidence suitable for evidence-to-decision procedures. Compliance with this methodology is essential to implement AD biomarkers efficiently in clinical research and diagnostics.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Proteínas tau
20.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 35, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood and may be associated with tau pathology. In this combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we aimed to investigate spatial associations between regional tau pathology ([18F]flortaucipir PET), synaptic density (synaptic vesicle 2A [11C]UCB-J PET) and synaptic function (MEG) in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Seven amyloid-positive Alzheimer's disease subjects from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort underwent dynamic 130-min [18F]flortaucipir PET, dynamic 60-min [11C]UCB-J PET with arterial sampling and 2 × 5-min resting-state MEG measurement. [18F]flortaucipir- and [11C]UCB-J-specific binding (binding potential, BPND) and MEG spectral measures (relative delta, theta and alpha power; broadband power; and peak frequency) were assessed in cortical brain regions of interest. Associations between regional [18F]flortaucipir BPND, [11C]UCB-J BPND and MEG spectral measures were assessed using Spearman correlations and generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: Across subjects, higher regional [18F]flortaucipir uptake was associated with lower [11C]UCB-J uptake. Within subjects, the association between [11C]UCB-J and [18F]flortaucipir depended on within-subject neocortical tau load; negative associations were observed when neocortical tau load was high, gradually changing into opposite patterns with decreasing neocortical tau burden. Both higher [18F]flortaucipir and lower [11C]UCB-J uptake were associated with altered synaptic function, indicative of slowing of oscillatory activity, most pronounced in the occipital lobe. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in Alzheimer's disease, tau pathology is closely associated with reduced synaptic density and synaptic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloide , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas tau
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