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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 790, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complexity of physical activity (PA) and DNA methylation interaction in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rarely simultaneously investigated in one study. We examined the role of DNA methylation on the association between PA and CVD. RESULTS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort Exam 5 data with 1065 participants free of CVD were used for final analysis. The quartile categorical total PA variable was created by activity intensity (METs/week). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 69 participants developed CVD. Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to provide genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in purified human monocytes (CD14+). We identified 23 candidate DNA methylation loci to be associated with both PA and CVD. We used the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to test the complex relationships among multiple variables and the roles of mediators. Three of the 23 identified loci (corresponding to genes VPS13D, PIK3CD and VPS45) remained as significant mediators in the final SEM model along with other covariates. Bridged by the three genes, the 2nd PA quartile (ß = - 0.959; 95%CI: - 1.554 to - 0.449) and the 3rd PA quartile (ß = - 0.944; 95%CI: - 1.628 to - 0.413) showed the greatest inverse associations with CVD development, while the 4th PA quartile had a relatively weaker inverse association (ß = - 0.355; 95%CI: - 0.713 to - 0.124). CONCLUSIONS: The current study is among the first to simultaneously examine the relationships among PA, DNA methylation, and CVD in a large cohort with long-term exposure. We identified three DNA methylation loci bridged the association between PA and CVD. The function of the identified genes warrants further investigation in the pathogenesis of CVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupos Étnicos , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Particip Med ; 13(3): e29945, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important transition stage in human development, adolescence is a critical window for vaping prevention. There is a substantial gap in communication research on vaping prevention among racial and ethnic minority groups. Their representation is essential to develop, implement, and disseminate innovative and effective interventions for vaping prevention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the participatory research (PR) procedures used with Black and Latino adolescents to develop culturally and linguistically appropriate graphic messages for vaping prevention. METHODS: This PR study used a qualitative, user-centered design method. We conducted a series of focus groups with 16 Black and Latino adolescents to develop culturally and linguistically appropriate graphic messages for vaping prevention. The biobehavioral model of nicotine addiction provided a framework for the development of the graphic messages. Participants met 4 times to provide iterative feedback on the graphic messages until they reached a consensus on overall quality and content. RESULTS: At baseline, the participants' mean age was 15.4 years (SD 1.4). Of the participants, 50% (8/16) were female, 88% (14/16) were heterosexual, 56% (9/16) were Black/African American, and 44% (7/16) were Hispanic/Latino. A total of 12 of the 16 participants (75%) chose to participate in the English sessions. Participants decided to create four types of graphic messages: (1) financial reward, (2) health reward, (3) social norms, and (4) self-efficacy. Meeting 4 times with the 4 groups provided sufficient opportunities for iterative feedback on the graphic messages to reach a consensus on overall quality and content. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible and practical to build PR among Black and Latino adolescents focused on vaping prevention. Adolescents added innovation and creativity to the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate graphic messages for vaping prevention. Appropriate staffing, funding, and approaches are key for successful PR efforts among Black and Latino adolescents. Future research is needed to evaluate the impact of the graphic messages on vaping prevention.

3.
Tob Use Insights ; 14: 1179173X211035366, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377041

RESUMO

The 12-item Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ-12) is a valid and reliable instrument to assess confidence in one's ability to refrain from smoking in a variety of different situations. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the 12-item Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ-12) among a sample of Spanish-speaking Latino smokers engaged in a smoking cessation research study. A forward-backward translation procedure guided the translation of the SEQ-12 into Spanish. The Spanish version of the SEQ-12 showed promising internal consistency reliability and construct validity among Latino smokers, with potential applications in both research and clinical settings.

4.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 16, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum Care is a strategy to improve survival of women and newborns, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Early post-partum care can promote healthy behaviors and the identification of risk factors associated with poorer pregnancy-related outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the association of perceived social support with attendance to post-partum care in women from three Latin-American and Caribbean countries: Costa Rica, Dominican Republic and Honduras. METHODS: Women aged 18+ who completed a pregnancy in the past 5 years were interviewed in local healthcare and community settings in each country. Perceived social support (PSS) was the primary explanatory variable and the primary outcome was self-reported attendance to post-partum care. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals derived from logistic regression documented the association between variables. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) were calculated, controlling for social and pregnancy-related confounders. Hosmer- Lemeshow's Goodness-of-Fit statistic was computed to assess model fit. RESULTS: Our cohort of 1199 women across the three Latin-American and Caribbean countries showed relatively high attendance to post-partum care (82.6%, n = 990). However, 51.7% (n = 581) of women reported lower levels of total PSS. Women were more likely to attend postpartum care if they had mean and higher levels of PSS Family subscale (OR: 1.9, 95%CI: 1.4, 2.7), Friends subscale (OR 1.3, 95%CI: 0.9,1.8), Significant Other subscale (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.4) and the Total PSS (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.5). All associations were statistically significant at p < 0.05, with exception of the Friends subscale. Women with higher levels of total PSS were more likely to attend to post-partum care (AOR:1.40, 0.97, 1.92) even after controlling for confounders (education, country, and food insecurity). CONCLUSIONS: Women with higher perceived social support levels were more likely to attend to post-partum care. From all countries, women from Dominican Republic had lower perceived social support levels and this may influence attendance at post-partum care for this subgroup. Societal and geographic factors can act as determinants when evaluating perceived social support during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Costa Rica , Estudos Transversais , República Dominicana , Feminino , Honduras , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidado Pós-Natal/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(9): 1617-1622, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health crisis, but its effects on tobacco users remain ill-defined. This report aimed to assess the relationship between tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 and changes in tobacco use since the start of the pandemic. METHODS: A sample (n = 776) of past-30 day exclusive smokers (n = 238), exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 143), and dual users (n = 395) residing in the US and aged 18 or older were collected using Mechanical Turk from April 27 to June 8, 2020. Adjusted associations between tobacco product-specific COVID-19 risk perceptions (ie risk that smokers/vapers are at for COVID-19 relative to non-smokers/non-vapers) and changes in tobacco use since the pandemic began were assessed using partial proportional odds models. RESULTS: A majority of those who used cigarettes (63.7%) and e-cigarettes (56.1%) felt that the risk of COVID-19 was greater for users of their tobacco product than for non-users. Twenty-four percent of smokers had increased their cigarette use since the start of the pandemic and 28.0% had decreased. Similarly, 27.3% of e-cigarette users had increased their e-cigarette use since the start of the pandemic and 23.8% had decreased. Higher risk perceptions for COVID-19 were associated with reductions in tobacco use since the pandemic began for exclusive e-cigarette users and dual users. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the support that tobacco product-specific COVID-19 risk perceptions may be an important correlate of changes in tobacco use during the pandemic. Targeted information to inform tobacco users regarding their risks for COVID-19 is needed during this public health crisis. IMPLICATIONS: Few published studies have investigated the relationship between tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 and changes in tobacco product use since the pandemic began. This study enhances the current literature by providing evidence that higher tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 are associated with reductions in tobacco use since the pandemic began for exclusive e-cigarette users and dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Additionally, daily tobacco users may be more likely to have increased their tobacco use than non-daily users. These findings emphasize the importance of disseminating targeted health information to tobacco users regarding COVID-19 risks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumantes , Uso de Tabaco , Vaping/efeitos adversos
6.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 61(2): 254-261, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768555

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pain can be a debilitating side effect of radiation therapy (RT). Data from the general population have shown that sleep disturbance can influence pain incidence and severity; however, less is known about this relationship in patients with breast cancer receiving RT. OBJECTIVES: This secondary analysis examined the association of pretreatment moderate/severe levels of sleep disturbance with subsequent RT-induced pain after adjusting for pre-RT pain. METHODS: We report on 573 female patients with breast cancer undergoing RT from a previously completed Phase II clinical trial for radiation dermatitis. Sleep disturbance, total pain, and pain subdomains-sensory pain, affective pain, and perceived pain intensity were assessed at pre-RT and post-RT. At pre-RT, patients were dichotomized into two groups: those with moderate/severe sleep disturbance (N = 85) vs. those with no/mild sleep disturbance (control; N = 488). RESULTS: At pre-RT, women with moderate/severe sleep disturbance were younger, less likely to be married, more likely to have had mastectomy and chemotherapy, and more likely to have depression/anxiety disorder and fatigue than the control group (all Ps < 0.05). Generalized estimating equations model, after controlling for pre-RT pain and other covariates (e.g., trial treatment condition and covariates that were significantly correlated with post-RT pain), showed that women with moderate/severe sleep disturbance at pre-RT vs. control group had significantly higher mean post-RT total pain as well as sensory, affective, and perceived pain (effect size = 0.62, 0.60, 0.69, and 0.52, respectively; all Ps < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that moderate/severe disturbed sleep before RT is associated with increased pain from pre-to-post-RT in patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/etiologia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
7.
Prev Med Rep ; 20: 101254, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257909

RESUMO

Existing literature indicated electronic cigarette users (vapers) have impaired immune response that might increase vulnerability to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and death. However, whether vapers are more susceptible to COVID-19 is unknown. Using integrated data in each US state from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), United States Census Bureau and the 1Point3Acres.com website, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models with negative binomial distribution assumption and log link functions were used to examine the association of statewide e-cigarette use prevalence with number of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the US on a state level from January 21, 2020 to April 25, 2020. The weighted proportion of vapers who used e-cigarettes every day or some days ranged from 2.86% to 6.42% for US states. Statistically significant associations were observed between the weighted proportion of vapers and number of COVID-19 cases as well as COVID-19 deaths in the US after adjusting for the weighted proportion of smokers and other significant covariates in the GEE models. With every one percent increase in weighted proportion of vapers in each state, the number of COVID-19 cases increase by 0.3139 (95% CI: 0.0554-0.5723) and the number of COVID-19 deaths increase by 0.3730 (95% CI: 0.0815-0.6646) in log scale in each US state. The positive associations between the proportion of vapers and the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths in each US state in this ecological study suggest an increased susceptibility of vapers to COVID-19 on a state level and warrants further investigation.

8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(Suppl 1): S76-S84, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the association of exclusive and concurrent use of cigarettes, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and cigars with ever and past 12-month wheezing symptoms among a nationally representative sample of US adult current tobacco users. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. The weighted prevalence of self-reported ever and past 12-month wheezing symptoms for noncurrent users compared with users of cigarettes, ENDS, cigars, and any combination of these products (polytobacco use of these tobacco products) were presented for 28 082 adults. The cross-sectional association of tobacco use with self-reported wheezing symptoms was assessed using weighted multivariable and ordinal logistic regression with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS: Significantly higher odds of ever had wheezing or whistling in the chest at any time in the past were observed among current cigarette (adjusted odds ratio: 2.62, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.35, 2.91), ENDS (1.49, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.95), and polytobacco users (2.67, 95% CI: 2.26, 3.16) compared with noncurrent users. No associations were seen for cigar use. Polytobacco use was associated with a higher odds of ever wheezing when compared with exclusive ENDS (1.61, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.17) and exclusive cigar use (2.87, 95% CI: 1.93, 4.26), but not exclusive use of cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Ever wheezing is associated with the use of cigarettes, ENDS, and polytobacco use of cigarettes, ENDS, and/or cigars, but not cigar use. The association of polytobacco use and wheezing appears to be driven by cigarette use. IMPLICATIONS: Cross-sectional associations with ever and past 12-month wheezing symptoms were found to be the strongest among cigarette users, exclusively or in combination. Future longitudinal research is needed to better understand how cigarette use interacts with other tobacco and nicotine products and contributes to respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabagismo/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette use (vaping) has become popular in recent years. The number of Americans with a variety of cognitive deficits has been increasing dramatically. This study aimed to examine the potential association of vaping with subjective cognitive complaints in US adults. METHODS: A combined 2016 and 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) national survey dataset yielded 886,603 adults who indicated their smoking and vaping status, as well as whether they had subjective cognitive complaints. With this dataset, the cross-sectional association of electronic cigarette use with subjective cognitive complaints was examined using multivariable weighted logistic regression models. RESULTS: Both dual users (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 2.07; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.66 to 2.60) and current vapers who were either ex-smokers (aOR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.40 to 2.71) or never smoked (aOR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.16 to 3.30) showed a significantly higher association with subjective cognitive complaints than never users. Current smokers (aOR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.32 to 1.69) and ex-smokers (aOR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.41) had a significantly higher association with subjective cognitive complaints compared to never users. Compared to current smokers, the ex-smokers showed a lower association with subjective cognitive complaints (aOR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.96). Finally, the association of vaping with subjective cognitive complaints was not statistically significant in individual age group. CONCLUSION: Similar to smoking, vaping is associated with subjective cognitive complaints in US adults. These results provide preliminary evidence for a cross-sectional association of vaping with potential cognitive health effects in adults.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Cognição , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Tob Induc Dis ; 18: 82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082739

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Flavors other than tobacco flavor have been identified as a major reason for electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) initiation in youth and are thought to contribute to the continued use of ENDS in users of all ages. Our previous research showed a significant association between overall ENDS use and COPD. This study aims to identify the association of ENDS flavor categories with self-reported COPD. METHODS: The data analysis included 4909 adults from Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Wave 4 data who were ever established ENDS users and responded to an item about diagnosis of COPD. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between different ENDS flavors and self-reported COPD considering complex sampling design. RESULTS: Among 4909 ever established ENDS users, 418 adults (weighted percentage 9.8%) had self-reported COPD. Self-reported COPD prevalence differed between different ENDS flavor categories, with the highest (weighted percentage 19.9%) occurring among tobacco flavor users. Compared to non-tobacco flavor categories, tobacco flavor category showed significantly higher association with self-reported COPD (AOR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.20-3.53), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. No significant associations with self-reported COPD were found for other examined ENDS flavor categories including menthol/mint, fruit, candy/ desserts/other-sweets, and other flavors, compared to their corresponding non-users. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco flavored ENDS use was significantly associated with self-reported COPD. Future studies are needed to confirm the biological and epidemiological association of flavored ENDS use with COPD.

11.
Am J Health Behav ; 44(5): 617-630, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121580

RESUMO

Objective: Banning flavors in some tobacco products, while allowing them in others, may shift consumer preferences towards products in which flavors are still allowed. In this study, we examine flavor popularity and inconsistencies in flavor preference across non-cigarette tobacco products among US adults. Methods: We used data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Wave 3 to assess the prevalence of flavor preference for users of non-cigarette tobacco products (N = 9037), as well as flavor inconsistencies between products among polyusers (N = 3183). Results: Most users of flavored tobacco products reported using one flavor category per product. Fruit and tobacco were among the most commonly used flavor categories of ENDS, hookah, traditional cigars, and cigarillo/filtered cigars. Menthol/mint was the most common flavor among snus/smokeless users. Polyusers of ENDS and traditional cigars had the largest inconsistency, where about 68%-76% used different flavors across products. Conversely, polyusers of traditional cigars and cigarillos/filtered cigars had the lowest inconsistency (25%-28%). Conclusions: Flavor preferences differed according to product, suggesting that consumers are not likely to switch across products to maintain a flavor preference. Future research should assess flavor preferences prospectively to improve understanding of the potential benefits of flavor bans.

12.
Prev Med ; 139: 106215, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693178

RESUMO

We examined the prevalence of home smoking and vaping restrictions among US adults, and compared home policy differences for smoking and vaping among vapers, smokers, and dual users. Secondary data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (2015-2016) with 28,148 adults were analyzed using weighted multivariable logistic regression models that account for complex sampling design to compare differences in home policies among non-users, vapers only, smokers only, and dual users. Compared to never-users, current vapers who were ex-smokers and dual users were more likely to allow home vaping (aOR = 11.06, 95% CI: 8.04-15.21; aOR = 6.44, 95% CI: 5.01-8.28) and smoking (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.19-2.22; aOR = 3.58, 95% CI: 2.88-4.45). Current smokers were more likely to allow vaping (aOR = 3.53, 95% CI: 3.06-4.06) and smoking (aOR = 4.27, 95% CI: 3.73-4.89) inside the home than never-users. Current vapers who never smoked were more likely to allow vaping inside the home than never-users (aOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.53-3.93). Vapers reported much lower rates of vape-free home policies relative to both their smoke-free home policies and to vape-free home policies among smokers. Vapers may be using e-cigarettes in hopes of harm reduction, but interpreting "harm reduction" as safe, thus exposing non-users in their homes to second- and thirdhand aerosols. This underscores the need to healthcare providers to extend intervention with vapers to include implementing vape-free home policies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Política Antifumo , Vaping , Adulto , Humanos , Fumantes , Tabaco
13.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511560

RESUMO

Background COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Electronic cigarette use (vaping) rapidly gained popularity in the US in recent years. Whether electronic cigarette users (vapers) are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection is unknown. Methods Using integrated data in each US state from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), United States Census Bureau and the 1Point3Acres.com website, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models with negative binomial distribution assumption and log link functions were used to examine the association of weighted proportions of vapers with number of COVID-19 infections and deaths in the US. Results The weighted proportion of vapers who used e-cigarettes every day or some days ranged from 2.86% to 6.42% for US states. Statistically significant associations were observed between the weighted proportion of vapers and number of COVID-19 infected cases as well as COVID-19 deaths in the US after adjusting for the weighted proportion of smokers and other significant covariates in the GEE models. With every one percent increase in weighted proportion of vapers in each state, the number of COVID-19 infected cases increase by 0.3139 (95% CI: 0.0554 - 0.5723) and the number of COVID-19 deaths increase by 0.3705 (95% CI: 0.0623 - 0.6786) in log scale in each US state. Conclusions The positive associations between the proportion of vapers and the number of COVID-19 infected cases and deaths in each US state suggest an increased susceptibility of vapers to COVID-19 infections and deaths.

14.
Tob Control ; 29(2): 140-147, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheezing is a symptom of potential respiratory disease and known to be associated with smoking. Electronic cigarette use ('vaping') has increased exponentially in recent years. This study examined the cross-sectional association of vaping with wheezing and related respiratory symptoms and compare this association with smokers and dual users. METHODS: The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study wave 2 data collected from October 2014 to October 2015 with 28 171 adults were used. The cross-sectional association of vaping with self-reported wheezing and related respiratory symptoms relative to smokers and dual users of tobacco and electronic cigarettes were studied using multivariable logistic and cumulative logistic regression models with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS: Among the 28 171 adult participants, 641 (1.2%) were current vapers who used e-cigarettes exclusively, 8525 (16.6%) were current exclusive smokers, 1106 (2.0%) were dual users and 17 899 (80.2%) were non-users. Compared with non-users, risks of wheezing and related respiratory symptoms were significantly increased in current vapers (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.67, 95% CI: 1.23 to 2.15). Current vapers had significantly lower risk in wheezing and related respiratory symptoms compared with current smokers (aOR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.87). No significant differences were found between dual users and current smokers in risk of wheezing and related respiratory symptoms (aOR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Vaping was associated with increased risk of wheezing and related respiratory symptoms. Current vapers had lower risk in wheezing and related respiratory symptoms than current smokers or dual users but higher than non-users. Both dual use and smoking significantly increased the risk of wheezing and related respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 1039-1052, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157864

RESUMO

Addressing parental smoking in the child healthcare setting improves the health of all family members. Innovative approaches, such as mobilizing technology-based platforms, may streamline screening and motivate acceptance of behavioral health services to treat tobacco use and dependence. The obective of this study was to describe innovations added to the CEASE intervention and to track 2 year post-intervention implementation data on families who were screened for tobacco use. Child healthcare practices in five states (IN, NC, OH, TN, and VA) used an electronic tablet screener to identify tobacco use within families and deliver tobacco cessation assistance to smokers. Motivational/educational videos on cessation were displayed via the screener to enhance its utility. Five CEASE intervention practices screened 50,111 family members for tobacco use and identified 6,885 families with children exposed to tobacco smoke. The mean number of screeners per practice per month was 417; the mean number of households with smokers identified per month was 57. Of 2,764 smokers who were at visits and consented, 57% indicated that they wanted a prescription to reduce or quit smoking; 94% of these were given preprinted prescriptions. Of 41% who requested connection to the quitline, 93% were given enrollment forms. Electronic screening was used to routinely identify tobacco users, leading to increased potential for offering cessation assistance to all household members who smoke. Improved delivery of smoking cessation services to families may be achieved by integrating technological innovations into routine pediatric practice. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Trial Number NCT01882348.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pais , Fumar
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(3): 346-353, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: National and international organizations have done an excellent job of advocating and promoting breast feeding for all mothers. This study assessed to what extent an intervention increased delivery of cessation assistance to breast-feeding mothers who smoke. METHODS: Data were collected between April and October 2015 in five US states as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 pediatric practices. Practices were randomized to the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention or usual care control arms. Mothers were asked about their smoking status and breast-feeding history during a screening interview upon exiting the practice and eligible mothers who agreed to participate in an enrollment interview were asked if they received smoking cessation assistance during their child's visit. Mothers with a child 1 year old and younger were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Current breast feeding was associated with a reduced likelihood of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.25 to 0.57) and a greater likelihood of quitting smoking (aOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.29 to 4.21) after controlling for known confounders. Mothers who concurrently smoked and breast-fed were more likely to be asked about smoking (66.7% vs. 28.6%, p = .01), advised to quit (61.1% vs. 21.4%, p < .01), prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (50.0% vs. 0%, p < .001), and enrolled into the quitline (27.8% vs. 0%, p < .01) at CEASE practices compared to control practices. CONCLUSION: Breast-feeding mothers were less likely to be current smokers and more likely to have recently quit smoking. Among mothers who continue to smoke and breast feed, the CEASE intervention enhances delivery of smoking cessation assistance. IMPLICATIONS: Breast feeding and eliminating infants' exposure to tobacco smoke are important protective factors for serious pediatric health risks including sudden infant death. This study shows that breast feeding was positively associated with desirable tobacco control outcomes, specifically that breast feeding was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking among ever smokers and a greater likelihood of recently quitting smoking. This is also the first study to look specifically at delivery of smoking cessation assistance to breast-feeding mothers seen at pediatric offices and demonstrates the effectiveness of delivering evidence-based smoking cessation assistance to them in this context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT01882348).


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Mães/educação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pediatria , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(7): 1155-1161, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use (vaping) has increased in recent years. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death associated with smoking. AIMS AND METHODS: Based on 2016 and 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System national survey data on 891 242 adult participants who indicated their smoking and vaping status, the cross-sectional association of vaping with self-reported COPD diagnosis was investigated, using univariable and multivariable weighted logistic regression models. RESULTS: Compared to never users, while dual users showed the highest association with self-reported COPD diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.98 to 4.85), current vapers who were either ex-smokers or never smoked showed significantly higher association with self-reported COPD diagnosis (aOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 2.78 to 3.78 and aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.12, respectively). Current vapers who were ex-smokers showed higher association with self-reported COPD diagnosis than ex-smokers who do not vape (aOR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.48). Dual users showed higher association with self-reported COPD diagnosis than current smokers who do not vape (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.27). Ex-smokers showed significantly less association with self-reported COPD diagnosis (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.71) than current smokers. Current vapers who were either ex-smokers or never smoked had less association with self-reported COPD diagnosis compared to current smokers, with aOR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.73 to 0.99) and aOR = 0.39 (95% CI = 0.27 to 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Vaping is significantly associated with self-reported COPD diagnosis in adults, even among vapers who never smoked. Whether there is a benefit for COPD of switching from smoking to vaping requires study of the long-term effects of vaping. IMPLICATIONS: With the increase of e-cigarette use in recent years, the health effects of e-cigarettes need to be investigated. While several studies have examined the association of vaping with respiratory symptoms among adolescents, little is known about the association of vaping with susceptibility to COPD among US adults. Using cross-sectional national survey data in adults, our study showed that vaping was significantly associated with self-reported COPD diagnosis. Although our data did not establish the causal relationship between vaping and self-reported COPD diagnosis, this study raises concerns about the observed association between vaping and self-reported COPD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Autorrelato , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 589501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391205

RESUMO

Global usage of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) has been increasing in the last decade. ENDS are non-combustible tobacco products that heat and aerosolize a liquid containing humectants, with added flavorings and often nicotine. Though ENDS are promoted as a less harmful alternative to smoking, current evidence links their use to a wide range of deleterious health effects including acute and chronic lung damage. ENDS can elicit an inflammatory response and impair the innate immune response in the lungs. Exposure to ENDS flavorings results in abnormal activation of the lung epithelial cells and ß-defensins, dysfunction of the macrophage phagocytic activity, increased levels of mucin (MUC5AC) and abnormal activation of the neutrophilic response (NETosis). ENDS menthol flavorings disrupt innate immunity and might be associated with allergies and asthma through activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRAP1). Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the relationship between the homeostasis of lung innate immunity and the immunomodulatory effect of the host-microbiota interaction. Alterations of the normal respiratory microbiota have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, atopy and cystic fibrosis complications which are strongly associated with smoking and potentially with ENDS use. Little is known about the short-and long-term effects of ENDS on the respiratory microbiota, their impact on the innate immune response and their link to pulmonary health and disease. Here we review the interaction between the innate immune system and the respiratory microbiota in the pathogenesis of ENDS-induced pulmonary dysfunction and identify future areas of research.

19.
JAMA Pediatr ; 173(10): 931-939, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403675

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the availability of free and effective treatment, few pediatric practices identify and treat parental tobacco use. Objective: To determine if the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention can be implemented and sustained in pediatric practices and test whether implementing CEASE led to changes in practice-level prevalence of smoking among parents over 2 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 2015 to October 2017. Ten pediatric practices in 5 states were randomized to either implement the CEASE protocol or maintain usual care (as a control group). All parents who screened positive for tobacco use by exit survey after their child's clinical visit 2 weeks (from April to October 2015) and 2 years after intervention implementation (April to October 2017) were eligible to participate. Data analysis occurred from January 2018 to March 2019. Interventions: The CEASE intervention is a practice-change intervention designed to facilitate both routine screening in pediatric settings of families for tobacco use and delivery of tobacco cessation treatment to individuals in screened households who use tobacco. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was delivery of meaningful tobacco treatment, defined as the prescription of nicotine replacement therapy or quit line enrollment. Furthermore, changes in practice-level smoking prevalence and cotinine-confirmed quit rates over the 2 years of intervention implementation were assessed. Results: Of the 8184 parents screened after their child's visit 2 weeks after intervention implementation, 961 (27.1%) were identified as currently smoking in intervention practices; 1103 parents (23.9%) were currently smoking in control practices. Among the 822 and 701 eligible parents who completed the survey in intervention and control practices, respectively 364 in the intervention practices (44.3%) vs 1 in a control practice (0.1%) received meaningful treatment at that visit (risk difference, 44.0% [95% CI, 9.8%-84.8%]). Two years later, of the 9794 parents screened, 1261 (24.4%) in intervention practices and 1149 (25.0%) in control practices were identified as currently smoking. Among the 804 and 727 eligible parents completing the survey in intervention and control practices, respectively, 113 in the intervention practices (14.1%) vs 2 in the control practices (0.3%) received meaningful treatment at that visit (risk difference, 12.8% [95% CI, 3.3%-37.8%]). Change in smoking prevalence over the 2 years of intervention implementation favored the intervention (-2.7% vs 1.1%; difference -3.7% [95% CI, -6.3% to -1.2%]), as did the cotinine-confirmed quit rate (2.4% vs -3.2%; difference, 5.5% [95% CI, 1.4%-9.6%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, integrating screening and treatment for parental tobacco use in pediatric practices showed both immediate and long-term increases in treatment delivery, a decline in practice-level parental smoking prevalence, and an increase in cotinine-confirmed cessation, compared with usual care. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01882348.

20.
Acad Pediatr ; 19(7): 842-848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are growing in popularity. Dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes is an increasingly common practice, but little is known about patterns of dual use in parents. We sought to describe smoking-related behaviors among dual-users. METHODS: Parent exit surveys were conducted following their child's visit in 5 control pediatric practices in 5 states participating in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure trial. We examined factors associated with dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes versus cigarette-only smokers, assessed by self-report. RESULTS: Of 1382 smokers or recent quitters screened after their child's visit between April and October 2017, 943 (68%) completed the survey. Of these, 727 parents reported current use of cigarettes; of those, 81 (11.1%) also reported e-cigarette use, meeting the definition of dual use. Compared with cigarette-only smokers, dual users were more likely to have a child younger than 1 year old, planned to quit in the next 6 months, and had tried to quit in the past (had a quit attempt in the past 3 months, called the quitline, or used medicine to quit in the past 2 years; P < .05 for each). CONCLUSIONS: Parents who use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes may have greater rates of contemplating smoking cessation than parents who only smoke cigarettes. These parents may be using e-cigarettes for harm reduction or as a step toward cessation. Identification of these parents may provide an opportunity to deliver effective treatment, including nicotine-replacement therapies that do not expose infants and children to e-cigarette aerosol.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Pais/psicologia , Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
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