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Materials (Basel) ; 14(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207691


Nowadays, we consume very large amounts of medicinal substances. Medicines are used to cure, halt, or prevent disease, ease symptoms, or help in the diagnosis of illnesses. Some medications are used to treat pain. Ibuprofen is one of the most popular drugs in the world (it ranks third). This drug enters our water system through human pharmaceutical use. In this article, we describe and compare the biodegradation of ibuprofen and ibuprofen derivatives-salts of L-valine alkyl esters. Biodegradation studies of ibuprofen and its derivatives have been carried out with activated sludge. The structure modifications we received were aimed at increasing the biodegradation of the drug used. The influence of the alkyl chain length of the ester used in the biodegradation of the compound was also verified. The biodegradation results correlated with the lipophilic properties (log P).

Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200719


The potential of bacterial cellulose as a carrier for the transport of ibuprofen (a typical example of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) through the skin was investigated. Ibuprofen and its amino acid ester salts-loaded BC membranes were prepared through a simple methodology and characterized in terms of structure and morphology. Two salts of amino acid isopropyl esters were used in the research, namely L-valine isopropyl ester ibuprofenate ([ValOiPr][IBU]) and L-leucine isopropyl ester ibuprofenate ([LeuOiPr][IBU]). [LeuOiPr][IBU] is a new compound; therefore, it has been fully characterized and its identity confirmed. For all membranes obtained the surface morphology, tensile mechanical properties, active compound dissolution assays, and permeation and skin accumulation studies of API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) were determined. The obtained membranes were very homogeneous. In vitro diffusion studies with Franz cells were conducted using pig epidermal membranes, and showed that the incorporation of ibuprofen in BC membranes provided lower permeation rates to those obtained with amino acids ester salts of ibuprofen. This release profile together with the ease of application and the simple preparation and assembly of the drug-loaded membranes indicates the enormous potentialities of using BC membranes for transdermal application of ibuprofen in the form of amino acid ester salts.

Aminoácidos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Celulose/química , Ésteres/química , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/química , Suínos
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200927


Bacterial cellulose membranes (BCs) are becoming useful as a drug delivery system to the skin. However, there are very few reports on their application of plant substances to the skin. Komagataeibacter xylinus was used for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC). The BC containing 5% and 10% ethanolic extract of Epilobium angustifolium (FEE) (BC-5%FEE and BC-10%FEE, respectively) were prepared. Their mechanical, structural, and antioxidant properties, as well as phenolic acid content, were evaluated. The bioavailability of BC-FESs using mouse L929 fibroblasts as model cells was tested. Moreover, In Vitro penetration through the pigskin of the selected phenolic acids contained in FEE and their accumulation in the skin after topical application of BC-FEEs was examined. The BC-FEEs were characterized by antioxidant activity. The BC-5% FEE showed relatively low toxicity to healthy mouse fibroblasts. Gallic acid (GA), chlorogenic acid (ChA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HB), and caffeic acid (CA) found in FEE were also identified in the membranes. After topical application of the membranes to the pigskin penetration of some phenolic acid and other antioxidants through the skin as well as their accumulation in the skin was observed. The bacterial cellulose membrane loaded by plant extract may be an interesting solution for topical antioxidant delivery to the skin.

Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Celulose/química , Epilobium/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Bactérias/química , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200200


Epilobium angustifolium L. is a popular and well-known medicinal plant. In this study, an attempt to evaluate the possibility of using this plant in preparations for the care and treatment of skin diseases was made. The antioxidant, antiaging and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extracts from Epilobium angustifolium (FEE) were assessed. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of extracts chemically composition was performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total polyphenol content (TPC) of biologically active compounds, such as the total content of polyphenols (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), and assimilation pigments, as well as selected phenolic acids, was assessed. FEE was evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and antiaging properties, achieving 68% inhibition of lipoxygenase activity, 60% of collagenase and 49% of elastase. FEE also showed high antioxidant activity, reaching to 87% of free radical scavenging using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 59% using 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). Additionally, in vitro penetration studies were performed using two vehicles, i.e., a hydrogel and an emulsion containing FEE. These studies showed that the active ingredients contained in FEE penetrate through human skin and accumulate in it. The obtained results indicate that E. angustifolium may be an interesting plant material to be applied as a component of cosmetic and dermatological preparations with antiaging and anti-inflammatory properties.

Cosméticos/química , Fármacos Dermatológicos/química , Epilobium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067496


Biologically derived polymers are a very attractive subject for investigation, due to the strict pro-ecological requirements imposed by developed countries, including zero-waste and zero-carbon policies as well as volatile organic compound (VOC) limits. Synthesis of biologically-derived polyesters from natural rosin and bio-diols, showing softening temperatures suitable for application in VOC-free paints and varnishes, was performed to create a desired, future commercial product, that meet the aforementioned requirements regarding VOC and elimination of petroleum-based raw materials. Prepared polymers were used in the formulation of coating materials whose properties: cross-linking behavior, glass transition temperature, thermal stability, storage modulus, hardness, cupping resistance, adhesion, chemical resistance, gloss, haze, color, and anti-corrosive behavior in the salt chamber were investigated and discussed. As a result, coatings with prepared bio-polyesters contained over 80 wt.% of natural resources and showed competitive/better properties than petroleum-based references. They can be applied in the prototyping of "green" powder paints for the protection of steel substrates from corrosion and aggressive solvents.

Polymers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074023


In this work, a series of novel multifunctional epoxy (meth)acrylate resins based on a low-viscosity aliphatic triepoxide triglycidyl ether of trimethylolethane (TMETGE) and acrylic acid (AA) or methacrylic acid (MMA) have been synthesized. Thanks to the performed modification, the obtained prepolymers have both epoxides as well as carbon-carbon double bonds and differ in their amount. The obtained results indicate that the carboxyl-epoxide addition esterification occurs in the presence of a catalyst (triphenylphosphine) at a temperature of 90 °C, whilst the required degree of conversion can be achieved simply by varying both the reagents ratio and reaction time. The structure of synthesized copolymers was confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR) and studied regarding its nonvolatile matter content (NV), acid value (PAVs), as well as its epoxy equivalent value (EE). Due to the presence of both epoxy and double carbon-carbon pendant groups, one can apply two distinct mechanisms: (i) cationic ring-opening polymerization or (ii) free-radical polymerization to crosslink polymer chains. Synthesized epoxy (meth)acrylate prepolymers were further employed to formulate photocurable coating compositions. Hence, when cationic photoinitiators were applied, polyether-type polymer chains with pending acrylate or methacrylate groups were formed. In the case of free-radical polymerization, epoxy (meth)acrylates certainly formed a poly(meth)acrylate backbone with pending epoxy groups. Further, photopolymerization behavior and properties of cured coatings were investigated regarding some structural factors and parameters. Moreover, reaction rate coefficients of photo-cross-linking by both cationic ring-opening and free-radical photopolymerization of the received epoxy (meth)acrylate resins were determined via real-time infrared spectroscopy (RT-IR). Lastly, basic physicomechanical properties, such as tack-free time, hardness, adhesion, gloss, and yellowness index of cured coatings, were evaluated.