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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, is considered as risk factor for the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, dynamics of cognitive functions are subtle, and neurocognitive assessments largely differ in detecting these changes. We aimed to develop and evaluate a score which represents the common aspects of the cognitive functions measured by validated tests (i.e., "general cognitive construct"), while reducing overlap between tests and be more sensitive to identify changes in overall cognitive functioning. METHODS: We developed the CoCo (cognitive construct) score to reflect the cognitive performance obtained by all items of four neurocognitive assessments (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); Trail Making Test; Semantic Fluency, animals; Digital Symbol Substitution Test). The sample comprised 2,415 AF patients from the Swiss Atrial Fibrillation Cohort Study (Swiss-AF), 87% aged at least 65 years. Psychometric statistics were calculated for two cognitive measures based on (i) the full set of items from the neurocognitive test battery administered in the Swiss-AF study (i.e., CoCo item set) and (ii) the items from the widely used MoCA test. For the CoCo item set, a factor score was derived based on a principal component analysis, and its measurement properties were analyzed. RESULTS: Both the MoCA item set and the full neurocognitive test battery revealed good psychometric properties, especially the full battery. A one-factor model with good model fit and performance across time and groups was identified and used to generate the CoCo score, reflecting for each patient the common cognitive skill performance measured across the full neurocognitive test battery. The CoCo score showed larger effect sizes compared to the MoCA score in relation to relevant clinical variables. CONCLUSION: The derived factor score allows summarizing AF patients' cognitive performance as a single score. Using this score in the Swiss-AF project increases measurement sensitivity and decreases the number of statistical tests needed, which will be helpful in future studies addressing how AF affects the risk of developing cognitive impairment.

2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 427, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atrial fibrillation (AF), but data about the relationship between subclinical inflammation and recurrence of AF after catheter ablation remains poorly studied. We aimed to assess whether plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with long-term AF recurrence following catheter ablation. METHODS: Prior to the intervention, plasma CRP concentrations were measured in patients who underwent first catheter ablation for AF. AF recurrence was evaluated after 12 months and defined as any AF episode longer than 30 s recorded on either 12-lead electrocardiogram, 24-h Holter or 7-day Holter monitoring. Multivariable adjusted Cox models were constructed to examine the association of CRP levels and AF recurrence. RESULTS: Of the 711 patients (mean age: 61 years, 25% women) included in this study, 247 patients (35%) experienced AF recurrence after ablation. Patients who were in the highest CRP quartile had a higher rate of recurrent AF compared to those who were in the lowest quartile (53.4 vs. 33.1% at 1 year of follow-up; P = 0.004). The adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of recurrent AF across increasing quartiles of CRP were 1.0 (reference), 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-1.84), 1.15 (95% CI, 0.78-1.70) and 1.60 (95% CI, 1.10-2.34) (P trend = 0.015). A similar effect was observed when CRP was analyzed as continuous variable (aHR per unit increase, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.39; P = 0.009). When a predefined CRP cut-off of 3 mg/l was applied, patients with CRP levels of 3 mg/l or above had a higher risk of AF recurrence than those with levels below (aHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.06-1.95; P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing pre-interventional CRP levels are associated with a higher risk of AF recurrence in patients undergoing catheter ablation for AF. TRAIL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT03718364.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734408

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PR interval prolongation > 200 ms resulting in the diagnosis of first-degree atrioventricular block (AVB1) is caused by a delay in the AV nodal/His conduction and/or the right intra-atrial conduction (RIAC). The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of AVB1 due to RIAC delay (AVB1 with normal AH and HV) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFlu). METHODS: We included 1067 consecutive patients (33% female, age 63 ± 13 years) referred for catheter ablation of AF (AF-group) (453 patients), AF and AFlu (136 patients), AFlu (292 patients), and AVNRT/AVRT (186 patients). AH-, HV-, PR-interval, and P-wave duration were measured on the 12-lead ECG and the intracardiac electrograms in sinus rhythm. RIAC delay was defined as a prolonged PR interval > 200 ms with normal AH and HV intervals. RESULTS: The prevalence of AVB1 is higher in patients with AFlu (41%) and AF (21%) and patients with both arrhythmias (30%) as compared with a reference group (8%) of patients with AVNRT/AVRT. AVB1 was due to RIAC delay in 42 of 67 patients (63%) in the AF-group, in 37 of 96 patients (39%) in the AFlu-group, and in 17 of 36 patients (47%) in the AF/AFlu group, respectively. AV nodal conduction delay was more common in AFlu patients compared with AF patients. CONCLUSION: RIAC delay is a common underlying cause of AVB1 in patients with AF and AFlu. These findings may impact the prescription of antiarrhythmic and AV-nodal blocking drugs.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(15): e016075, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750290

RESUMO

Background Impaired heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with increased mortality in sinus rhythm. However, HRV has not been systematically assessed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that parameters of HRV may be predictive of cardiovascular death in patients with AF. Methods and Results From the multicenter prospective Swiss-AF (Swiss Atrial Fibrillation) Cohort Study, we enrolled 1922 patients who were in sinus rhythm or AF. Resting ECG recordings of 5-minute duration were obtained at baseline. Standard parameters of HRV (HRV triangular index, SD of the normal-to-normal intervals, square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals and mean heart rate) were calculated. During follow-up, an end point committee adjudicated each cause of death. During a mean follow-up time of 2.6±1.0 years, 143 (7.4%) patients died; 92 deaths were attributable to cardiovascular reasons. In a Cox regression model including multiple covariates (age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, history of diabetes mellitus, history of hypertension, history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, history of myocardial infarction, antiarrhythmic drugs including ß blockers, oral anticoagulation), a decreased HRV index ≤ median (14.29), but not other HRV parameters, was associated with an increase in the risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; P=0.01) and all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.98; P=0.04). Conclusions The HRV index measured in a single 5-minute ECG recording in a cohort of patients with AF is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. HRV analysis in patients with AF might be a valuable tool for further risk stratification to guide patient management. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02105844.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 41(34): 3255-3268, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484517

RESUMO

AIMS: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart failure syndrome, which shares many features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although TTS was initially described with angiographically normal coronary arteries, smaller studies recently indicated a potential coexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in TTS patients. This study aimed to determine the coexistence, features, and prognostic role of CAD in a large cohort of patients with TTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary anatomy and CAD were studied in patients diagnosed with TTS. Inclusion criteria were compliance with the International Takotsubo Diagnostic Criteria for TTS, and availability of original coronary angiographies with ventriculography performed during the acute phase. Exclusion criteria were missing views, poor quality of angiography loops, and angiography without ventriculography. A total of 1016 TTS patients were studied. Of those, 23.0% had obstructive CAD, 41.2% had non-obstructive CAD, and 35.7% had angiographically normal coronary arteries. A total of 47 patients (4.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 3 patients had acute and 8 had chronic coronary artery occlusion concomitant with TTS, respectively. The presence of CAD was associated with increased incidence of shock, ventilation, and death from any cause. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of obstructive CAD was associated with mortality at 30 days. Takotsubo syndrome patients with obstructive CAD were at comparable risk for shock and death and nearly at twice the risk for ventilation compared to an age- and sex-matched ACS cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease frequently coexists in TTS patients, presents with the whole spectrum of coronary pathology including acute coronary occlusion, and is associated with adverse outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01947621.

6.
Europace ; 22(6): 939-946, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361742

RESUMO

AIMS: Leadless cardiac pacemaker (PM) implantation differs from conventional PM implantation. While the procedure has been considered safe, recent real-world data raised concerns about the learning curve of new operators and their implantation quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the first operator's experience on leadless PM implantation quality and procedural efficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a bicentric analysis of all Micra TPS™ implantations in two large tertiary referral hospitals. We assessed both leadless PM implantation quality based on the absence of complications (requiring intervention or prolonged hospitalization), good electrical performance (pacing threshold ≤ 1.5 V/0.24 ms, R-wave amplitude > 5 mV), and acceptable fluoroscopy duration (<10 min) as well as procedural efficiency in relation to the operator's experience. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors for implantation quality and procedural efficiency. Leadless PM implantation was successful in 106/111 cases (95.5%). Three patients (2.7%) experienced acute complications (one cardiac tamponade, one femoral bleeding, one posture-related PM exit block). Multivariate analysis showed that implantation quality of more experienced first operators was higher [odds ratio 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.19), P = 0.05]. Procedural efficiency increased with operator experience as evidenced by an inverse correlation of procedure time, time to the first deployment, fluoroscopy time, and the number of procedures performed (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The operator's learning curve is a critical factor for leadless PM implantation quality and procedural efficiency.

9.
Heart ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate changes in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related symptoms and quality of life (QoL) over time, and their impact on prognosis. METHODS: We prospectively followed 3836 patients with known AF for a mean of 3.7 years. Information on AF-related symptoms and QoL was obtained yearly. The primary end point was a composite of stroke or systemic embolism. Main secondary end points included stroke subtypes, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, hospitalisation for congestive heart failure (CHF), myocardial infarction and major bleeding. We assessed associations using multivariable, time-updated Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Mean age was 72 years, 72% were male. Patients with AF-related symptoms (66%) were younger (70 vs 74 years, p<0.0001), more often had paroxysmal AF (56% vs 37%, p<0.0001) and had lower QoL (71 vs 72 points, p=0.009). The incidence of the primary end point was 1.05 and 1.02 per 100 person-years in patients with and without symptoms, respectively. The multivariable adjusted HR (aHR) (95% CIs) for the primary end point was 1.11 (0.77 to 1.59; p=0.56) for AF-related symptoms. AF-related symptoms were not associated with any of the secondary end points. QoL was not significantly related to the primary end point (aHR per 5-point increase 0.98 (0.94 to 1.03; p=0.37)), but was significantly related to CHF hospitalisations (0.92 (0.90 to 0.94; p<0.0001)), cardiovascular death (0.90 (0.86 to 0.95; p<0.0001)) and all-cause mortality (0.88 (0.86 to 0.90; p<0.0001)). CONCLUSIONS: AF-related symptoms were not associated with adverse outcomes and should therefore not be the basis for prognostic treatment decisions. QoL was strongly associated with CHF, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(16): 1869-1877, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups. RESULTS: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.

15.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20196, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200547

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) has become a global epidemic and puts affected patients at high risk of adverse events. In this review we summarise the current evidence on risk factors and complications of AF, describe current treatment strategies, and outline new fields of research. Current evidence shows that hypertension and obesity are the two most important modifiable risk factors for the development of AF. Patients with AF face an increased stroke risk. Oral anticoagulation reduces this risk substantially. Mainly for reasons of safety and ease of use, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are preferred for stroke prevention. Rate and rhythm control interventions remain important and are mainly used for symptom control in AF patients. Rate control is recommended as an initial treatment and in patients with a low or absent symptom burden. Following the advent of AF ablation 20 years ago, the chances of successful sustained rhythm control have increased. Nevertheless, the procedural risks, although low, must be discussed with the patient in the context of the potential benefits. Heart failure and AF often coexist, which creates a further challenge for optimal AF management. Recent studies have shown that AF patients have a high burden of silent brain lesions, and that these lesions are associated with cognitive dysfunction. A better understanding of these interrelationships may eventually help the development of new prevention and treatment strategies to decrease the burden and complications associated with AF.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(5): e014446, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089049

RESUMO

Background Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is common after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and is an indicator of subsequent high-grade atrioventricular block (HAVB). No standardized protocol is available to identify LBBB patients at risk for HAVB. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an electrophysiology study tailored strategy in patients with LBBB after TAVI. Methods and Results We prospectively analyzed consecutive patients with LBBB after TAVI. An electrophysiology study was performed to measure the HV-interval the day following TAVI. In patients with normal His-ventricular (HV)-interval ≤55 ms, a loop recorder was implanted (ILR-group), whereas pacemaker implantation was performed in patients with prolonged HV-interval >55 ms (PM-group). The primary end point was occurrence of HAVB during a follow-up of 12 months. Secondary end points were symptoms, hospitalizations, adverse events because of device implantation or electrophysiology study, and death. Of 373 patients screened after TAVI, 56 patients (82±6 years, 41% male) with LBBB were included. HAVB occurred in 4 of 41 patients (10%) in the ILR-group and in 8 of 15 patients (53%) in the PM-group (P<0.001). We did not identify other predictors for HAVB than the HV interval. The negative predictive value for the cut-off of HV 55 ms to detect HAVB was 90%. No HAVB-related syncope occurred in the 2 groups. Conclusions An electrophysiology study tailored strategy to LBBB after TAVI with a cut-off of HV >55 ms is a feasible and safe approach to stratify patients with regard to developing HAVB during a follow-up of 12 months.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977016

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and frailty are common, and the prevalence is expected to rise further. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of frailty and the ability of a frailty index (FI) to predict unplanned hospitalizations, stroke, bleeding and death in patients with AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with known AF were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Switzerland. Information on medical history, lifestyle-factors and clinical measurements were obtained. The primary outcome was unplanned hospitalization; secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, bleeding and stroke. The FI was measured using a cumulative deficit approach, constructed according to previously published criteria and divided into three groups (non-frail, pre-frail, frail). The association between frailty and outcomes was assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox regression models. Of the 2369 included patients, prevalence of pre-frailty and frailty was 60.7% and 10.6%, respectively. Pre-frailty and frailty were associated with a higher risk of unplanned hospitalizations (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-2.22, p < 0.001; and aHR 3.59; 95%CI 2.78-4.63, p < 0.001), all-cause mortality (aHR 5.07; 95%CI 2.43-10.59, p < 0.001; and aHR 16.72; 95%CI 7.75-36.05, p < 0.001), and bleeding (aHR 1.53; 95%CI 1.11-2.13, p = 0.01; and aHR 2.46; 95%CI 1.61-3.77, p < 0.001). Frailty, but not pre-frailty was associated with a higher risk of stroke (aHR 3.29; 95%CI 1.29-8.39, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Over two thirds of patients with AF are pre-frail or frail. These patients have a high risk for unplanned hospitalizations and other adverse events. These findings emphasize the need to carefully evaluate these patients. However, whether screening for pre-frailty and frailty and targeted prevention strategies improve outcomes needs to be shown in future studies.

19.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 57(1): 77-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation recurrence (AFR) is common after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), and the rate does not differ between radiofrequency (RF) and cryoballoon (CB) ablation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the ablation modality used at the index PVI on the outcome after redo PVI in patients with paroxysmal AF. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center, non-randomized study, consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF who have undergone the index PVI with either RF ablation (RF group) or 2nd-generation CB (CB group) were included. The primary endpoint was freedom from recurrence of atrial arrhythmia lasting > 30 s. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients undergoing redo PVI for paroxysmal AF were included (median age 61 years; 24% female; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 57 ± 8%; left atrial volume index (LAVI) 34 ± 11 mm). Index PVI was done either with focal RF (n = 81) or with CB (n = 24) and redo PVI only with focal RF. Total procedure time (139 vs. 113 min, p = 0.10) and RF delivery time (1017 vs. 870 s, p = 0.33) of the redo PVI were not significantly different. After a median follow-up of 371 (185-470) days, there were no differences between the RF and CB groups regarding the AFR rate after the second PVI (24 vs. 23%, p = 0.89). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no difference between the groups regarding AFR freedom time (p = 0.81). In multivariable logistic regression, only coronary artery disease was identified as an independent long-term predictor of AFR (OR 4.15, 95% CI 1.17-14.71, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The ablation modality used at the index PVI has no impact on long-term outcome after redo PVI in patients with paroxysmal AF.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 307: 63-70, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex-related electrocardiographic differences are a well-known phenomenon, but not their expression in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study we aim to assess the presence of significant sex-related differences in ECG features, with particular attention to P-wave parameters, of a large cohort of patients affected by different types of AF. METHODS: A 5-min resting 16-lead ECG was evaluated for 1119 AF patients in sinus rhythm. The durations of the main ECG waves and intervals were measured for both atrial and ventricular activity. Moreover, the beat-to-beat P-wave variability was computed for lead II and for the first principal component (PC1) computed across the 16 leads. The percentage of variance explained by PC1 was computed. RESULTS: Males compared to females showed significantly longer RR interval (1.02 ± 0.16 s vs 0.97 ± 0.15 s, p < .001), PQ interval (191 ± 34 ms vs 183 ± 35 ms, p = .008), QRS duration (105 ± 17 ms vs 98 ± 13 ms, p = .021), significantly lower percentage of variance explained by PC1 and P-wave variability. Males with paroxysmal AF compared to females with paroxysmal AF had significantly longer RR interval (1.01 ± 0.17 s vs 0.96 ± 0.14 s, p < .001), shorter QTc (388 ± 27 ms vs 402 ± 27 ms, p < .001), lower P-wave variability in PC1. Males with persistent AF compared to females with persistent AF had significantly shorter QTc interval (396 ± 30 ms vs 407 ± 26 ms, p = .019), longer PQ interval (194 ± 35 ms vs 182 ± 30 ms, p = .037), higher V1 terminal force (2.1 ± 1.2 mV*ms vs 1.8 ± 1 mV*ms, p = .007), lower percentage of variance explained by PC1. CONCLUSIONS: AF patients present with several sex-related ECG differences. Consequently, sex should be taken into account when developing ECG algorithms identifying patients at risk for AF progression.

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