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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641606

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak prompts an urgent need for efficient therapeutics, and repurposing of known drugs has been extensively used in an attempt to get to anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents in the shortest possible time. The glycoside rutin shows manifold pharmacological activities and, despite its use being limited by its poor solubility in water, it is the active principle of many pharmaceutical preparations. We herein report our in silico and experimental investigations of rutin as a SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor and of its water solubility improvement obtained by mixing it with l-arginine. Tests of the rutin/l-arginine mixture in a cellular model of SARS-CoV-2 infection highlighted that the mixture still suffers from unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, but nonetheless, the results of this study suggest that rutin might be a good starting point for hit optimization.

2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113863, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571172

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic, starting from the latest 2019, and caused by SARS-CoV-2 pathogen, led to the hardest health-socio-economic disaster in the last century. Despite the tremendous scientific efforts, mainly focused on the development of vaccines, identification of potent and efficient anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics still represents an unmet need. Remdesivir, an anti-Ebola drug selected from a repurposing campaign, is the only drug approved, so far, for the treatment of the infection. Nevertheless, WHO in later 2020 has recommended against its use in COVID-19. In the present paper, we describe a step-by-step in silico design of a small library of compounds as main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. All the molecules were screened by an enzymatic assay on Mpro and, then, cellular activity was evaluated using Vero cells viral infection model. The cellular screening disclosed compounds 29 and 34 as in-vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication inhibitors at non-toxic concentrations (0.32 < EC50 < 5.98 µM). To rationalize these results, additional in-vitro assays were performed, focusing on papain like protease (PLpro) and spike protein (SP) as potential targets for the synthesized molecules. This pharmacological workflow allowed the identification of compound 29, as a dual acting SARS-CoV-2 proteases inhibitor featuring micromolar inhibitory potency versus Mpro (IC50 = 1.72 µM) and submicromolar potency versus PLpro (IC50 = 0.67 µM), and of compound 34 as a selective SP inhibitor (IC50 = 3.26 µM).

3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361825

RESUMO

Lipid-based nanocarriers (LNs) have made it possible to prolong corneal residence time and improve the ocular bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs. In order to investigate how the LNs interact with the ocular mucosa and reach the posterior eye segment, we have formulated lipid nanocarriers that were designed to bear a traceable fluorescent probe in the present work. The chosen fluorescent probe was obtained by a conjugation reaction between fluoresceinamine and the solid lipid excipient stearic acid, forming a chemically synthesized adduct (ODAF, N-(3',6'-dihydroxy-3-oxospiro [isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H] xanthen]-5-yl)-octadecanamide). The novel formulation (LN-ODAF) has been formulated and characterized in terms of its technological parameters (polydispersity index, mean particle size and zeta potential), while an in vivo study was carried out to assess the ability of LN-ODAF to diffuse through different ocular compartments. LN-ODAF were in nanometric range (112.7 nm ± 0.4), showing a good homogeneity and long-term stability. A TEM (transmission electron microscopy) study corroborated these results of characterization. In vivo results pointed out that after ocular instillation, LN ODAF were concentrated in the cornea (two hours), while at a longer time (from the second hour to the eighth hour), the fluorescent signals extended gradually towards the back of the eye. From the results obtained, LN-ODAF demonstrated a potential use of lipid-based nanoparticles as efficient carriers of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) involved in the management of retinal diseases.


Assuntos
Córnea/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Segmento Posterior do Olho/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Animais , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Segmento Posterior do Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Compostos de Espiro/química
4.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, heart failure, renal failure and peripheral vascular disease. In the last decade, milk-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention for their beneficial cardiovascular properties. METHODS: Here, we combined in vitro chemical assay such as LC-MS/MS analysis of buffalo ice cream, ex vivo vascular studies evaluating endothelial and smooth muscle responses using pressure myograph, and translational assay testing in vivo the vascular actions of PG1 administration in murine models. RESULTS: We demonstrate that a novel buffalo ice-cream-derived pentapeptide "QKEPM", namely PG1, is a stable peptide that can be obtained at higher concentration after gastro-intestinal digestions (GID) of buffalo ice-cream (BIC). It owns potent vascular effect in counteract the effects of angiotensin II-evoked vasoconstriction and high blood pressure levels. Its effects are mediated by the inhibitory effect on AT1 receptor leading to a downregulation of p-ERK½/Rac1-GTP and consequent reduction of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: These results strongly candidate PG1, as a novel bioactive peptide for the prevention and management of hypertension, thus expanding the armamentarium of preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidence and progression of hypertension and its related cardiovascular complications.

5.
J Med Chem ; 63(17): 9672-9694, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787109

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channel represents a valuable pharmacological option for several therapeutic areas. Here, a series of conformationally restricted derivatives of the previously described TRPM8 antagonist N,N'-dibenzyl tryptophan 4 were prepared and characterized in vitro by Ca2+-imaging and patch-clamp electrophysiology assays. Molecular modeling studies led to identification of a broad and well-defined interaction network of these derivatives inside the TRPM8 binding site, underlying their antagonist activity. The (5R,11aS)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5,6,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[1',5':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,3(2H)-dione (31a) emerged as a potent (IC50 = 4.10 ± 1.2 nM), selective, and metabolically stable TRPM8 antagonist. In vivo, 31a showed significant target coverage in an icilin-induced WDS (at 11.5 mg/kg ip), an oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia (at 10-30 µg sc), and CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia (at 11.5 mg/kg ip) mice models. These results confirm the tryptophan moiety as a solid pharmacophore template for the design of highly potent modulators of TRPM8-mediated activities.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Carbolinas/química , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPM/agonistas , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Analgésicos/metabolismo , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Carbolinas/metabolismo , Carbolinas/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Conformação Proteica , Ratos , Canais de Cátion TRPM/química
6.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756470

RESUMO

Among enhancing strategies proposed in ocular drug delivery, a rising interest is directed to cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), amino acid short sequences primarily known for their intrinsic ability to cell internalization and, by extension, to cross biological barriers. In fact, CPPs may be considered as carrier for delivering therapeutic agents across biological membranes, including ocular tissues. Several CPPs have been proposed in ophthalmic delivery, and, among them, penetratin (PNT), a 16-amino acids natural peptide, stands out. Therefore, we describe the synthesis via the mimotopic approach of short fluorescently labeled analogues of both PNT and its reversed sequence PNT-R. Their ability to cross ocular membranes was checked ex vivo using freshly explanted porcine cornea. Furthermore, some sequences were studied by circular dichroism. Despite the hydrophilic nature and the relatively high molecular weight (approx. 1.6 kDa), all analogues showed a not negligible trans-corneal diffusion, indicating a partial preservation of penetration activity, even if no sequences reached the noteworthy ability of PNT. It was not possible to find a correlation between structure and corneal penetration ability, and further studies, exploring peptides distribution within corneal layers, for example using imaging techniques, deserve to be performed to figure out a possible difference in intracellular delivery.

7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(5)2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370308

RESUMO

Abstract: The interest towards nutraceuticals able to counteract drug side effects is continuously growing in current chemotherapeutic protocols. In the present study, we demonstrated that smoothies containing mixtures of Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aglianico N, two typical fruits of the Mediterranean diet, possess bioactive polyphenols that protect cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. The polyphenolic extracts isolated from Citrus sinensis- and Vitis vinifera-based functional smoothies were deeply characterized by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry methods. Subsequently, the functional smoothies and relative mixtures were tested to verify their ability to affect cellular viability and oxidative stress parameters in embryonic cardiomyocyte cells (H9c2), and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) exposed to doxorubicin. Interestingly, we found that the mix resulting from Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera association in ratio 1:1 was able to reduce cardiomyocytes damage induced by anthracyclines, without significantly interfering with the pro-apoptotic activity of the drug on breast cancer cells. These results point out the potential use of vegetable smoothies as adjuvants functional foods for chemotherapeutic anticancer protocols.

8.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(2)2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046269

RESUMO

The present work was aimed for the preparation of a stable nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) system for the delivery of N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) to the back of the eye. PEA is an interesting natural compound showing anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. The limits of PEA (poor solubility and high instability) justify its nanoencapsulation into drug delivery systems. Two different well-known techniques were compared to formulate NLC: the high shear homogenization technique (HSH) and the method based on a combination of HSH technique and ultrasonication (HSH/US). Nanoparticles were evaluated in relation to mean size, homogeneity, surface charge, and physical stability by Turbiscan technology. Retinal distribution of PEA was carried out in a rat eye after single instillation of PEA-NLC ophthalmic formulation. The novel formulation delivered remarkable levels of PEA to the retina. Lastly, topical administration of PEA-NLC ophthalmic formulation was able to significantly inhibits retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The present findings suggest that the novel ophthalmic formulation may be useful for the treatment of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. Clinical studies are in progress to evaluate this possibility.

9.
Cornea ; 39(1): 56-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356422

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate custom fast cross-linking (cfCXL) treatment of keratoconus. METHODS: "Custom fast cross-linking" or "cfCXL" is a keratoconus treatment algorithm featuring no epithelial disruption, 15 minutes of corneal presoaking with a riboflavin-vitamin E TPGS solution, and a 370-nm ultraviolet A radiation beam centered on the most highly curved corneal region. Ultraviolet A radiation beam fluence, total energy, and exposure time are significantly less than those in the Dresden protocol. In this study, refraction, spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity, Kmax, and corneal hysteresis were monitored in 81 eyes of 81 patients for 7 years with 100% follow-up. Pretreatment Kmax and patient age averaged 53.01 ± 4.87 D and 25.9 ± 4.7 years, respectively. RESULTS: Average refractive cylinder magnitude was reduced by 26.1% at 1 month postoperatively and by 44.2% at 7 years postoperatively. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution average spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity) improved from +0.26 ± 0.34 (20/36.4) to +0.15 ± 0.23 (20/28.25), +0.05 ± 0.20 (20/22.4), and +0.06 ± 0.20 (20/22.96) at 1 month, 1 year, and 7 years postoperatively, respectively. Best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity improved in 54.3%, 74.1%, 84.0%, 87.7%, 84.0%, 84.0%, and 82.7% of patients at postoperative months 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 84, respectively. Kmax did not increase in 96.3% of patients at 1 month, 97.5% at 1 year, and 98.8% at 7 years postoperatively, with average corneal apex flattening at 1 month and 7 years of -2.79 ± 1.70 D and -4.00 ± 2.40 D, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Custom fast cross-linking, epi-on, rapid, narrowed beam apex-centered treatment of keratoconus with riboflavin-vitamin E TPGS produced a significant, rapid, and lasting cone progression stoppage, astigmatism reduction, and visual acuity improvement.


Assuntos
Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Paquimetria Corneana/métodos , Topografia da Córnea/métodos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ceratocone/patologia , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Raios Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual
10.
Int Ophthalmol ; 40(4): 823-831, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the ocular hypotensive effect of 15-keto fluprostenol, the oxidized metabolite of travoprost, on glaucoma patients, through a randomized double-masked placebo-controlled study. METHODS: Twelve patients with ocular normal tension glaucoma (NTG) (intraocular pressure [IOP] < 22 mmHg) were enrolled. In order to ensure patient compliance to treatment, all study subjects were hospitalized. In each patient, the eye to be submitted to the treatments was randomly chosen. After hospital admission (day 1), those patients received for 5 days at 8 P.M. either one drop of 15-keto fluprostenol (35 µg/ml) or one drop of placebo. IOP evaluation was performed within 8 A.M. and 8 P.M. for 6 days. Furthermore, we performed a determination of cardiovascular parameters before and after the treatments. RESULTS: Starting with the first IOP measurement after the first treatment (8 A.M. on day 2), IOP was reduced of about 14% in the eyes treated 15-keto fluprostenol, in comparison with baseline IOP values of 15-keto fluprostenol-treated patients. The IOP reduction in the 15-keto fluprostenol-treated group was significantly compared to placebo group (p < 0.05) starting from day 3 till day 6 of the study. Except for mild hyperemia in one 15-keto fluprostenol-treated eye, no other side effects were observed or reported by the enrolled patients. CONCLUSIONS: The travoprost metabolite 15-keto fluprostenol was effective in decrease IOP and maintained IOP reduction along 5 days of treatment. The 15-keto fluprostenol can be developed as a good candidate for once-a-day NTG patients' treatment.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandinas F Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Med Chem ; 63(1): 163-185, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815462

RESUMO

Kv7 K+ channels represent attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of different neurological disorders, including epilepsy. In this paper, 42 conformationally restricted analogues of the prototypical Kv7 activator retigabine have been synthesized and tested by electrophysiological patch-clamp experiments as Kv7 agonists. When compared to retigabine (0.93 ± 0.43 µM), the EC50s for Kv7.2 current enhancements by compound 23a (0.08 ± 0.04 µM) were lower, whereas no change in potency was observed for 24a (0.63 ± 0.07 µM). In addition, compared to retigabine, 23a and 24a showed also higher potency in activating heteromeric Kv7.2/Kv7.3 and homomeric Kv7.4 channels. Molecular modeling studies provided new insights into the chemical features required for optimal interaction at the binding site. Stability studies evidenced improved chemical stability of 23a and 24a in comparison with retigabine. Overall, the present results highlight that the N5-alkylamidoindole moiety provides a suitable pharmacophoric scaffold for the design of chemically stable, highly potent and selective Kv7 agonists.


Assuntos
Indóis/farmacologia , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/agonistas , Canal de Potássio KCNQ3/agonistas , Animais , Células CHO , Carbamatos/química , Cricetulus , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/metabolismo , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/genética , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/metabolismo , Canal de Potássio KCNQ3/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Mutação , Fenilenodiaminas/química , Ligação Proteica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xenopus laevis
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1616239, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814866

RESUMO

Peptides derived from buffalo dairy products possess multiple healthy properties that cannot be exerted as long as they are encrypted in parent proteins. To evaluate the biological activities of encrypted peptide sequences from buffalo ricotta cheese, we performed a simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Chemical and pharmacological characterization of the digest led to the identification of a novel peptide endowed with antioxidant and antihypertensive action. The GI digest was fractionated by Semiprep-HPLC, and fractions were tested against reactive oxygen species (ROS) release in an H2O2-treated intestinal epithelial cell line. UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of an abundant ß-lactoglobulin peptide (BRP2) in the most active fraction. Pharmacological characterization of BRP2 highlighted its antioxidant activity, involving ROS reduction, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation, and cytoprotective enzyme expression. The bioavailability of BRP2 was evaluated in intestinal transport studies through a Caco-2 cell monolayer. Equal bidirectional transport and linear permeability indicate that BRP2 was absorbed mainly through passive diffusion. In addition to its local effects, the BRP2 administration on mouse mesenteric arteries was able to reduce the angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction by the Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the reduction of the active form of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), and the NADPH oxidase activity. These data further highlight the role of buffalo ricotta cheese-derived peptides against oxidative stress-related diseases and suggest their health-promoting potential.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Lactoglobulinas/farmacologia , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816826

RESUMO

Inflammation and oxidative stress are always more recognized as responsible for chronic disease at the intestinal level. Currently, a growing interest is addressed to the discovery of diet-derived products which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This work aims to characterize the pharmacological potential of dehydrated potatoes. For this purpose, a simulated gastrointestinal digestion was carried out. The bioaccessible peptides were fractionated on the basis of their molecular weight and tested on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) under oxidative and inflammatory conditions. Our results demonstrate that the tested peptide fractions were able to significantly inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α release and cycloxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The tested peptides also showed significant antioxidant activity, being able to both reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, also from mitochondria, and nitrotyrosine formation, and increase the antioxidant response by heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase expression. Moreover, the peptide fractions were able to significantly increase the wound repair in IEC-6. The obtained results indicate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of dehydrated potatoes at the intestinal level.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dessecação , Intestinos/citologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Interferons/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8 (TRPM8) is a non-selective cation channel activated by cold temperature and by cooling agents. Several studies have proved that this channel is involved in pain perception. Although some studies indicate that TRPM8 inhibition is necessary to reduce acute and chronic pain, it is also reported that TRPM8 activation produces analgesia. These conflicting results could be explained by extracellular Ca2+-dependent desensitization that is induced by an excessive activation. Likely, this effect is due to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) depletion that leads to modification of TRPM8 channel activity, shifting voltage dependence towards more positive potentials. This phenomenon needs further evaluation and confirmation that would allow us to understand better the role of this channel and to develop new therapeutic strategies for controlling pain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To understand the role of TRPM8 in pain perception, we tested two specific TRPM8-modulating compounds, an antagonist (IGM-18) and an agonist (IGM-5), in either acute or chronic animal pain models using male Sprague-Dawley rats or CD1 mice, after systemic or topical routes of administration. RESULTS: IGM-18 and IGM-5 were fully characterized in vivo. The wet-dog shake test and the body temperature measurements highlighted the antagonist activity of IGM-18 on TRPM8 channels. Moreover, IGM-18 exerted an analgesic effect on formalin-induced orofacial pain and chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain, demonstrating the involvement of TRPM8 channels in these two pain models. Finally, the results were consistent with TRPM8 downregulation by agonist IGM-5, due to its excessive activation. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM8 channels are strongly involved in pain modulation, and their selective antagonist is able to reduce both acute and chronic pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Percepção da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/metabolismo , Dor/patologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Canais de Cátion TRPM/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo
15.
Front Chem ; 7: 568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457005

RESUMO

Ultrasound-promoted N-aminomethylation of indoles can be achieved in basic medium using sodium hydride and dichloromethane (DCM) as C1 donor source. This innovative amino methylation protocol results in good to excellent yields of multifunctional indole derivatives. The procedure is also applicable to other aza-heterocyclic compounds and, interestingly, affords direct access to aminomethyl-substituted aryl alcohols.

17.
Cornea ; 38(6): 780-790, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There has been a recent explosion in the variety of techniques used to accomplish corneal cross-linking (CXL) for the treatment of ectatic corneal diseases. To understand the success or failure of various techniques, we review the physicochemical basis of corneal CXL and re-evaluate the current principles and long-standing conventional wisdom in the light of recent, compelling, and sometimes contradictory research. METHODS: Two clinicians and a medicinal chemist developed a list of current key topics, controversies, and questions in the field of corneal CXL based on information from current literature, medical conferences, and discussions with international practitioners of CXL. RESULTS: Standard corneal CXL with removal of the corneal epithelium is a safe and efficacious procedure for the treatment of corneal ectasias. However, the necessity of epithelium removal is painful for patients, involves risk and requires significant recovery time. Attempts to move to transepithelial corneal CXL have been hindered by the lack of a coherent understanding of the physicochemistry of corneal CXL. Misconceptions about the applicability of the Bunsen-Roscoe law of reciprocity and the Lambert-Beer law in CXL hamper the ability to predict the effect of ultraviolet A energy during CXL. Improved understanding of CXL may also expand the treatment group for corneal ectasia to those with thinner corneas. Finally, it is essential to understand the role of oxygen in successful CXL. CONCLUSIONS: Improved understanding of the complex interactions of riboflavin, ultraviolet A energy and oxygen in corneal CXL may provide a successful route to transepithelial corneal CXL.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Córnea , Doenças da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Riboflavina/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Córnea/efeitos da radiação , Epitélio Corneano/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Corneano/efeitos da radiação , Humanos
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 167: 61-75, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763817

RESUMO

A series of 1,3,5-substituted indole derivatives was prepared to explore the anti-proliferative activity against a panel of human tumour cell lines. A 5-carboxamide derivative (27) emerged as the most potent compound of this series, inhibiting the HeLa cell growth at sub-micromolar concentrations. Target fishing of 27 using a combination of inverse virtual screening (IVS) approach and ligand-based shape similarity study identified the top-ranked targets for 27 as belonging to kinome. These results were further confirmed by in vitro binding assays, leading to the identification of 27 as multi-target kinase inhibitor. The compound 27 was further characterized for its antiproliferative activity by in cell studies, showing a mechanism of action involving modification of the cell cycle, increase in ROS release and caspase 3-expression and decrease in ERK expression.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Indóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Hypertension ; 73(2): 449-457, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595120

RESUMO

Considered as a superfood of the future, Spirulina platensis matrix has been extensively used because of its beneficial effect on the management of cardiovascular diseases. However, its nutraceutical properties, bioactive compounds, and molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that S platensis matrix processed in vitro by simulated gastrointestinal digestion induces direct endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasorelaxation of resistance vessels in mice. To gain insight into the bioactive compounds responsible for this effect, we used a complex multistep peptidomic approach to fractionate the crude digest: of the 5 peptide fractions identified (A-E), only fraction E evoked vasorelaxation. High-resolution mass spectrometry-based screening revealed in E the presence of 4 main peptides (SP3-SP6 [spirulina peptides]), of which only SP6 (GIVAGDVTPI) exerted direct endothelium-dependent vasodilation of ex vivo vessels, an effect occurring via a PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase)/AKT (serine/threonine kinase Akt) pathway converging on NO release. In vivo, administration of SP6 evoked a significant hemodynamic effect, reducing blood pressure, an action absent in eNOS (endothelial NO synthase)-deficient mice. Of note, although lower doses of SP6 had no hemodynamic effects, it still enhanced endothelial NO vasorelaxation. Finally, in an experimental model of arterial hypertension, SP6 exerted an antihypertensive effect, improving endothelial vasorelaxation associated with enhanced serum nitrite levels. Based on our results, this novel decameric peptide may extend the possible fields of application for spirulina-derived peptides and could be developed into a promising nonpharmacological approach for the containment of pathologies associated with vascular NO misregulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/fisiologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Spirulina/química , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545010

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are often employed as ingredients for functional drinks. Among Citrus, the variety, "Lempso", a typical hybrid of the Calabria region (Southern Italy), has been reported to possess superior antioxidant activity when compared to other common Citrus varieties. For these reasons, the aim of this study is to investigate in vitro the nutraceutical value of the Tarocco clone, "Lempso", highlighting its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential. A post-column 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging assay for the screening of antioxidant compounds in these complex matrices was developed. Subsequently, polyphenolic extract was tested on a murine macrophage cell line under inflammatory conditions. The extract resulted was able to significantly inhibit nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine release and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The inhibition of these pro-inflammatory factors was associated to Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) inhibition. Our results also indicate an anti-oxidant potential of the extract as evidenced by the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and by the activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) pathway in macrophages. The obtained results highlight the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Lempso extract and its potential use, as a new ingredient for the formulation of functional beverages with high nutraceutical value, providing health benefits to consumers.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Picratos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química
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