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1.
J Res Med Sci ; 27: 30, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548173

RESUMO

Background: Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of the cardiovascular disease. Saffron is a traditional food that affects many diseases and disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on quality of life (QOL) and appetite in patients with atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 63 participants with atherosclerosis were recruited from Emam Sajjad Hospital, Valiasr Hospital, and Zafaranieyh Clinic in Tehran, Iran. The participants were divided randomly into two groups. Participants received 100 mg/d saffron or placebo capsule for 6 weeks. QOL and appetite levels were measured by the McNew QOL questionnaire, and visual analog scale questionnaire, respectively. Furthermore, anthropometric indices of participants were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference between atherosclerosis patients who received placebo and those who consumed saffron in terms of the physical domain (P = 0.008) and social domain (P = 0.012) of QOL. In the saffron group increased score in Total score Macnew (P < 0.001), physical domain (P = 0.025), and social domain (P < 0.001) was significant after the intervention. Moreover, the consumption of saffron did not significantly affect emotional domains of QOL, and appetite levels. Conclusion: Saffron may be considered as a novel agent in patients with atherosclerosis to improve the QOL. A great deal of further research will be needed to critically validate the efficacy of saffron and its mechanisms in atherosclerosis.

2.
J Food Biochem ; : e14166, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365881

RESUMO

The evidence provided by meta-analyses on the beneficial impacts of cinnamon supplementation on anthropometric indices are still conflicting. Present study's aim was to evaluate the effects of cinnamon on obesity indices by an umbrella meta-analysis. The electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus were systematically searched up to March 2021. Data for the effects of cinnamon on anthropometric indices were collected from the meta-analyses. An umbrella meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects model. The pooled effects of 7 meta-analyses showed that cinnamon supplementation significantly reduced body weight (ES: -0.67 kg; 95% CI: -0.99, -0.35, p Ë‚ .001), body mass index (ES: -0.45 kg/m2 ; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.33, p Ë‚ .001) in comparison to control group. However, the effects of cinnamon on waist circumference (ES: -1.05 cm; 95% CI: -2.26, 0.15, p = .087) were not considerable. According to results, cinnamon could be suggested as a complementary weight loss agent. Favorable results were obtained at a dose of ≥3 g/day. In this study, a comprehensive study was performed on meta-analyses performed on the effect of cinnamon on anthropometric indices. This study could be considered as a final conclusion about the effect of cinnamon on anthropometric indices. The results of this study showed that supplementation with cinnamon significantly reduces BMI and body weight. The impacts were greater in doses of ≥3 g/day and in PCOS patients. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In this study, a comprehensive study was performed on meta-analyses performed on the effect of cinnamon on anthropometric indices. This study could be considered as a final conclusion about the effect of cinnamon on anthropometric indices. The results of this study showed that supplementation with cinnamon significantly reduces BMI and body weight. The impacts were greater in doses of ≥3 g/day and in PCOS patients.

3.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 71: 126955, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic dyslipidemia is caused by hyperglycemia and excessive mobilization of storage lipids, leading to increasing concentrations of triglycerides and total cholesterol. Due to the insulin-mimetic or insulin-enhancer features of vanadium, it has been recognized as a regulator of cell metabolism with hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. The purpose of the current animal systematic review was to evaluate the effect of vanadium administration on diabetic dyslipidemia in diabetic animals. METHODS: This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic review with the aim of investigating the relationship between vanadium and diabetic dyslipidemia among diabetes induced animals. Searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and web of science databases for animal studies examining the effect of vanadium on diabetic dyslipidemia in diabetic animals. RESULTS: Of 124 full-text articles assessed, 48 animal studies were included in the present study with minor risk of bias. The majority of the studies confirmed the beneficial effects of different vanadium compounds in at least one of the parameters of lipid profile, especially regarding triglyceride and total cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Current findings lend support to assess the long-term effects of different forms and doses of vanadium on lipid profile through well-designed clinical trials.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Dislipidemias , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina , Vanádio/farmacologia
4.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 109-120, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of chronic diseases. It has been suggested that melatonin has a protective role against oxidative stress by activation of antioxidant enzymes and scavenging free-radicals. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx). METHODS: Systematic search was performed to identify relevant studies in PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Embase databases and Google Scholar up to September 2020. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effect model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity. The quality of studies was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plot. RESULTS: A total number of 16 eligible articles were included in the meta-analysis. The dosages of melatonin varied between 3 and 400 mg/day, with a duration range between 1.42 and 12 weeks. Melatonin supplementation significantly increased serum levels of TAC [SMD: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.89, 2.29; P < 0.001; (I2 = 93.53%, P < 0.001 No significant effects were observed on MDA [SMD: -3.09; 95% CI: -7.07, 0.89; P = 0.12; (I2 = 99.57%, P < 0.001)], GPx [SMD: 0.86; 95% CI: -3.46, 5.19; P = 0.61; (I2 = 98.17%, P < 0.001)] and SOD levels [SMD: 1.92; 95% CI: -3.57, 7.41; P = 0.35; (I2 = 98.27%, P < 0.001)]. CONCLUSION: Results of the current meta-analysis showed that melatonin supplementation had a significant impact on attenuating of oxidative stress and enhancing antioxidant performance. Melatonin supplementation could be suggested as a safe complementary approach in amelioration of the chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Melatonina , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Malondialdeído , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 72: 126969, 2022 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The worldwide growing trend of obesity across all ages has increased the number of researches on the obesity management and prevention. Boron is a potential essential trace element and there are some promising results on its weight lowering effect. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was aimed to assess the effect of boron on body weight. METHOD: Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched from 1995 until November 2021 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. Human studies were excluded in our analyses regarding their limited number and the heterogeneity of study designs. All of the relevant animal studies on rodents with weight changes as a primary outcome were included. The assessments of risk of bias and heterogeneity were conducted using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and I-square (I2) statistic respectively. RESULTS: According to our findings the overall effect of boron administration orally was significant decrease of body weight (WMD = -18.12 g 95% CI -23.28, -12.96; P < 0.001). The boron compound administration was more effective in the borax form and also when the intervention duration was ≤ 4 weeks. Moreover, the effect size was greater in the male gender rather than female animals. CONCLUSION: Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of boron although, there are a few inconsistent evidences. It seems that the weight lowering effect of boron may be through increasing the energy metabolism, thermogenesis, lipolysis and inhibition of adiposeness. However, future clinical trials can better clarify the effects of boron on obesity management.

6.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 74: 103243, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health condition in populations. Limited large-scale population-based studies evaluated the prevalence and predictors of LBP in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with LBP among the Iranian population. METHODS: We used baseline information from the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in Iran (PERSIAN), including individuals from 16 provinces of Iran. LBP was defined as the history of back pain interfering with daily activities for more than one week during an individual's lifetime. Various factors hypothesized to affect LBP, such as age, sex, marital status, educational status, ethnicity, living area, employment status, history of smoking, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, sleep duration, wealth score, history of joint pain, and history of morning stiffness in the joints were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 163770 Iranians with a mean age of 49.37 (SD = 9.15) were included in this study, 44.8% of whom were male. The prevalence of LBP was 25.2% among participants. After adjusting for confounders, the female gender [OR:1.244(1.02-1.50)], middle and older ages [OR:1.23(1.10-1.33) and OR:1.13(1.07-1.42), respectively], being overweight or obese [OR:1.13(1.07-1.19) and OR:1.21(1.16-1.27), respectively], former and current smokers (OR:1.25(1.16-1.36) and OR:1.28(1.17-1.39), respectively], low physical activity [OR:1.07(1.01-1.14)], and short sleep duration [OR: 1.09(1.02-1.17)] were significantly associated with LBP. CONCLUSION: In this large-scale study, we found the lifetime prevalence of LBP to be lower among the Iranian population in comparison to the global prevalence of LBP; further studies are warranted to evaluate the causality of risk factors on LBP.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263795, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: So far, no comprehensive studies have been performed to assess burden and determinants of anemia in Iran. In the present study, we aimed to answer this query using the data obtained from the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 161,686 adult participants (aged 35 years and older) from 16 provinces of Iran. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin concentration of <13 g/dL in males and <12 g/dL in females. To evaluate the association between anemia and different factors, we used the multivariable Poisson regression analysis with robust variance by applying adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of the total number of subjects, 72,387 (44.77%) were male and others were female. Mean age was 49.39±9.15 years old. The overall age- and sex-standardized prevalence of anemia was 8.83% (95% CI: 8.70-8.96%) in the included population. The highest and the lowest age- and sex-standardized prevalence of anemia pertained to Hormozgan (37.41%, 95% CI: 35.97-38.85%) and Kurdistan (4.57%, 95% CI: 3.87-5.27%) provinces, respectively. Being female (PR = 2.97), rural residence (PR = 1.24), being retired (PR = 1.53) and housewife (PR = 1.11), third and fourth wealth status quartiles (PR = 1.09 and PR = 1.11, respectively), being underweight (PR = 1.49), drug user (PR = 1.35), inadequate sleep (PR = 1.16), poor physical activity (PR = 1.15), diabetes (PR = 1.09), renal failure (PR = 2.24), and cancer (PR = 1.35) were associated with increased risk of anemia. On the other hand, illiteracy (PR = 0.79) and abdominal obesity (PR = 0.77) decreased the risk of anemia. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, a variable prevalence of anemia was observed across the included provinces. We tried to provide an informative report on anemia prevalence for health professionals and authorities to take measures for identification and management of the cases of anemia in high-prevalence areas.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 71: 126945, 2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of boron citrate and oleoylethanolamide supplementation in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Forty adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were recruited in the present study. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio to 1of 4 treatment groups: (A) 5 mg of boron citrate twice a day, (B) 200 mg of oleoylethanolamide twice a day, (C) both therapies, or (D) routine treatments without any study medications. At pre-and post-intervention phase, some clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed. RESULTS: Supplementation with boron citrate alone or in combination with oleoylethanolamide significantly improved O2 saturation and respiratory rate (p < 0.01). At the end of the study, significant increases in white blood cell and lymphocyte count were observed in the boron citrate and combined groups (p < 0.001). Boron citrate supplementation led to a significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.026) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.014), compared with other groups. Furthermore, boron citrate in combination with oleoylethanolamide resulted in a significant reduction in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-1ß concentrations (p = 0.031 and p = 0.027, respectively). No significant differences were found among four groups post-intervention, in terms of hemoglobin concentrations, platelet count, and serum interleukin-6 levels. At the end of the study, common symptoms of COVID-19 including cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and myalgia significantly improved in the supplemented groups, compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Supplementation with boron citrate alone or in combination with oleoylethanolamide could improve some clinical and biochemical parameters in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 19(1): 6, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present systematic review is conducted, focusing on the existing evidence of Propolis's effects due to its various health benefits, mainly antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on preserving renal function. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ProQuest, and Google Scholar was undertaken for relevant papers published from the start until January 2021. RESULTS: This review revealed that Propolis affects fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood glucose, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, urinary concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites (Tbars), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation favorably. The findings on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), ß-cell function (HOMA-ß), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and lipid profile were controversial. Moreover, a significant reduction in renal nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), serum immunoglobulins, renal ED-1+ cells, and urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) following Propolis supplementation has been reported, while the results on interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were controversial. Furthermore, included studies showed its anti- proteinuria and kidney restoring effects. CONCLUSION: In this review, both human and animal studies provide us evidences that Propolis could potentially improve the glycemic status, oxidative stress, renal tissue damage, and renal function. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying mechanisms.

10.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(1): 27-33, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996690

RESUMO

Nowadays, extensive attention has focused on dietary constituents that may be valuable for treating, eating, and preventing diabetes. Numerous studies have shown that anthocyanin's are one of the most important nutritional factors associated with diabetes. Anthocyanin's are the leading group of water-soluble pigments in the plant kingdom, and they are generally available in some human diet in fruits, vegetables, cereals, beans. Amongst, bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), is one of the essential sources for dietary anthocyanin consumption containing vast amounts of anthocyanin's, making them the main plant in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Although the bilberries have other valuable properties such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant, the main focus of the present study is to present the effects of bilberries (V. myrtillus) on the prevention and treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Vaccinium myrtillus , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/uso terapêutico , Frutas/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Vaccinium myrtillus/química
11.
Adv Biomed Res ; 10: 33, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the subclinical hypothyroidism, T4 or T3 levels are normal and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is slightly high. Selenium deficiency can lead to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation on the thyroid hormone and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO AB) levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 42 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were randomly assigned to receive 200 µg selenium or placebo for 8 weeks. In the both groups, the serum TSH and anti-TPO antibody levels were measured and assessed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After the interventions, the mean serum TSH reduction in the intervention and placebo groups was -10.98 ± 33.31 and -3.20 ± 38.36, respectively, which were not statistically significant. However, the mean serum anti-TPO Ab concentration increased in the intervention and placebo groups (109.81 ± 51.49% vs. 173.17 ± 96.26%), between which the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05) despite a slight increase in the mean anti-TPO level in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study indicated that selenium supplementation has no significant effect on serum anti-TPO Ab and TSH levels in the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Studies with larger sample size and with different doses of selenium are needed to reach more precise results.

12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584225

RESUMO

Taurine (Tau) has modulatory effects on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers; however, the results of clinical studies are not comprehensive enough to determine the effect of different durations and doses of Tau supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. The current study was conducted based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. For this purpose, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases were systematically searched to obtain the relevant studies published before 30th March 2021. Meta-analysis was performed on controlled clinical trials by using the random-effects method. Non-linear relationship between variables and effect size was performed using dose-response and time-response analyses. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. Tau supplementation can reduce the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) (SMD = -1.17 µmol/l; 95% CI: -2.08, - 0.26; P = 0.012) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD = -1.95 mg/l; 95% CI: -3.20, - 0.71; P = 0.002). There have been no significant effects of Tau supplementation on the levels of tumor necrosis factors-alpha (TNF-α) (SMD = -0.18 pg/ml; 95% CI: -0.56, 0.21; P = 0.368), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (SMD = -0.49 pg/ml; 95% CI: -1.13, 0.16; P = 0.141). Besides, Tau has more alleviating effect on oxidative stress and inflammation on 56 days after supplementation (P < 0.05). Tau can decrease the levels of CRP and MDA. Based on the currently available evidence, Tau has no significant effect on the level of TNF-α and IL-6. Eight-week of Tau supplementation has more beneficial effects on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576638

RESUMO

This paper aims to analytically derive bending equations, as well as semi-analytically predict the deflection of prismatic SMA beams in the martensite phase. To this end, we are required to employ a simplified one-dimensional parametric model considering asymmetric response in tension and compression for martensitic beams. The model takes into account the different material parameters in martensite twined and detwinned phases as well as elastic modulus depending on the progress of the detwinning process. In addition, the model considers the diverse slope of loading and unloading in martensite detwinned phases favored by tension and compression. To acquire general bending equations, we first solve the pure bending problem of a prismatic SMA beam. Three different phases are assumed in the unloading procedure and the effect of neutral fiber distance from the centerline is also considered during this stage. Then according to the pure bending solution and employing semi-analytical methods, general bending equations of an SMA beam are derived. Polynomial approximation functions are utilized to obtain the beam deflection-length relationship. To validate the attained analytical expressions, several three- and four-point bending tests were conducted for rectangular and circular SMA beams. Experimental data confirm the reasonable accuracy of the analytical results. This work may be envisaged to go deep enough in investigating the response of SMA beams under an arbitrary transverse loading and stress distribution during loading and unloading, as well as findings may be applicable to a good prediction of bending behavior.

14.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14777, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Clinical efficacy of zinc (Zn) supplementation in the improvement of oxidative stress biomarkers has been investigated in some clinical trial studies. The purpose of the current dose-response meta-analysis is to systematically aggregate and evaluate all related studies to highlight the possible effect of Zn supplementation on oxidative stress. METHODS: Systematic search was performed on Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science and Embase up to 31 December 2020. The random effect method was used to perform pooled analysis. Possible sources of heterogeneity were found using subgroup analysis and meta-regression. In the presence of publication bias, trim and fill analysis was performed to adjust the results. Non-linear relationship between effect size and variables was investigated by performing dose-response analysis. The quality of included studies was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. RESULTS: Pooled-analysis of 18 studies showed that Zn supplementation improved MDA and Hcys levels (SMD = -1.53 µmol/L; 95% CI: -2.22, -0.85; P < .001 and SMD = -0.62 µmol/L; 95% CI: -1.08, -0.15; P < .001, respectively). There was no significant effect of Zn supplementation on TBARS (SMD = -0.59 µmol/l; 95% CI: -1.31, 0.13; P = .108). Zn had maximum reducing effect on MDA in <40 mg/day dosage. CONCLUSION: Zn supplementation reduces MDA and Hcys levels, but not TBARS level. Supplementation with Zn <40 mg/day has an optimum effect on MDA level. Zn supplementation could be considered clinically as a beneficial approach in amending oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Zinco , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies have reported controversial findings regarding the flaxseed oil effect on antioxidant status biomarkers. The present meta-analysis aimed to determine the impact of flaxseed oil on the serum level of biomarkers of oxidative stress. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted up to November 2020 on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Library. Random-effects model was employed to perform meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis was carried out to determine the effect across different ranges of dosages and durations. RESULTS: Eight trials were included with a total sample size of 429 individuals with a mean age range of 25 to 70 years. The results indicated that flaxseed oil supplementation led to a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (SMD: -0.52 µmol/L; 95% CI: -0.89, -0.15; P=0.006, I 2 = 71.3, P < 0.001) and increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (WMD: 82.84 mmol/L; 95% CI: 19.80, 145.87; P=0.006, I 2 = 92.7, P < 0.001). No significant effect was observed on glutathione (GSH). CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that flaxseed oil supplementation might play a beneficial role in the reinforcement of the antioxidant defense system and amelioration of oxidative stress in adults.

16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14591, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the consequence of Ramadan fasting on gut bacterium (Bacteroides and Firmicutes), serum concentration for butyrate, and lipid profile. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects were enlisted and investigated two times (before and at the end of Ramadan). Fasting blood samples were obtained for measuring fasting blood sugar (FBS) and lipid profile and serum butyrate concentration. Anthropometrics variables were measured before and after Ramadan for all 30 subjects. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, targeting the genome of Bacteroides and Firmicutes was performed to determine its presence in the stool samples. Food intake was assessed by a 3-day food record before and after Ramadan. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS ver.13 and Minitab ver.17. P < 0.05 considered the level of significance. RESULTS: The study results showed that serum levels of butyrate significantly increase during the month from 0.23 ± 0.02 mM to 0.46 ± 0.03 mM (P < 0.05). The gut Bacteroides and Firmicutes increased by 21 and 13 percent after Ramadan compared to before (P < 0.05). The increment in Bacteroides occurred in both sexes, but Firmicutes significantly increased only in women. Food intake was decreased during Ramadan. Ramadan fasting caused significant reduction in BMI from 25.72 ± 0.58 kg/m2to 25.25 ± 0.55 kg/m2 (P < 0.05). Serum levels of LDL, HDL, LDL/HDL ratio, and total cholesterol significantly decreased during Ramadan (P < 0.05). However, the decrease in FBS and TG level were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: It can be stated that the promotion of Bacteroides and Firmicutes in the gut might play a crucial role in health promotion. However, more research is needed to achieve a definite conclusion.


Assuntos
Jejum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Lipídeos , Masculino , Triglicerídeos
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 483-487, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a multi-factorial liver disease and its incidence is globally rising. Little is known about the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and liver fibrosis progression in NAFLD patients. AIM: To examine the association of liver fibrosis with TyG index among patients with NAFLD in a sample of Iranian adults. METHODS: The NAFLD fibrosis score and the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index were used for the detection of hepatic fibrosis. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were applied to assess the association of liver fibrosis with TyG index. RESULTS: The current study included a total of 230 participants with NAFLD and low probability of fibrosis. The TyG index quartiles were higher in patients with higher body mass index (BMI), higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), and less physical activity than in participants with lower BMI, lower SBP and more physical activity, respectively. Moreover, higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, aspartate and aminotransferases, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lower serum level of HDL-C were observed in patients with higher quartiles of TyG index (all P < 0.01). The severity of NAFLD significantly increased with increment in the quartiles of TyG index. Increased TyG index was positively associated with worsening of NAFLD fibrosis score and FIB-4 index. Based on NAFLD fibrosis score, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were 1.98 (1.33-2.22), 2.33 (2.09-2.94), and 3.44 (2.63-4.25) in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quantiles of TyG index when compared to the 1st quantile of TyG index. A similar trend was observed in the analysis using FIB-4 index. CONCLUSION: According to the results of the current study, excess TyG index contributes to the development of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Glucose , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos
18.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(2): 119-136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195036

RESUMO

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is considered as the most life-threatening pandemic disease during the last decade. The individual nutritional status, though usually ignored in the management of COVID-19, plays a critical role in the immune function and pathogenesis of infection. Accordingly, the present review article aimed to report the effects of nutrients and nutraceuticals on respiratory viral infections including COVID-19, with a focus on their mechanisms of action. Methods: Studies were identified via systematic searches of the databases including PubMed/ MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 2000 until April 2020, using keywords. All relevant clinical and experimental studies published in English were included. Results: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is common in severe respiratory infections and should be considered in the management of COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, obesity can be accompanied by decreasing the host immunity. Therefore, increasing physical activity at home and a slight caloric restriction with adequate intake of micronutrients and nutraceuticals are simple aids to boost host immunity and decrease the clinical manifestations of COVID-19. Conclusion: The most important nutrients which can be considered for COVID-19 management are vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, zinc, and probiotics. Their adequacy should be provided through dietary intake or appropriate supplementation. Moreover, adequate intake of some other dietary agents including vitamin E, magnesium, selenium, alpha linolenic acid and phytochemicals are required to maintain the host immunity.

19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14618, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spirulina, a type of blue-green algae, is used as an adjuvant treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Evidence about the effects of spirulina on antioxidant system are conflicting. Thus, this quantitative review aimed to summarise the effects of spirulina administration on antioxidant status biomarkers. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted using the PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and EMBASE, up to May 2021. Random effect analysis was applied to perform meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses and multivariate meta-regression were performed to find heterogeneity sources. Quality assessment was conducted using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Trim and fill analysis were also carried out in case of the presence of publication bias. RESULTS: A total of nine articles that enrolled 415 subjects were included in the present meta-analysis. Obtained findings exhibited that spirulina supplementation had marginal significant effect on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (SMD = 0.49; 95% CI: -0.001, 0.98; P = .05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (SMD = 0.72; 95% CI: -0.03, 1.46; P = .06), while did not affect glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (SMD=0.27; 95% CI: -0.23, 0.77; P = .29). CONCLUSIONS: Spirulina consumption may exert beneficial effects on enhancement of antioxidant system. A marginal significant increasing effect on TAC and SOD activity were found by spirulina administration. However, it did not affect GPx activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Spirulina , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos
20.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(6): 101754, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of liver fibrosis is the most important predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Little is known regarding the risk factors for the progression of NAFLD to liver fibrosis. The present cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association of liver fibrosis with metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity among patients with NAFLD. METHODS: The severity of fatty liver was examined using ultrasonography. We used the NAFLD fibrosis score to determine the severity of liver fibrosis. Anthropometric indices, physical activity, and body composition were assessed. Blood samples were collected to determine serum metabolic parameters. Participants without any component of metabolic syndrome and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) <2.5 were considered as metabolically healthy. To examine the association of liver fibrosis with metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were applied. RESULTS: The current study included a total of 246 patients with NAFLD and low probability of fibrosis. 46.3% of subjects were metabolically healthy and 53.7% were metabolically unhealthy. Among metabolically healthy subjects, multivariable-adjusted ORs (CIs) for worsening of NAFLD fibrosis score comparing body mass indexes (BMIs) 23.0-24.9, 25-29.9, and ≥30 with a BMI=18.5-22.9 kg/m2 were 1.28 (1.09-1.56), 1.99 (1.49-2.63), and 3.96 (2.89-4.71), respectively. The corresponding ORs (95% CIs) among metabolically unhealthy subjects were 1.39 (1.32-1.64), 2.27 (1.98-2.49), and 4.11 (3.12-4.93), respectively. Moreover, in both healthy and unhealthy individuals, higher percentages of body fat and waist circumference were significantly associated with worsening of NAFLD fibrosis score. CONCLUSION: Excess body fat contributes to the progression of liver fibrosis regardless of metabolic health status.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática , Obesidade , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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