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Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(7): 073909, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752826


The exploration of new materials, novel quantum phases, and devices requires ways to prepare cleaner samples with smaller feature sizes. Initially, this meant the use of a cleanroom that limits the amount and size of dust particles. However, many materials are highly sensitive to oxygen and water in the air. Furthermore, the ever-increasing demand for a quantum workforce, trained and able to use the equipment for creating and characterizing materials, calls for a dramatic reduction in the cost to create and operate such facilities. To this end, we present our cleanroom-in-a-glovebox, a system that allows for the fabrication and characterization of devices in an inert argon atmosphere. We demonstrate the ability to perform a wide range of characterization as well as fabrication steps, without the need for a dedicated room, all in an argon environment. Finally, we discuss the custom-built antechamber attached to the back of the glovebox. This antechamber allows the glovebox to interface with ultra-high vacuum equipment such as molecular-beam epitaxy and scanning tunneling microscopy.

Nat Mater ; 18(5): 471-475, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833781


Broadband, efficient and fast conversion of light to electricity is crucial for sensing and clean energy. The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE) is a second-order nonlinear optical effect that intrinsically converts light into electrical current. Here, we demonstrate a large mid-infrared BPVE in microscopic devices of the Weyl semimetal TaAs. This discovery results from combining recent developments in Weyl semimetals, focused-ion beam fabrication and theoretical works suggesting a connection between BPVE and topology. We also present a detailed symmetry analysis that allows us to separate the shift current response from photothermal effects. The magnitude and wavelength range of the assigned shift current may impact optical detectors, clean energy and topology, and demonstrate the utility of Weyl semimetals for practical applications.

Adv Mater ; 30(25): e1801325, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719069


Magnetic van der Waals (vdW) materials are the centerpiece of atomically thin devices with spintronic and optoelectronic functions. Exploring new chemistry paths to tune their magnetic and optical properties enables significant progress in fabricating heterostructures and ultracompact devices by mechanical exfoliation. The key parameter to sustain ferromagnetism in 2D is magnetic anisotropy-a tendency of spins to align in a certain crystallographic direction known as easy-axis. In layered materials, two limits of easy-axis are in-plane (XY) and out-of-plane (Ising). Light polarization and the helicity of topological states can couple to magnetic anisotropy with promising photoluminescence or spin-orbitronic functions. Here, a unique experiment is designed to control the easy-axis, the magnetic transition temperature, and the optical gap simultaneously in a series of CrCl3-x Brx crystals between CrCl3 with XY and CrBr3 with Ising anisotropy. The easy-axis is controlled between the two limits by varying spin-orbit coupling with the Br content in CrCl3-x Brx . The optical gap, magnetic transition temperature, and interlayer spacing are all tuned linearly with x. This is the first report of controlling exchange anisotropy in a layered crystal and the first unveiling of mixed halide chemistry as a powerful technique to produce functional materials for spintronic devices.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(4): 043105, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27131652


Raman micro-spectroscopy is well suited for studying a variety of properties and has been applied to a wide range of areas. Combined with tuneable temperature, Raman spectra can offer even more insights into the properties of materials. However, previous designs of variable temperature Raman microscopes have made it extremely challenging to measure samples with low signal levels due to thermal and positional instabilities as well as low collection efficiencies. Thus contemporary Raman microscope has found limited applicability to probing the subtle physics involved in phase transitions and hysteresis. This paper describes a new design of a closed-cycle, Raman microscope with full polarization rotation. High collection efficiency, thermal stability, and mechanical stability are ensured by both deliberate optical, cryogenic, and mechanical design. Measurements on two samples, Bi2Se3 and V2O3, which are challenging due to low thermal conductivities, low signal levels, and/or hysteretic effects, are measured with previously undemonstrated temperature resolution.