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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 639491, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777032

RESUMO

Vaccines stimulate various immune factors critical to protective immune responses. However, a comprehensive picture of vaccine-induced immune factors and pathways have not been systematically collected and analyzed. To address this issue, we developed VaximmutorDB, a web-based database system of vaccine immune factors (abbreviated as "vaximmutors") manually curated from peer-reviewed articles. VaximmutorDB currently stores 1,740 vaccine immune factors from 13 host species (e.g., human, mouse, and pig). These vaximmutors were induced by 154 vaccines for 46 pathogens. Top 10 vaximmutors include three antibodies (IgG, IgG2a and IgG1), Th1 immune factors (IFN-γ and IL-2), Th2 immune factors (IL-4 and IL-6), TNF-α, CASP-1, and TLR8. Many enriched host processes (e.g., stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway, SRP-dependent cotranslational protein targeting to membrane) and cellular components (e.g., extracellular exosome, nucleoplasm) by all the vaximmutors were identified. Using influenza as a model, live attenuated and killed inactivated influenza vaccines stimulate many shared pathways such as signaling of many interleukins (including IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, IL-20, and IL-27), interferon signaling, MARK1 activation, and neutrophil degranulation. However, they also present their unique response patterns. While live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist induced significant signal transduction responses, killed inactivated influenza vaccine Fluarix induced significant metabolism of protein responses. Two different Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-Vax) studies resulted in overlapping gene lists; however, they shared more portions of pathways than gene lists. Interestingly, live attenuated YF-Vax simulates significant metabolism of protein responses, which was similar to the pattern induced by killed inactivated Fluarix. A user-friendly web interface was generated to access, browse and search the VaximmutorDB database information. As the first web-based database of vaccine immune factors, VaximmutorDB provides systematical collection, standardization, storage, and analysis of experimentally verified vaccine immune factors, supporting better understanding of protective vaccine immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Internet , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
2.
Muscle Nerve ; 63(1): 31-39, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063909

RESUMO

An orally administered, fixed-dose coformulation of sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol (PB-TURSO) significantly slowed functional decline in a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial in ALS (CENTAUR). Herein we report results of a long-term survival analysis of participants in CENTAUR. In CENTAUR, adults with ALS were randomized 2:1 to PB-TURSO or placebo. Participants completing the 6-month (24-week) randomized phase were eligible to receive PB-TURSO in the open-label extension. An all-cause mortality analysis (35-month maximum follow-up post-randomization) incorporated all randomized participants. Participants and site investigators were blinded to treatment assignments through the duration of follow-up of this analysis. Vital status was obtained for 135 of 137 participants originally randomized in CENTAUR. Median overall survival was 25.0 months among participants originally randomized to PB-TURSO and 18.5 months among those originally randomized to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.92; P = .023). Initiation of PB-TURSO treatment at baseline resulted in a 6.5-month longer median survival as compared with placebo. Combined with results from CENTAUR, these results suggest that PB-TURSO has both functional and survival benefits in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fenilbutiratos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
N Engl J Med ; 383(10): 919-930, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol have been found to reduce neuronal death in experimental models. The efficacy and safety of a combination of the two compounds in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are not known. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, we enrolled participants with definite ALS who had had an onset of symptoms within the previous 18 months. Participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol (3 g of sodium phenylbutyrate and 1 g of taurursodiol, administered once a day for 3 weeks and then twice a day) or placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of decline in the total score on the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R; range, 0 to 48, with higher scores indicating better function) through 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the rates of decline in isometric muscle strength, plasma phosphorylated axonal neurofilament H subunit levels, and the slow vital capacity; the time to death, tracheostomy, or permanent ventilation; and the time to death, tracheostomy, permanent ventilation, or hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 177 persons with ALS were screened for eligibility, and 137 were randomly assigned to receive sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol (89 participants) or placebo (48 participants). In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the mean rate of change in the ALSFRS-R score was -1.24 points per month with the active drug and -1.66 points per month with placebo (difference, 0.42 points per month; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.81; P = 0.03). Secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. Adverse events with the active drug were mainly gastrointestinal. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol resulted in slower functional decline than placebo as measured by the ALSFRS-R score over a period of 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups. Longer and larger trials are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol in persons with ALS. (Funded by Amylyx Pharmaceuticals and others; CENTAUR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03127514.).


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilbutiratos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenilbutiratos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 46(1): 65-74, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although emergence from the minimally conscious state (eMCS) is associated with symptoms including disorientation, memory and attention impairment, restlessness, and significant functional disability, the neurobehavioral profile of eMCS has not been empirically characterized. OBJECTIVE: Determine degree of cognitive impairment, presence of clinical symptoms and functional disability at time eMCS in patients with traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury (TBI, nTBI). METHODS: Retrospective observational study of 169 adults (median [interquartile range] age: 51 [29, 62] years; male: 116; TBI: 103) who emerged from MCS based on the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised while in an inpatient Disorders of Consciousness program. Outcome measures include the Confusion Assessment Protocol (CAP) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS). RESULTS: CAP administration was attempted in 54 subjects. Twenty-eight subjects had valid scores on all CAP items, with a median [interquartile range] of 4 [3-5] symptoms of confusion. Scores in 93% of this subsample were consistent with an acute confusional state. The most common symptoms were cognitive impairment (98% of subjects), disorientation (93%), and agitation (69%). The median DRS score upon emergence from MCS was 14.5 [13, 16], indicating severe disability (n = 140). CONCLUSIONS: eMCS is associated with an acute confusional state and severe disability. This finding may inform the lower boundary of confusion as well as approach to treatment and caregiver education.


Assuntos
Cognição , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estado de Consciência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/patologia , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/reabilitação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(Database issue): D1124-32, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24259431

RESUMO

The integrative Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN) vaccine research database and analysis system (http://www.violinet.org) curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. Since its first publication in NAR in 2008, significant updates have been made. Starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, VIOLIN now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). Under the umbrella of VIOLIN, >10 relatively independent programs are developed. For example, Protegen stores over 800 protective antigens experimentally proven valid for vaccine development. VirmugenDB annotated over 200 'virmugens', a term coined by us to represent those virulence factor genes that can be mutated to generate successful live attenuated vaccines. Specific patterns were identified from the genes collected in Protegen and VirmugenDB. VIOLIN also includes Vaxign, the first web-based vaccine candidate prediction program based on reverse vaccinology. VIOLIN collects and analyzes different vaccine components including vaccine adjuvants (Vaxjo) and DNA vaccine plasmids (DNAVaxDB). VIOLIN includes licensed human vaccines (Huvax) and veterinary vaccines (Vevax). The Vaccine Ontology is applied to standardize and integrate various data in VIOLIN. VIOLIN also hosts the Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events (OVAE) that logically represents adverse events associated with licensed human vaccines.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Vacinas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Antígenos/química , Antígenos/genética , Mineração de Dados , Genes , Genômica , Humanos , Internet , Plasmídeos/genética , Proteínas/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Software , Integração de Sistemas , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/química , Vacinas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia
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