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1.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1973714, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data indicated that approximately four in every ten newborns in Pakistan do not receive postnatal care (PNC) services in the first 48 hours after delivery. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the non-utilization of PNC for newborns in Pakistan using the 2017-18 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical study utilizing data from 3887 live-born newborns recorded in the 2017-18 PDHS. Non-utilization of PNC was assessed against a set of independent factors using multilevel logistic regression analysis, and the population attributable risk estimates of factors associated with non-utilization of PNC were also calculated. RESULTS: There were 1443 newborns (37%) in Pakistan whose mothers did not utilize PNC check-ups in the first 2 days after delivery. The non-utilization of PNC was largely attributable to newborns delivered at non-health facilities 53% (47% to 59%) and those born to uneducated women 27% (13% to 38%). Adjusted analyses indicated that newborns with higher birth order and with a birth interval of more than 2 years, women who perceived their baby to be small at birth, women with no formal education and those living in regional areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas were significantly associated with non-utilization of PNC services. CONCLUSIONS: Tailored health messages by community health workers, including door-to-door visits on utilizing health facilities through pregnancy to the postnatal periods, are needed and should target places of low socioeconomic status, including educationally disadvantaged women from regional areas of Pakistan.

2.
Health Secur ; 19(5): 468-478, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348050

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated fear, panic, distress, anxiety, and depression among many people in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, we examined factors associated with different levels of psychological impact as a result of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. From April 1 to 30, 2020, we used a self-administered online questionnaire to collect data from 10,609 respondents. Using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on respondents, we categorized the levels of impact as normal, mild, moderate, or severe. Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the associated factors. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe psychological impact was 10.2%, 4.8%, and 45.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of reporting normal vs mild, moderate, or severe psychological impact were 5.9 times higher for people living in the Chittagong Division, 1.7 times higher for women with lower education levels, 3.0 times higher among those who were divorced or separated, 1.8 times higher for those working full time, and 2.4 times higher for those living in shared apartments. The odds of reporting a psychological impact were also higher among people who did not enforce protective measures inside the home, those in self-quarantine, those who did not wear face masks, and those who did not comply with World Health Organization precautionary measures. Increased psychological health risks due to COVID-19 were significantly higher among people who experienced chills, headache, cough, breathing difficulties, dizziness, and sore throat before data collection. Our results showed that 1 in 2 respondents experienced a significant psychological impact as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health researchers should consider these factors when targeting interventions that would have a protective effect on the individual's psychological health during a pandemic or future disease outbreak.

3.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e8, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the search for effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection continues, the public opinion around the potential use of chloroquine (CQ) in treating COVID-19 remains mixed. AIM: To examine opinion and uptake of CQ for treating COVID-19 in the sub-Saharan African (SSA) region. SETTING: This study was conducted through an online survey software titled SurveyMonkey. METHODS: Anonymous online survey of 1829 SSA countries was conducted during the lockdown period using Facebook, WhatsApp and authors' networks. Opinion and uptake of CQ for COVID-19 treatment were assessed using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: About 14% of respondents believed that CQ could treat COVID-19 and of which, 3.2% took CQ for COVID-19 treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from Central (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 4.43) and West Africa (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15, 2.88) had higher odds of believing that CQ could treat COVID-19. Respondents from East Africa reported higher odds for uptake of CQ for COVID-19 than Central, Western and Southern Africans. Knowledge of the disease and compliance with the public health advice were associated with both belief and uptake of CQ for COVID-19 treatment. CONCLUSION: Central and West African respondents were more likely to believe in CQ as a treatment for COVID-19 whilst the uptake of the medication during the pandemic was higher amongst East Africans. Future intervention discouraging the unsupervised use of CQ should target respondents from Central, West and East African regions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Health Secur ; 19(4): 393-404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227870

RESUMO

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic and associated high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, there is panic among healthcare workers because of the higher risk of being infected. This study compared knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) and examined common associated factors. A web-based cross-sectional study of 1,871 respondents (430 HCWs and 1,441 non-HCWs) was conducted while lockdown measures were in place in 4 regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Data were obtained using a validated self-administered questionnaire via an online survey platform. Mean scores were calculated and summarized using a t test for both groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the unadjusted (B) and adjusted coefficients (ß) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. The mean scores were slightly higher among HCWs than non-HCWs, but not statistically significant. Being worried about contracting COVID-19 was the only common factor associated with knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions between the 2 groups. Knowledge of COVID-19 was associated with attitudes and perceptions between the 2 groups. Other significant associated factors were: the sub-Saharan Africa region, ages 29 to 38 years (ß = .32; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.60 for knowledge among non-HCWs), education (ß = -.43; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.04; and ß = -.95; 95% CI, -1.69 to -0.22, for knowledge among non-HCWs and HCWs, respectively), practice of self-isolation (ß = .71; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.02 for attitude among non-HCWs and HCWs (ß = .97; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.49), and home quarantine due to COVID-19, in both groups. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider these factors when targeting interventions during COVID-19 and other future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Health Secur ; 19(1): 44-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606572

RESUMO

Misinformation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a significant threat to global public health because it can inadvertently exacerbate public health challenges by promoting spread of the disease. This study used a convenience sampling technique to examine factors associated with misinformation about COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa using an online cross-sectional survey. A link to the online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,969 participants through social media platforms and the authors' email networks. Four false statements-informed by results from a pilot study-were included in the survey. The participants' responses were classified as "Agree," "Neutral," and "Disagree." A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associated factors. Among those who responded to the survey, 19.3% believed that COVID-19 was designed to reduce world population, 22.2% thought the ability to hold your breath for 10 seconds meant that you do not have COVID-19, 27.8% believed drinking hot water flushes down the virus, and 13.9% thought that COVID-19 had little effect on Blacks compared with Whites. An average of 33.7% were unsure whether the 4 false statements were true. Multivariate analysis revealed that those who thought COVID-19 was unlikely to continue in their countries reported higher odds of believing in these 4 false statements. Other significant factors associated with belief in misinformation were age (older adults), employment status (unemployed), gender (female), education (bachelor's degree), and knowledge about the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Strategies to reduce the spread of false information about COVID-19 and other future pandemics should target these subpopulations, especially those with limited education. This will also enhance compliance with public health measures to reduce spread of further outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494209

RESUMO

Mental health and emotional responses to the effects of COVID-19 lockdown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are of serious public health concern and may negatively affect the mental health status of people. Hence, this study assessed the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as emotional reactions among sub-Saharan Africans (SSAs) and associated factors among SSAs during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This was a web-based cross-sectional study on mental health and emotional features from 2005 respondents in seven SSA countries. This study was conducted between 17 April and 17 May 2020 corresponding to the lockdown period in most SSA countries. Respondents aged 18 years and above and the self-reported symptoms were feeling anxious, being worried, angry, bored and frustrated. These were the main outcomes and were treated as dichotomous variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with these symptoms. We found that over half (52.2%) of the participants reported any of the mental health symptoms and the prevalence of feeling bored was 70.5% followed by feeling anxious (59.1%), being worried (57.5%), frustrated (51.5%) and angry (22.3%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariate analysis revealed that males, those aged >28 years, those who lived in Central and Southern Africa, those who were not married, the unemployed, those living with more than six persons in a household, had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Similarly, people who perceived low risk of contracting the infection, and those who thought the pandemic would not continue after the lockdown had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Health care workers had lower odds for feeling angry than non-healthcare workers. During the COVID-19 lockdown periods in SSA, about one in two participants reported mental health and emotional symptoms. Public health measures can be effectively used to identify target groups for prevention and treatment of mental health and emotional symptoms. Such interventions should be an integral component of SSA governments' response and recovery strategies of any future pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Aust J Prim Health ; 26(4): 287-292, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654684

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the period prevalence of visual impairment (VI) and blindness among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people attending an Indigenous urban primary healthcare service, eye care practitioner referrals for those with VI and any opportunities to improve care delivery. Visual acuity (VA) examinations, using a Snellen chart, are performed as part of routine annual health assessments offered to children and adults. This study included patients aged ≥5 years (n=1442) who had a health assessment conducted between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 and provided consent for the use of their health assessment information for research. Of patients with available data, 2.4% (33/1374) experienced VI, defined as presenting VA worse than 6/12 to 6/60 in the better-seeing eye. VI was more common in those aged ≥60 years (14/136; 10.3%) and was significantly associated with increasing age (P<0.001). No patients experienced blindness, defined as presenting VA worse than 6/60 in the better-seeing eye. All patients with VI were aged ≥16 years. Nine (27%) of the 33 patients with VI in the better-seeing eye were referred to an optometrist or an ophthalmologist. The low period prevalence of VI and no blindness in this study are positive findings. The findings also indicate that routine VA testing of older adults, especially those aged ≥60 years, should be conducted to avoid missing those not having an annual health assessment.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Queensland/epidemiologia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708720

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore knowledge, practice of risk and guidelines of the novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) infection among the eye care practitioners and the potential associated factors. A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was distributed via emails and social media networks between 2nd and 18th May 2020 corresponding to the week of the lockdown in Nigeria to eye care practitioners (ECPs). Data for 823 respondents were analyzed. Knowledge and risk practice were categorized as binary outcome and univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to examine the associated factors. The mean score for COVID-19-related knowledge of public health guidelines was high and varied across the ECPs. Ophthalmic Nurses, Ophthalmologists and Optometrists showed higher COVID-19-related knowledge than other ECPs (p < 0.001), particularly those working in the private sector. More than 50% of ECPs stated they provided essential services during the COVID-19 lockdown via physical consultation, particularly the Ophthalmologists. Most respondents reported that the guidelines provided by their Association were useful but expressed their lack of confidence in attending to patients during and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Compared to other ECPs in Nigeria, more Ophthalmic Nurses received training in the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). This survey is the first to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. ECPs in Nigeria displayed good knowledge about COVID-19 and provided eye care services during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria, despite the majority not receiving any training on the use of PPEs with concerns over attending to patients. There is need for the government to strengthen health systems by improving and extending training on standard infection prevention and control measures to ECPs for effective control of the pandemic and in the future as essential health workers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Reprod Sci ; 27(11): 2029-2037, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548804

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to determine the factors associated with adverse maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in urban Fiji. This cross-sectional study used data from existing records of singleton pregnant women with GDM attending the Colonial War Memorial Hospital (CWMH) Suva Fiji between June 2013 and May 2014. Data retrieved included demographic data, antenatal and intrapartum care data, route of delivery, treatment modality, and maternal risk factors. The prevalence of GDM is 3.0%, n = 255/8698, and the most frequent maternal complications were induction of labor (66%), C-section (32%), and preeclampsia (19%), and 25% had babies with birthweight > 4 kg. Older women (≥ 36 years) and those treated with insulin were 5.2 times and 10.7 times, respectively, more likely to have labor induction during childbirth compared with younger women and those on dietary management. Family history of diabetes was associated with 2.4× and/or 2.5× higher odds of cesarean delivery and/or develop hypertension in pregnancy, respectively. Parity > 5 children and diagnoses of GDM after the first trimester reduced the odds of cesarean delivery. The odds of developing preeclampsia in GDM was 3.4 times higher (95% confidence interval (CI) of adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.03, 18.78) among obese women than normal-weight women, and married women were less likely to have babies with birthweight > 4 kg. The prevalence of and adverse outcomes among women with GDM attending antenatal public health care in Suva Fiji were higher than previously reported from the hospital. Older and multiparous women with GDM, those insulin treated, and with a strong family history and high body mass index (BMI) need special attention and better monitoring by health care personnel to reduce adverse outcomes during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana
10.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 15(2): 178-186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308952

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the effects of refraction on retinal thickness measurements at different locations and layers in healthy eyes of Saudi participants. Methods: Thirty-six randomly selected adults aged 27.0 ± 5.7 years who attended a Riyadh hospital from 2016 to 2017 were categorized into three groups: non-myopic (spherical equivalent refraction [SER], +1.00 to -0.50 diopters [D]), low myopic (SER, -0.75 to -3.00D), and moderate to high myopic (SER ≤ -3.25D). Full, inner, and outer retinal thicknesses were measured at nine locations by spectral-domain stratus optical coherence tomography (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) and were compared according to refractive group and sex. Results: The mean SERs for the non-myopia, low myopia, and moderate to high myopia groups were 0.2 ± 0.6, -1.5 ± 0.5, and -7.5 ± 1.9 D, respectively. Refractive error, but not sex, had significant effects on the retinal layer thickness measurements at different locations (P < 0.05). The parafoveal and outer retinal layers were significantly thicker than the perifoveal and inner retina layers in all groups (P < 0.05). The full foveal thickness was higher and the full parafoveal and perifoveal regions were thinner in moderate to high myopic eyes than in the non-myopic eyes (P < 0.05), but were similar to those in the low myopic eyes (P > 0.05). The foveal thicknesses measured in the inner and outer layers of the retina were higher but the thicknesses measured at the inner and outer layers of the parafoveal and perifoveal regions were lower in moderate to high myopic eyes. Conclusion: There were regional differences in the retinal layer thicknesses of healthy Saudi eyes, which was dependent on the central refractions. This is important when interpreting retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses in myopia and disease management in Saudi participants.

11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 133, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Fiji is a serious public health issue. However, there are no recent studies on GDM among pregnant women in Fiji. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence of, and sociodemographic factors associated with adverse neonatal outcomes among Fijian women with GDM. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of 255 pregnant women with GDM who gave birth to singleton infants at Colonial War Memorial Hospital (CWMH) in Suva city. Women underwent testing for GDM during antenatal clinic visits and were diagnosed using modified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Women with a previous baby weighing > 4 kg were 6.08 times more likely to experience neonatal macrosomia (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.08; 95%CI: 2.46, 15.01). Compared to unmarried women, the odds of macrosomia among married women reduced by 71% (AOR = 0.29; 95%CI: 0.11, 0.77). Compared with delivery before 38 weeks of gestation, the infants of women who delivered between 38 and 41 weeks of gestation were 62 and 86% less likely to experience neonatal hypoglycaemia and Apgar score < 7 at 5 mins, respectively. The offspring of women who were overweight and obese had higher odds of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Late booking in gestation (≥28 weeks) was significantly associated with Apgar score < 7 at 5 min (AOR = 7.87; 95%CI: 1.11, 55.75). Maternal pre-eclampsia/pregnancy induced hypertension was another factor associated with low Apgar score in infants. CONCLUSIONS: The study found high rates of adverse neonatal outcomes among off springs of Fijian women with GDM and showed that interventions targeting pregnant women who are overweight, had a previous baby weighing > 4 kg, had pre-eclampsia, delivered before 38 weeks of gestation, and those who booked later than 13 weeks in gestation, are needed to improve pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Exp Optom ; 103(2): 184-191, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the general knowledge and attitude of refractive error correction methods among female Saudi university students. METHODS: One thousand, one hundred and sixty-five female university students, between 17 and 32 years of age were randomly interviewed using self-administered questionnaires with open and closed-ended questions. The questions collected information on demographics (gender, age, educational status, college of study, and occupation), addressed general knowledge/perception of the difference between the professions of ophthalmology and optometry, and attitudes toward spectacle, contact lens (CL) usage, including coloured prescription CLs, and refractive surgery for correcting refractive errors. RESULTS: The response rate was 90 per cent (1,052/1,165). Fifty-two per cent had never had an eye examination and only 28 per cent correctly identified the difference between an 'ophthalmologist' and 'optometrist'. Eighty-one per cent knew that CLs instead of spectacles (81.8 per cent), and coloured CLs (89.7 per cent) can be used for correcting refractive errors. Concerning refractive surgery, although a majority (90 per cent) knew that the technique corrects refractive error and reduces dependency on spectacles/CLs, only five per cent had experienced refractive surgery. Approximately, 46 per cent and 47 per cent used spectacles and CLs, respectively, and while the optometrist was the main source of CL prescriptions (41 per cent), most people visited the ophthalmologist for their eye examination (68 per cent). Surprisingly, 52 per cent had never had an eye examination, or had only had one or two eye examinations (50 per cent) in their lifetime. While 23 per cent of spectacle wearers chose to continue with spectacles at the end of the study, 64 per cent and 12 per cent preferred refractive surgery and CLs, respectively, for refractive correction. Lack of information and fear of complications, but not cost, hindered most people from uptake of CLs and refractive surgery. CONCLUSION: The students demonstrated high levels of knowledge and awareness of refractive correction methods, especially for refractive surgery. Although many consulted the optometrist or ophthalmologist for their eye examinations and corrective devices, many remain uncorrected and unaware of the main difference between both professions. The lack of information about correction methods and fear of complications may have affected their interest in uptake of eye services and should be addressed to increase uptake and prevent avoidable vision loss.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Atitude , Óculos , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/terapia , Estudantes , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Exp Optom ; 103(6): 858-864, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment, and identify its causes and associated factors among adults aged 40 years and over, attending for eye examination at a Riyadh public hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted among 195 consecutive older adults who attended the outpatient ophthalmology clinic of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital between 1 February and 30 June 2018. All participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination: visual acuity, refraction (objective and subjective), fundus photography and automated visual field assessment. Classification of visual impairment was based on the World Health Organization criteria: mild visual impairment if best-corrected distance visual acuity < 6/12-6/18 in the better eye; moderate visual impairment if best-corrected visual acuity < 6/18-6/60 in the better eye; and severe visual impairment if best-corrected visual acuity < 6/60-3/60. Regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with visual impairment. RESULTS: The study participants included 107 (54.9 per cent) females, and the mean (SD) age was 61.1 ± 10.9 years. The overall prevalence of visual impairment (14.9 per cent, 29 cases), consisting of severe (0.5 per cent), moderate (9.7 per cent) and mild (4.6 per cent) forms, correlated significantly with age (R2 = 0.023, p = 0.04). The main causes of visual impairment were glaucoma (48.3 per cent), cataract (31.0 per cent), refractive error, and diabetic retinopathy (24.1 per cent each). The odds of having visual impairment increased by 22 per cent and eight per cent respectively in participants who had diabetic retinopathy (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.95) and glaucoma (1.08, CI 1.02, 1.40). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of visual impairment among older adults attending the ophthalmology clinic in Riyadh city was high and driven by the high rate of diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma in this region. As part of their routine checks, there is need to make dilated fundus examination and intraocular pressure measurement mandatory tests in addition to refraction and visual acuity testing, when examining Saudi adults attending the hospital eye clinics in Riyadh province.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470550

RESUMO

Antenatal care (ANC) reduces adverse health outcomes for both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth. The present study investigated the enablers and barriers to ANC service use among Indian women. The study used data on 183,091 women from the 2015-2016 India Demographic and Health Survey. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models (using generalised linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM) with the mlogit link and binomial family) that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between the study factors and frequency of ANC service use. More than half (51.7%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 51.1-52.2%) of Indian women had four or more ANC visits, 31.7% (95% CI: 31.3-32.2%) had between one and three ANC visits, and 16.6% (95% CI: 16.3-17.0%) had no ANC visit. Higher household wealth status and parental education, belonging to other tribes or castes, a woman's autonomy to visit the health facility, residence in Southern India, and exposure to the media were enablers of the recommended ANC (≥4) visits. In contrast, lower household wealth, a lack of a woman's autonomy, and residence in East and Central India were barriers to appropriate ANC service use. Our study suggests that barriers to the recommended ANC service use in India can be amended by socioeconomic and health policy interventions, including improvements in education and social services, as well as community health education on the importance of ANC.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Parto , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1034, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate complementary feeding practices significantly contribute to undernutrition among children under 2 years of age in India. However, there is limited up-to-date evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices to guide policy actions at the subnational level in India. We investigated the regional prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices in India. METHODS: This study used a sample of 69,464 maternal responses from the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey in India. The prevalence of complementary feeding indicators was estimated using data for each administrative region, namely: North (n = 8469), South (n = 12,828), East (n = 18,141), West (n = 8940), North-East (n = 2422) and Central (n = 18,664). Factors associated with complementary feeding by region in India were investigated using logistic regression Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Models (GLLAMM) with a logit link and binomial family that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights. RESULTS: The study showed a wide variation in the prevalence of introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods (complementary foods) among infants aged 6-8 months in regional India; highest in the South (61%) and lowest in the Central and Northern regions (38%). Similarly, minimum dietary diversity (MDD) was highest in the South (33%) and lowest in the Central region (12%). Both minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) varied substantially across the regions. The factors associated with complementary feeding practices also differed across Indian regions. Significant modifiable factors associated with complementary feeding practices included higher household wealth index for the introduction of complementary foods in the North and Eastern India; higher maternal education for MMF and MDD in the North and Central regions; and frequent antenatal care visits (≥4 visits) for all indicators but for different regions. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that there are wide differences in regional prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices in India. The improvement of complementary feeding practices in India would require national and sub-national efforts that target vulnerable mothers, including those with no education and limited health service contacts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1638020, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333077

RESUMO

Background: Delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods (complementary feeding) and associated factors are related to stunting and severe stunting among children in many low- and middle-income countries. In India, however, there is limited evidence on the relationship between delayed complementary feeding and associated factors with stunting and severe stunting to advocate for policy interventions. Objectives: The present study investigated the relationship between delayed complementary feeding and associated factors with stunting and severe stunting among infants aged 6-8 months in India. Methods: Survey data on 13,548 infants aged 6-8 months were obtained from the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey in India. Logistic regression (Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Models [GLLAMM] with a logit link and binomial family) models that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights were used to investigate the relationship between delayed complementary feeding and associated factors (community, household, maternal, child and health service factors) with stunting and severe stunting among infants aged 6-8 months in India. Results: The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting was 22.0% (95% CI: 21.0-23.7%) and 10.0% (95% CI: 9.0-11.0%) among infants aged 6-8 months who received no complementary foods, respectively. Delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods was associated with stunting (adjusted Odd ratios [aOR] = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.41) and severe stunting (aOR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45) among infants aged 6-8 months. High maternal education (secondary or higher education) and household wealth (middle, richer and richest) were protective against stunting and severe stunting. Conclusion: Delayed introduction of complementary foods and associated factors were related to stunting and severe stunting among infants aged 6-8 months in India. Reducing the proportion of infants who are stunted in India would require comprehensive national nutrition policy actions that target the sub-population of mothers with no schooling and limited resources.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Feminino , Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Int Breastfeed J ; 14: 20, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131015

RESUMO

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has important benefits for both the mother and child. In India, no nationwide studies have examined patterns of EBF in the past decade to inform national and subnational breastfeeding programmes. The present study aimed to investigate the regional prevalence and determinants of EBF in India. Methods: This study used a total weighted sample of 21,352 from the 2015-2016 India National Family Health Survey. EBF was measured as the proportion of infants 0-5 months of age who received breast milk as the only source of nourishment, based on mother's recall on feeds given to the infant 24 h before the survey. The prevalence of EBF and other breastfeeding patterns were estimated by region, and multivariable logistic regression that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights was used to investigate the association between the study factors (child, maternal, household, health service and community factors) and EBF by regional areas in India. Results: This study indicated that wide differences in the prevalence of EBF and other childhood feeding practices exist across regions of India, where Southern India had the highest EBF prevalence (79.2%) and the North-East reported the lowest (68.0%). EBF prevalence decreased with infant age, dropping faster in the South (43.7% at 5 months) compared to the North-East region (54.0% at 5 months). Similarly, substantial variations in key determinants of EBF were evident by region, where higher birth order was the only common factor associated with non-EBF across all regions. Key modifiable determinants of non-EBF included higher maternal education in the South and belonging to rich households in Central India, while those for EBF were higher maternal education in the Central region and frequent antenatal care (≥ 4) visits in Northern India. Conclusion: This study demonstrates wide variations in regional prevalence and determinants of EBF in India. Improving EBF participation in India would require multifaceted national and subnational efforts that include dedicated funds and the establishment of appropriate policy and interventions that are consistently monitored and evaluated.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203278, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nepal has one of the highest prevalence of hypertension in South Asia. However, no national studies have examined the gender differences in the determinants of prehypertension and hypertension in the country to inform targeted interventions. This study aimed to investigate gender differences in factors associated with prehypertension and hypertension in Nepal using the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). METHODS: Sociodemographic, behavioural, anthropometric and health status data and information on hypertension were obtained from 14,857 (males: 6,245 and females: 8,612) individuals aged 15 years or above from the biomarker sample of the 2016 NDHS. Factors associated with prehypertension and hypertension by gender were investigated using generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAM) with the mlogit link and binomial family that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 26.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 25.7, 28.1] and 17.2% (95% CI 16.1, 18.3), respectively. Prehypertension was present in 30.4% (95%CI: 28.7, 32.2) of males and 24.3% (95% CI: 23.1, 25.6) of females, while hypertension was present in 20.4%, (95% CI 18.9, 22.0) of males and 14.8% (95% CI: 13.7, 16.0) of females. Key modifiable factors that were strongly associated with prehypertension and hypertension in both genders included overweight and obesity, caffeine intake, tobacco use, no schooling, previously informed of hypertension in a health facility, and alcohol consumption (for males). Other significant factors associated with prehypertension and hypertension included increasing age (> 30 years), ecological zone (Hill), Developmental zone (Western) and being married. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that prehypertension and hypertension were higher in males compared to females. Interventions to improve awareness, screening, treatment and control of prehypertension and hypertension in Nepal are warranted and should target key modifiable factors, as well as people aged 30 years and above.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(3): 234-238, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406424

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Myopia prevalence rates differ between racial groups. If the growth of the eye is sensitive to differences in optical input, the difference in spherical aberration between East Asian and Caucasian eyes found in this study may be important in understanding myopia development. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine differences in peripheral wavefront aberrations between two racial groups. METHODS: Wavefront aberrations were measured using a COAS-HD aberrometer across the 42 × 32° central visual field on 37 right eyes of young adults (18 Caucasians, 19 East Asians; mean age 21.5 ± 2.4 years). The mean spherical equivalent refraction was -1.94 ± 1.63 diopters (D) with a range of -5.87 to +0.16 D. Effect of race and visual field position on refractions, individual Zernike aberration coefficients up to the fourth order, higher-order root-mean-square aberration, and total root-mean-square aberration were assessed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Caucasians and East Asians had similar relative peripheral myopia across the visual field. All higher-order aberration coefficients were affected by visual field position. Race had no significant effect on any higher-order Zernike coefficient, but the difference in mean vertical coma coefficient (Equation is included in full-text article.)across the visual field (i.e., average of 38 field locations) approached significance, being less positive in Caucasians than in East Asians (P = .08). When correction was made for the Caucasian group being slightly less myopic than the East Asian group, spherical aberration coefficient (Equation is included in full-text article.)was less positive in Caucasians than in East Asians by 0.04 µm (P = .001). The rates of change of coma coefficients across the field were not affected by race. CONCLUSIONS: Caucasians and East Asians had similar relative peripheral myopia, but with less positive spherical aberration coefficient in Caucasians than in East Asians. It remains to be determined whether aberrations have a role in the difference of myopia prevalence rates in different countries.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Aberrometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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