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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 68, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a lifetime prevalence of 2-3% and is a leading cause of global disability. Brain circuit abnormalities in individuals with OCD have been identified, but important knowledge gaps remain. The goal of the new global initiative described in this paper is to identify robust and reproducible brain signatures of measurable behaviors and clinical symptoms that are common in individuals with OCD. A global approach was chosen to accelerate discovery, to increase rigor and transparency, and to ensure generalizability of results. METHODS: We will study 250 medication-free adults with OCD, 100 unaffected adult siblings of individuals with OCD, and 250 healthy control subjects at five expert research sites across five countries (Brazil, India, Netherlands, South Africa, and the U.S.). All participants will receive clinical evaluation, neurocognitive assessment, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The imaging will examine multiple brain circuits hypothesized to underlie OCD behaviors, focusing on morphometry (T1-weighted MRI), structural connectivity (Diffusion Tensor Imaging), and functional connectivity (resting-state fMRI). In addition to analyzing each imaging modality separately, we will also use multi-modal fusion with machine learning statistical methods in an attempt to derive imaging signatures that distinguish individuals with OCD from unaffected siblings and healthy controls (Aim #1). Then we will examine how these imaging signatures link to behavioral performance on neurocognitive tasks that probe these same circuits as well as to clinical profiles (Aim #2). Finally, we will explore how specific environmental features (childhood trauma, socioeconomic status, and religiosity) moderate these brain-behavior associations. DISCUSSION: Using harmonized methods for data collection and analysis, we will conduct the largest neurocognitive and multimodal-imaging study in medication-free subjects with OCD to date. By recruiting a large, ethno-culturally diverse sample, we will test whether there are robust biosignatures of core OCD features that transcend countries and cultures. If so, future studies can use these brain signatures to reveal trans-diagnostic disease dimensions, chart when these signatures arise during development, and identify treatments that target these circuit abnormalities directly. The long-term goal of this research is to change not only how we conceptualize OCD but also how we diagnose and treat it.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993746

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by unstable mood states ranging from mania to depression. Although there is some evidence that mood instability may result from an imbalance between excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABA-ergic neurotransmission, few proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies have measured these two neurometabolites simultaneously in BD. The enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1) catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate (Glu) to GABA, and its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might influence Glu/GABA ratio. Thus, we investigated Glu/GABA ratio in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of euthymic BD type I patients and healthy controls (HC), and assessed the influence of both mood stabilizers and GAD1 SNPs on this ratio. Eighty-eight subjects (50 euthymic BD type I patients and 38 HC) underwent 3T 1H-MRS in the dACC (2 × 2 × 4.5 cm3) using a two-dimensional JPRESS sequence and all subjects were genotyped for 4 SNPs in the GAD1 gene. BD patients had lower dACC Glu/GABA ratio compared to HC, where this was influenced by anticonvulsant and antipsychotic medications, but not lithium. The presence of GAD1 rs1978340 allele A was associated with higher Glu/GABA ratio in BD, while patients without this allele taking mood stabilizers had a lower Glu/GABA ratio. The lowering of dACC Glu/GABA could be one explanation for the mood stabilizing action of anticonvulsants and antipsychotics in BD type I euthymia. Therefore, this putative role of Glu/GABA ratio and the influence of GAD1 genotype interacting with mood stabilization medication should be confirmed by further studies involving larger samples and other mood states.ClincalTrials.gov registration: NCT01237158.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 241: 192-199, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of Bipolar disorder (BD), achieving euthymia is highly complex and usually requires a combination of mood stabilizers. The mechanism of action in stabilizing mood has not been fully elucidated, but alterations in N-Acetylaspartate (NAA), Myo-Inositol (mI) and Choline (Cho) have been implicated. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is the gold standard technique for measuring brain NAA, Cho and mI in vivo. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of lithium use in BD type I and brain levels of NAA, mI and Cho in the (anterior cingulate cortex) ACC. METHODS: 129 BD type I subjects and 79 healthy controls (HC) were submitted to a 3-Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging scan (1H-MRS) using a PRESS ACC single voxel (8cm3) sequence. RESULTS: BD patients exhibited higher NAA and Cho levels compared to HC. Lithium prescription was associated with lower mI (combination + monotherapy) and higher NAA levels (monotherapy). CONCLUSION: The results observed add to the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of mood stabilizers on brain metabolites during euthymia. Additionally, the observed decrease in mI levels associated with lithium monotherapy is an in vivo finding that supports the inositol-depletion hypothesis of lithium pharmacodynamics.


Assuntos
Antimaníacos/farmacologia , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Ciclotímico/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Aspártico/análise , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Química Encefálica , Colina/análise , Transtorno Ciclotímico/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Humanos , Inositol/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int J Cardiol ; 271: 54-59, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in circulatory physiology are common in Fontan patients due to suboptimal cardiac output, which may reduce the peripheral blood flow and impair the skeletal muscle. The objective of this study was to investigate the forearm blood flow (FBF), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh and functional capacity in asymptomatic clinically stable patients undergoing Fontan surgery. METHODS: Thirty Fontan patients and 27 healthy subjects underwent venous occlusion plethysmography, magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh musculature and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), norepinephrine measures, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, handgrip strength and 6-minute walk test were also performed. RESULTS: Fontan patients have blunted FBF (1.59 ±â€¯0.33 vs 2.17 ±â€¯0.52 mL/min/100 mL p < 0.001) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) (1.69 ±â€¯0.04 vs 2.34 ±â€¯0.62 units p < 0.001), reduced CSA of the thigh (81.2 ±â€¯18.6 vs 116.3 ±â€¯26.4 cm2p < 0.001), lower peak VO2 (29.3 ±â€¯6 vs 41.5 ±â€¯9 mL/kg/min p < 0.001), walked distance (607 ±â€¯60 vs 701 ±â€¯58 m p < 0.001) and handgrip strength (21 ±â€¯9 vs 30 ±â€¯8 kgf p < 0.001). The MSNA (30 ±â€¯4 vs 22 ±â€¯3 bursts/min p < 0.001) and norepinephrine concentration [265 (236-344) vs 222 (147-262) pg/mL p = 0.006] were also higher in Fontan patients. Multivariate linear regression showed FVC (ß = 0.653; CI = 0.102-1.205; p = 0.022) and stroke volume (ß = 0.018; CI = 0.007-0.029; p = 0.002) to be independently associated with reduced CSA of the thigh adjusted for body mass index. The CSA of the thigh adjusted for body mass index (ß = 5.283; CI = 2.254-8.312; p = 0.001) was independently associated with reduced peak VO2. CONCLUSION: Patients with Fontan operation have underdeveloped skeletal muscle with reduced strength that is associated with suboptimal peripheral blood supply and diminished exercise capacity.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Técnica de Fontan/tendências , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Teste de Esforço/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Antebraço/diagnóstico por imagem , Antebraço/fisiologia , Capacidade Residual Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto Jovem
5.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 76(5): 302-309, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A 4.5-year follow-up study was conducted to characterize baseline verbal episodic memory (VEM) and its behavior and to assess the effects of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) on this domain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with RRMS underwent two neuropsychological assessments performed an average of 4.5 years apart. Twenty-six control participants underwent a single neuropsychological assessment. A significance level of p < 0.005 was adopted to denote a significant difference between the groups on the Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon paired statistical analyses. RESULTS: No statistical difference was found in the results of the VEM tests between the first and second neuropsychological assessments of the patients. However, a statistical difference was evident between the patient and control groups in the results of the VEM tests. CONCLUSION: The patient group showed changes in the VEM relative to the control group. After approximately 4.5 years of disease, the patient performance on the VEM stabilized or improved.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Memória Episódica , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurrent illness characterized by depressive and manic episodes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies have demonstrated glutamate (Glu) system abnormalities in BD, but it is unclear how Glu varies among mood states and how medications modulate it. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of mood stabilizers on anterior cingulate cortex Glu levels using 1H-MRS during euthymia. METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight bipolar I disorder (BDI) euthymic subjects and 80 healthy control subjects underwent 3T brain 1H-MRS imaging examination including acquisition of an anterior cingulate cortex single voxel (8 cm3) 1H-MRS, based on a point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with an echo time of 80 ms and a repetition time of 1500 ms (BIPUSP MRS study). The Glu system was described by measuring Glu and the sum of Glu and glutamine (Glx) using creatine (Cre) as a reference. RESULTS: Euthymic BDI subjects presented with higher ratios of Glu/Cre and Glx/Cre compared to healthy control subjects. Glu/Cre ratios were lower among patients using anticonvulsants, while Glx/Cre did not differ between the two groups. Lithium, antipsychotics, and antidepressants did not influence Glu/Cre or Glx/Cre. CONCLUSIONS: We reported Glu/Cre and Glx abnormalities in the largest sample of euthymic BDI patients studied by 1H-MRS to date. Our data indicate that both Glu/Cre and Glx/Cre are elevated in BDI during euthymia regardless of medication effects, reinforcing the hypothesis of glutamatergic abnormalities in BD. Furthermore, we found an effect of anticonvulsants on Glu/Cre during euthymia, which might indicate a mechanism of mood stabilization in BD.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/metabolismo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antimaníacos/metabolismo , Antimaníacos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Ciclotímico/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(5): 302-309, May 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950536

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: A 4.5-year follow-up study was conducted to characterize baseline verbal episodic memory (VEM) and its behavior and to assess the effects of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) on this domain. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with RRMS underwent two neuropsychological assessments performed an average of 4.5 years apart. Twenty-six control participants underwent a single neuropsychological assessment. A significance level of p < 0.005 was adopted to denote a significant difference between the groups on the Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon paired statistical analyses. Results: No statistical difference was found in the results of the VEM tests between the first and second neuropsychological assessments of the patients. However, a statistical difference was evident between the patient and control groups in the results of the VEM tests. Conclusion: The patient group showed changes in the VEM relative to the control group. After approximately 4.5 years of disease, the patient performance on the VEM stabilized or improved.


RESUMO Objetivo: Neste estudo, propomos a caracterização da Memória Episódica Verbal (MEV) basal e o seu comportamento após o período de 4,5 anos de doença, a fim de avaliar o efeito da EMRR neste domínio. Métodos: Vinte e nove pacientes com EMRR foram submetidos a duas avaliações neuropsicológicas realizadas entre um intervalo de tempo médio de 4,5 anos. Vinte e seis controles foram submetidos à avaliação neuropsicológica única. Considerou-se nível de significância p <0,005 para delinear diferença significante entre os grupos nas análises estatísticas Mann Whitney e Wilcoxon pareado. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatística nos resultados dos testes de MEV entre a primeira e segunda avaliação neuropsicológica realizada pelos pacientes. Houve discrepância estatística nos resultados dos testes de MEV entre o grupo dos pacientes e controles. Conclusão: O grupo de pacientes apresentou alterações de MEV quando comparado aos controles. Após 4,5 anos aproximadamente os pacientes estabilizaram ou melhoraram seu desempenho em MEV.

8.
Radiol Bras ; 50(5): 279-284, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a subtype of genetically determined generalized epilepsy that does not present abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic alterations in the thalamus in a clinically homogeneous sample of patients with easy-to-control JME, using short-echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed single-voxel (2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm), short-echo time (TE = 35 ms) proton MRS of the thalamus in 21 patients with JME and in 14 healthy age-matched controls. We quantified N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total NAA, creatine (Cr), choline, and myo-inositol (MI), as well as the sum of glutamate and glutamine signals, all scaled to internal water content, and we calculated metabolite ratios using Cr as a reference. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The MI level and the MI/Cr ratio were significantly lower in the thalami of patients diagnosed with JME than in those of the controls. Other metabolites and their ratios did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In our sample of 21 JME patients, we identified lower levels of MI in the thalamus. No significant abnormalities were observed in the concentrations or ratios of other metabolites.

9.
Radiol. bras ; 50(5): 279-284, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-896126

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a subtype of genetically determined generalized epilepsy that does not present abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic alterations in the thalamus in a clinically homogeneous sample of patients with easy-to-control JME, using short-echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Materials and Methods: We performed single-voxel (2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm), short-echo time (TE = 35 ms) proton MRS of the thalamus in 21 patients with JME and in 14 healthy age-matched controls. We quantified N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total NAA, creatine (Cr), choline, and myo-inositol (MI), as well as the sum of glutamate and glutamine signals, all scaled to internal water content, and we calculated metabolite ratios using Cr as a reference. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The MI level and the MI/Cr ratio were significantly lower in the thalami of patients diagnosed with JME than in those of the controls. Other metabolites and their ratios did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: In our sample of 21 JME patients, we identified lower levels of MI in the thalamus. No significant abnormalities were observed in the concentrations or ratios of other metabolites.


Resumo Objetivo: A epilepsia mioclônica juvenil (EMJ) é um dos subtipos da epilepsia generalizada geneticamente determinada que não apresenta alterações na ressonância magnética convencional. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se há alterações metabólicas no tálamo de pacientes com EMJ de fácil controle de uma amostra clinicamente homogênea utilizando espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética (ERM) com tempo de eco curto. Materiais e Métodos: Nós realizamos ERM com voxel único (2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm) e tempo de eco curto (TE = 35 ms) no tálamo de 21 pacientes com EMJ e 14 controles saudáveis pareados por idade. N-acetil-aspartato (NAA), NAA total, creatina (Cr), colina, mio-inositol (MI) e a soma de glutamato e glutamina foram quantificados em relação ao conteúdo de água interna e as razões dos metabólitos foram calculadas utilizando Cr como referência. Valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado como significante. Resultados: Houve redução estatisticamente significante de MI e MI/Cr no tálamo dos pacientes diagnosticados como EMJ em relação aos controles. Outros metabólitos e suas razões não apresentaram alterações significantes. Conclusão: No tálamo do nosso grupo de 21 pacientes com EMJ foi observada redução de MI e da relação MI/Cr. Não foi observada diferença nos outros metabólitos ou suas relações.

10.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 123(2): 407-414, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572496

RESUMO

Creatine/phosphorylcreatine (PCr) responses to creatine supplementation may be modulated by age, diet, and tissue, but studies assessing this possibility are lacking. Therefore we aimed to determine whether PCr responses vary as a function of age, diet, and tissue. Fifteen children, 17 omnivorous and 14 vegetarian adults, and 18 elderly individuals ("elderly") participated in this study. Participants were given placebo and subsequently creatine (0.3 g·kg-1·day-1) for 7 days in a single-blind fashion. PCr was measured through phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in muscle and brain. Creatine supplementation increased muscle PCr in children (P < 0.0003) and elderly (P < 0.001), whereas the increase in omnivores did not reach statistically significant difference (P = 0.3348). Elderly had greater PCr increases than children and omnivores (P < 0.0001 for both), whereas children experienced greater PCr increases than omnivores (P = 0.0022). In relation to diet, vegetarians (P < 0.0001), but not omnivores, had significant increases in muscle PCr content. Brain PCr content was not affected by creatine supplementation in any group, and delta changes in brain PCr (-0.7 to +3.9%) were inferior to those in muscle PCr content (+10.3 to +27.6%; P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). PCr responses to a standardized creatine protocol (0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 for 7 days) may be affected by age, diet, and tissue. Whereas creatine supplementation was able to increase muscle PCr in all groups, although to different extents, brain PCr was shown to be unresponsive overall. These findings demonstrate the need to tailor creatine protocols to optimize creatine/PCr accumulation both in muscle and in brain, enabling a better appreciation of the pleiotropic properties of creatine.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A standardized creatine supplementation protocol (0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 for 7 days) effectively increased muscle, but not brain, phosphorylcreatine. Older participants responded better than younger participants whereas vegetarians responded better than omnivores. Responses to supplementation are thus dependent on age, tissue, and diet. This suggests that a single "universal" protocol, originally designed for increasing muscle creatine in young individuals, may lead to heterogeneous muscle responses in different populations or even no responses in tissues other than skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Creatina/administração & dosagem , Fosfocreatina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Método Simples-Cego
11.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 42(2): 128-134, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079396

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests. In a random subsample of participants, brain creatine content was also assessed in the regions of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique. The scores obtained from verbal learning and executive functions tests did not significantly differ between groups at baseline or after the intervention (all p > 0.05). Creatine content was not significantly different between groups in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, a 7-day creatine supplementation protocol did not elicit improvements in brain creatine content or cognitive performance in healthy youth, suggesting that this population mainly relies on brain creatine synthesis rather than exogenous creatine intake to maintain brain creatine homeostasis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Cognição , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Brasil , Criança , Creatina/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Função Executiva , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/metabolismo , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
12.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 74(2): 93-8, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26982984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated extratemporal metabolic changes with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in patients with unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHOD: 31P-MRS of 33 patients with unilateral MTS was compared with 31 controls. The voxels were selected in the anterior, posterior insula-basal ganglia (AIBG, PIBG) and frontal lobes (FL). Relative values of phosphodiesters- PDE, phosphomonoesters-PME, inorganic phosphate - Pi, phosphocreatine- PCr, total adenosine triphosphate [ATPt = γ- + a- + b-ATP] and the ratios PCr/ATPt, PCr/γ-ATP, PCr/Pi and PME/PDE were obtained. RESULTS: We found energetic abnormalities in the MTS patients compared to the controls with Pi reduction bilaterally in the AIBG and ipsilaterally in the PIBG and the contralateral FL; there was also decreased PCr/γ-ATP in the ipsilateral AIBG and PIBG. Increased ATPT in the contralateral AIBG and increased γ-ATP in the ipsilateral PIBG were detected. CONCLUSION: Widespread energy dysfunction was detected in patients with unilateral MTS.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose/diagnóstico , Esclerose/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(2): 93-98, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-776444

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective We evaluated extratemporal metabolic changes with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in patients with unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Method 31P-MRS of 33 patients with unilateral MTS was compared with 31 controls. The voxels were selected in the anterior, posterior insula-basal ganglia (AIBG, PIBG) and frontal lobes (FL). Relative values of phosphodiesters- PDE, phosphomonoesters-PME, inorganic phosphate - Pi, phosphocreatine- PCr, total adenosine triphosphate [ATPt = γ- + a- + b-ATP] and the ratios PCr/ATPt, PCr/γ-ATP, PCr/Pi and PME/PDE were obtained. Results We found energetic abnormalities in the MTS patients compared to the controls with Pi reduction bilaterally in the AIBG and ipsilaterally in the PIBG and the contralateral FL; there was also decreased PCr/γ-ATP in the ipsilateral AIBG and PIBG. Increased ATPT in the contralateral AIBG and increased γ-ATP in the ipsilateral PIBG were detected. Conclusion Widespread energy dysfunction was detected in patients with unilateral MTS.


RESUMO Objetivo Nós avaliamos as alterações metabóblicas através da espectroscopia de fósforo por ressonância magnética (31P-MRS) em pacientes com esclerose mesial temporal (EMT) unilateral. Método 31P-MRS de 33 pacientes com EMT unilateral foram comparadas aos de 31 controles. Foram selecionados os voxels nas regiões insulonuclear anterior e posterior (RINA e RINP) e frontal (RF). Os valores relativos de fosfodiésteres – PDE, fosfomonoésteres- PME, fosfato inorgânico- Pi, fosfocreatina –PCr, adenosina trifosfato total [ATPt = γ- + a- + b-ATP] e as razões PCr/ATPt, PCr/γ-ATP, PCr/Pi e PME/PDE foram obtidas. Resultados Nós encontramos anormalidades em pacientes com EMT em comparação aos controles. Redução de Pi nas RINA bilateralmente, RINP ipsilateral e RF contralateral, redução de PCr/γ-ATP nas RINA e RINP ipsilaterais foram detectadas. Aumentos de ATPT na RINA contralateral e aumento de γ-ATP na RINP ipsilateral também foram encontradas. Conclusão Disfunção energética difusa foi encontrada em pacientes com EMT unilateral.

14.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 34(4): 529-34, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26708037

RESUMO

In the last decade, several studies have described the typical brain white matter maturation in children and adolescents. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the most frequent MRI technique used to investigate the structural changes across development. However, few previous studies have used the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), which gives a closer measure of myelin content. Here, we employed both techniques for the same sample of 176 typically developing children from 7 to 14years of age. We investigated the associations between DTI parameters and MTR measure, to assess the myelination in the brain in development. Secondly, we investigated age-effects on DTI parameters (fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities) and MTR. No significant correlations between MTR and DTI parameters were observed. In addition, a significant age-effect was detected for DTI data but was not visible for MTR data. Thereby, changes in white matter at this age might be primarily correlated with microstructural changes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Anisotropia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Bainha de Mielina/química
15.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 25(12): 2221-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26476706

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) has been consistently associated with abnormalities in the Glutamate/GABA-Glutamine cycle. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have reported increased brain Glutamate (Glu) and Glx (Glu+Glutamine) in subjects with BD. However, data on separate measures of GABA and Glutamine (Gln) in BD are sparse due to overlapping resonant signals. The development of new sequence methods in the quantification of these metabolites has allowed a better understanding of the Glu/GABA-Gln cycle but data on this field of research remains sparse in BD. Eighty-eight subjects (50 euthymic BD and 38 HC) underwent 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; 2×2×4.5cm(3)) using a two-dimensional JPRESS sequence. GABA, Glutamine (Gln) and Glutamate (Glu) were quantified with the ProFit program. Using image segmentation and known creatine (Cre) concentrations for white and grey matter, metabolite concentrations were calculated for the excited MRS voxel. GABA levels did not differ between groups. Gln level was higher in euthymic BD patients than in healthy controls. The Glu level and Glu/Gln ratio were lower in BD patients than in controls. The use of anticonvulsants was associated with Gln increase but did not affect Glu or Glu/Gln. Neither lithium nor antipsychotic use influenced metabolite levels. The ACC MRS findings indicate that the glutamatergic function in euthymic medicated BD patients is altered relative to controls. Whether this feature is a metabolic signature of euthymic BD subjects should be the focus of future studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
16.
Rev. bras. eng. biomed ; 30(3): 242-247, Sept. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-723261

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The intrinsically high sensitivity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) causes considerable variability in metabolite quantification. In this study, we evaluated the variability of MRS in two research centers using the same model of magnetic resonance image scanner. METHODS: Two metabolic phantoms were created to simulate magnetic resonance spectra from in vivo hippocampus. The phantoms were filled with the same basic solution containing the following metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, choline, glutamate, glutamine and inositol. Spectra were acquired over 15 months on 26 acquisition dates, resulting in a total of 130 spectra per center. RESULTS: The phantoms did not undergo any physical changes during the 15-month period. Temporal analysis from both centers showed mean metabolic variations of 3.7% in acquisitions on the same day and of 8.7% over the 15-month period. CONCLUSION: The low deviations demonstrated here, combined with the high specificity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, confirm that it is feasible to use this technique in multicenter studies in neuroscience research.

17.
Brain Dev ; 36(10): 899-906, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24485900

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neuroimaging studies demonstrate that not only the lesions of malformations of cortical development (MCD) but also the normal-appearing parenchyma (NAP) present metabolic impairments, as revealed with (1)H-MRS. We have previously detected biochemical disturbances in MCD lesions with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Our hypothesis is that pH abnormalities extend beyond the visible lesions. METHODS: Three-dimensional 31P-MRS at 3.0 T was performed in 37 patients with epilepsy and MCD, and in 31 matched-control subjects. The patients were assigned into three main MCD subgroups: cortical dysplasia (n=10); heterotopia (n=14); schizencephaly/polymicrogyria (n=13). Voxels (12.5 cm3) were selected in five homologous regions containing NAP: right putamen; left putamen; frontoparietal parasagittal cortex; right centrum semiovale; and left centrum semiovale. Robust methods of quantification were applied, and the intracellular pH was calculated with the chemical shifts of inorganic phosphate (Pi) relative to phosphocreatine (PCr). RESULTS: In comparison to controls and considering a Bonferroni adjusted p-value <0.01, MCD patients presented significant reduction in intracellular pH in the frontoparietal parasagittal cortex (6.985±0.022), right centrum semiovale (7.004±0.029), and left centrum semiovale (6.995±0.030), compared to controls (mean values±standard deviations of 7.087±0.048, 7.096±0.042, 7.088±0.045, respectively). Dunnet and Dunn tests demonstrated that the differences in pH values remained statistically significant in all MCD subgroups. No significant differences were found for the putamina. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates widespread acidosis in the NAP, and reinforces the idea that MCD visible lesions are only the tip of the iceberg.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/complicações , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfocreatina/metabolismo , Fósforo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 71(9A): 584-90, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24141436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the agreement rate of proton magnetic spectroscopy with magnetic resonance image (MRI) and surface electroencephalography (EEG) in extratemporal neocortical epilepsies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, type series of cases included 33 patients, age range 13-59 years old, of both gender, presenting structural alteration identified by MRI (75.8%) or by neurophysiologic techniques (72.7%). The variables were alterations of N-acetyl-aspartate/choline, N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine, choline/creatine, and N-acetyl-aspartate/cho-line+creatine coefficient of asymmetry. RESULTS: Agreement rates of lateralization by coefficient of asymmetry of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Co/Cr, and NAA/Cho+Cr with MRI, independent of alteration of surface EEG, were equal to 93.3, 57.9, 15.4, and 93.3%, respectively, modifying to 100, 33.3, 0, and 100%, in 16 patients, with lateralization agreement of MRI and surface EEG. CONCLUSION: Proton magnetic spectroscopy agreed better with MRI to lateralization of epileptogenic zone than with surface EEG.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsias Parciais/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Aspártico/análise , Química Encefálica , Colina/análise , Creatina/análise , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 68(8): 1115-20, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24037007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the microscopic damage to the corpus callosum in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with diffusion tensor imaging and to investigate the correlation of this damage with disability. The diffusion tensor imaging parameters of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity provide information about the integrity of cell membranes, offering two more specific indices, namely the axial and radial diffusivities, which are useful for discriminating axon loss from demyelination. METHOD: Brain magnetic resonance imaging exams of 30 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were acquired in a 3T scanner. The axial diffusivities, radial diffusivities, fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity of five segments of the corpus callosum, correlated to the Expanded Disability Status Scale score, were obtained. RESULTS: All corpus callosum segments showed increased radial diffusivities and mean diffusivity, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy, in the relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis group. The axial diffusivity was increased in the posterior midbody and splenium. The Expanded Disability Status Scale scores correlated more strongly with axial diffusivities and mean diffusivity, with an isolated correlation with radial diffusivities in the posterior midbody of the corpus callosum. There was no significant correlation with lesion loads. CONCLUSION: Neurological dysfunction in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis can be influenced by commissural disconnection, and the diffusion indices of diffusion tensor imaging are potential biomarkers of disability that can be assessed during follow-up.


Assuntos
Corpo Caloso/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(9A): 584-590, set. 2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-687263

RESUMO

Objective To analyze the agreement rate of proton magnetic spectroscopy with magnetic resonance image (MRI) and surface electroence-phalography (EEG) in extratemporal neocortical epilepsies. Methods A cross-sectional study, type series of cases included 33 patients, age range 13–59 years old, of both gender, presenting structural alteration identified by MRI (75.8%) or by neurophysiologic techniques (72.7%). The variables were alterations of N-acetyl-aspartate/choline, N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine, choline/creatine, and N-acetyl-aspartate/cho-line+creatine coefficient of asymmetry. Results Agreement rates of lateralization by coefficient of asymmetry of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Co/Cr, and NAA/Cho+Cr with MRI, independent of alteration of surface EEG, were equal to 93.3, 57.9, 15.4, and 93.3%, respectively, modifying to 100, 33.3, 0, and 100%, in 16 patients, with lateralization agreement of MRI and surface EEG. Conclusion Proton magnetic spectroscopy agreed better with MRI to lateralization of epileptogenic zone than with surface EEG. .


Objetivo Analisar a taxa de concordância da espectroscopia de prótons de hidrogênio com imagem de ressonância magnética (IRM) e o eletrencefalograma (EEG) de superfície nas epilepsias neocorticais extratemporais. Métodos Estudo transversal, série de casos, incluiu 33 pacientes, com idade de 13 a 59 anos, de ambos os gêneros, apresentando alteração estrutural à IRM (75,8%) ou neurofisiológica à (72,7%). As variáveis estudadas foram as alterações dos coeficientes de assimetria de N-acetil-aspartato/colina, N-acetil-aspartato/crea-tina, Colina/Creatina e N-acetil-aspartato/colina+creatina. Resultados As taxas de concordância de lateralização dos coeficientes de assimetria de NAA/Co, NAA/Cr, Co/Cr e NAA/Co+Cr com a IRM, independentemente de alterações do EGG de superfície, passaram de 93,3, 57,9, 15,4, 93,3%, respectivamente, para 100, 33,3, zero, 100%, em 16 pacientes, mostrando concordância de lateralização entre IRM e EEG de superfície. Conclusão A espectroscopia de prótons de hidrogênio concordou melhor com a lateralização da zona epileptogênica pela IRM do que com o EEG de superfície. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsias Parciais/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ácido Aspártico/análise , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Química Encefálica , Estudos Transversais , Colina/análise , Creatina/análise , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional
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