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Pediatr Nephrol ; 34(4): 729-736, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415418


BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in preterm infants, but specific therapies remain scarce. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between caffeine exposure and less frequent AKI in the first 7-10 days after birth. We hypothesized that patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) would provide a better natural model of AKI to evaluate this association. METHODS: We reviewed all premature patients diagnosed with NEC or SIP at our institution from 2008 to 2014. AKI was defined by change in serum creatinine using the neonatal Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes definition. Caffeine was prescribed for apnea of prematurity and caffeine exposure was determined by chart review. RESULTS: A total of 146 patients with NEC/SIP were reviewed. Of these, 119 (81.5%) received caffeine, and 91 (62.3%) developed AKI. AKI occurred less frequently in patients who received caffeine than in those who did not (55.5% vs. 92.6%; odds ratio (OR) 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.44). This association persisted in multivariable models after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR 0.08; 95% CI 0.01-0.42; number needed to be exposed to caffeine to prevent one case of AKI = 2.6). Although baseline serum creatinine did not differ by caffeine exposure, patients receiving caffeine had lower peak creatinine (median 1.0 mg/dl vs. 1.5 mg/dl; p = 0.008) and absolute creatinine change (median 0.42 mg/dl vs. 0.68 mg/dl; p = 0.003) than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine exposure in preterm infants with NEC/SIP is associated with decreased incidence and severity of AKI.

Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Cafeína/uso terapêutico , Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Perfuração Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Perfuração Intestinal/diagnóstico , Perfuração Intestinal/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Virginia/epidemiologia
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(14): 10199-10218, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450115


The evaluation and intercomparison of air quality models is key to reducing model errors and uncertainty. The projects AQMEII3 and EURODELTA-Trends, in the framework of the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants and the Task Force on Measurements and Modelling, respectively (both task forces under the UNECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution, LTRAP), have brought together various regional air quality models to analyze their performance in terms of air concentrations and wet deposition, as well as to address other specific objectives. This paper jointly examines the results from both project communities by intercomparing and evaluating the deposition estimates of reduced and oxidized nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) in Europe simulated by 14 air quality model systems for the year 2010. An accurate estimate of deposition is key to an accurate simulation of atmospheric concentrations. In addition, deposition fluxes are increasingly being used to estimate ecological impacts. It is therefore important to know by how much model results differ and how well they agree with observed values, at least when comparison with observations is possible, such as in the case of wet deposition. This study reveals a large variability between the wet deposition estimates of the models, with some performing acceptably (according to previously defined criteria) and others underestimating wet deposition rates. For dry deposition, there are also considerable differences between the model estimates. An ensemble of the models with the best performance for N wet deposition was made and used to explore the implications of N deposition in the conservation of protected European habitats. Exceedances of empirical critical loads were calculated for the most common habitats at a resolution of 100 × 100 m2 within the Natura 2000 network, and the habitats with the largest areas showing exceedances are determined. Moreover, simulations with reduced emissions in selected source areas indicated a fairly linear relationship between reductions in emissions and changes in the deposition rates of N and S. An approximate 20 % reduction in N and S deposition in Europe is found when emissions at a global scale are reduced by the same amount. European emissions are by far the main contributor to deposition in Europe, whereas the reduction in deposition due to a decrease in emissions in North America is very small and confined to the western part of the domain. Reductions in European emissions led to substantial decreases in the protected habitat areas with critical load exceedances (halving the exceeded area for certain habitats), whereas no change was found, on average, when reducing North American emissions in terms of average values per habitat.