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1.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(1): 25-32, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115598

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: el cáncer de colon y recto (CCR) se origina a partir de pólipos adenomatosos y serrados. Por tanto, se recomienda que todos los pólipos colónicos sean resecados y enviados a patología. Sin embargo, en los pólipos diminutos (<5 mm) del recto y del sigmoides existe controversia sobre esta conducta, razón por la cual se ha planteado la estrategia de resecar y descartar o dejar in situ, a partir de la utilización de endoscopios avanzados (con una imagen de banda angosta [Narrow Band Imaging, NBI] u otras), y se logre concordancia con la histopatología, superior al 90 %. En nuestro medio, no hay estudios prospectivos con luz blanca sobre la prevalencia y las características histológicas de estos pólipos en el recto y el sigmoides. Por esta razón, se desarrolló este trabajo. Materiales y métodos: estudio de prevalencia analítica, prospectivo. Se incluyeron las colonoscopias de tamización realizadas en la Unidad de Gastroenterología de la Clínica Fundadores de Bogotá, entre enero y julio de 2018. Resultados: se incluyeron 719 pacientes. La prevalencia de pólipos diminutos en el recto y el sigmoides fue del 27 % (intervalo de confianza [IC], 95 %: 23,7-30,2 %). El 50 % eran pólipos adenomatosos, mientras que en 8 casos se presentó una displasia de alto grado (DAG). Entre los pólipos diminutos, 3 fueron tumores neuroendocrinos. No hubo cáncer en ninguna de las lesiones. Conclusiones: la mitad de los pólipos diminutos encontrados fueron adenomatosos y 8 (0,83 %) tuvieron DAG. Recomendamos resecar todos los pólipos diminutos hasta que los estudios locales realizados con NBI u otra tecnología demostrasen la capacidad para discriminar en más del 90 % los pólipos hiperplásicos (dejarlos in situ) o adenomatosos (resecarlos).


Abstract Introduction: Because colorectal cancer (CRC) originates from adenomatous and serrated polyps, it is recommended that all colonic polyps be resected and sent to pathology. However, there is controversy over this recommendation in the case of rectal and sigmoid polyps measuring less than 5 mm. Strategies using advanced NBI endoscopes to either "resect and discard" or leave "in situ" have been proposed. Concordance with histopathology of over 90% has been achieved. No prospective studies of the prevalence and histological characteristics of these rectal and sigmoid polyps had been done with white light in this country, so we undertook this study. Materials and methods: This is an analytical and prospective prevalence study. Screening colonoscopies performed in the gastroenterology unit of Clínica Fundadores in Bogotá between January and July 2018 were included. Results: Seven hundred nineteen patients were included. The prevalence of tiny polyps in the rectum and sigmoid colon was 27% (95% CI: 23.7 to 30.2%). Fifty percent were adenomatous, but eight cases had high grade dysplasia. Among the tiny polyps, three were neuroendocrine tumors. There was no cancer in any of the lesions. Conclusions: Half of the tiny polyps found were adenomatous, and eight (0.83%) had high grade dysplasia. We recommend resecting all tiny polyps until local studies conducted with NBI or other technology demonstrate the ability to discriminate between the more than 90% hyperplastic polyps (leaving them in situ) and adenomatous polyps (resect them).

2.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087828

RESUMO

El SARS-Cov-2 es un coronavirus productor de la enfermedad COVID-19. Esta inició en Wuhan, capital de la provincia Hubei, China. En menos de cuatro meses la enfermedad se dispersó por el mundo, lo que dio origen a miles de muertes. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) la ha declarado pandemia. La humanidad está consternada, múltiples gobiernos han obligado al aislamiento total, con éxito variable debido a la negligencia de parte de la comunidad. En muchas ciudades las instituciones y el personal sanitario no son suficientes para atender la catástrofe. El aislamiento es la única estrategia eficaz para detener el crecimiento logarítmico de COVID-19. El motivo científico del aislamiento es que más del 60 % de los contagios surgen de personas asintomáticas. La enfermedad no solo produce síntomas respiratorios. El SARS-Cov-2, además, puede producir náuseas, dolor abdominal, vómito, diarrea, anosmia y ageusia. El 50% de los infectados pueden tener síntomas digestivos, que incluso preceden a los respiratorios. La ruta fecal-oral trasmite el virus, aún sin diarrea. En las unidades de endoscopia están todas las formas de contagio: aerosoles (vómitos, arcadas, eructos, flatos), materia fecal, contacto estrecho, contaminación del ambiente. Se deben suspender todas las endoscopias programadas para diagnóstico. Solo deben realizarse las urgentes y terapéuticas. Todo el personal de endoscopia debe tener medidas de protección estrictas. El paciente debe saber que en la sala de endoscopia puede contagiarse, con constancia en el consentimiento informado. Debe contactarse al paciente posendoscopia vía telefónica a los días 7 y 14 para indagar sobre todos los síntomas mencionados.(AU)


SARS-CoV-2 is the coronavirus which produces the dreaded COVID-19. Starting in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, it has spread it spread throughout the world in less than four months and has caused thousands of deaths. The WHO has declared it to be a pandemic. Humanity is shocked, and many governments have imposed total isolation. It has had varying success due to community negligence. In many cities, institutions and health personnel have not successfully managed this catastrophe. Isolation is the only effective strategy to stop the logarithmic growth of COVID 19. The scientific reason for isolation is that more than 60 % of infections arise from asymptomatic people. SARS-CoV-2 not only produces respiratory symptoms but can also cause nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, anosmia and ageusia. Fifty percent of those infected may have digestive symptoms which may even precede respiratory symptoms. The fecal-oral route can transmit the virus even when there is no diarrhea. All forms of contagion are found in endoscopy units: aerosols from vomiting, retching, bel-ching, and flatus; fecal matter, close contact, and contamination of the environment. All diagnostic endoscopies should be discontinued. Only urgent and therapeutic endoscopy should be performed. All endoscopy personnel must have strict protection measures. Each patient should be informed, and sign an informed consent form, that the virus can be spread within the endoscopy room. After performance of endoscopy, the patient should be contacted by phone on days 7 and 14 to inquire about all symptoms mentioned.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Endoscopia/normas , Isolamento de Pacientes , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Coliformes/prevenção & controle
3.
Biomedica ; 39(s1): 125-134, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529855

RESUMO

Introduction: The main cause for Helicobacter pylori infection treatment failure is antibiotic resistance, where clarithromycin and metronidazole play the main role. In Colombia, primary resistance as a consequence of the use of these two antibiotics and excessive levofloxacin use is above the accepted limit (13.6%, 83%, and 16%, respectively). Despite this fact, empirical therapies that include the combination of these antibiotics are used in patients with previous therapeutic failure. Objective: To determine antibiotic resistance in patients previously treated for H. pylori in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study that included ten isolates obtained from five patients with three or four previous failed treatments for H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was investigated by agar dilution and confirmed by DNA sequencing (Magrogen, Korea). Results: Eight isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to levofloxacin. Susceptibility patterns in isolates from the gastric antrum and the body of the stomach were different in three patients. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first evidence of multiple H. pylori resistance in Colombia in previously treated patients. Results demonstrated the consequences of using an ineffective antibiotic scheme and the need to assess antibiotic susceptibility in different anatomical sites of the stomach. The consequences of multiple resistance decrease possible antibiotic effectiveness to eradicate H. pylori in the future.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Gastrite/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Gastroscopia , Genes Bacterianos , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 125-134, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011461

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción. La resistencia a los antibióticos es la principal causa del fracaso del tratamiento contra Helicobacter pylori; la claritromicina y el metronidazol son los antibióticos que generan mayor resistencia. En Colombia, la resistencia primaria a estos dos antibióticos y el uso excesivo de levofloxacina han alcanzado los límites aceptados (13,6, 83 y 16 %, respectivamente). A pesar de ello, se usa el tratamiento empírico combinando estos antibióticos en pacientes en los que ha fallado anteriormente. Objetivo. Determinar la resistencia a los antibióticos en pacientes previamente tratados para H. pylori en Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo en el que se evaluó mediante dilución en agar la resistencia a la amoxicilina, la claritromicina, la levofloxacina y el metronidazol en 10 aislamientos provenientes de 5 pacientes con tres o cuatro tratamientos fallidos para H. pylori. La resistencia a los antibióticos se confirmó mediante secuenciación de ADN (Magrogen, Korea). Resultados. Ocho de los aislamientos presentaron resistencia a dos o más antibióticos y todos fueron resistentes a la levofloxacina. Los patrones de sensibilidad de los aislamientos provenientes del antro pilórico y del cuerpo del estómago, fueron diferentes en tres de los pacientes. Conclusión. Hasta donde se sabe, esta es la primera evidencia de resistencia múltiple de H. pylori en Colombia en pacientes previamente tratados. Los resultados evidenciaron las consecuencias del uso de un esquema ineficaz de tratamiento antibiótico y la necesidad de evaluar la sensibilidad a los antibióticos en diferentes sitios anatómicos del estómago. La resistencia múltiple limita el número de antibióticos útiles para erradicar H. pylori.


Abstract Introduction: The main cause for Helicobacter pylori infection treatment failure is antibiotic resistance, where clarithromycin and metronidazole play the main role. In Colombia, primary resistance as a consequence of the use of these two antibiotics and excessive levofloxacin use is above the accepted limit (13.6%, 83%, and 16%, respectively). Despite this fact, empirical therapies that include the combination of these antibiotics are used in patients with previous therapeutic failure. Objective: To determine antibiotic resistance in patients previously treated for H. pylori in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study that included ten isolates obtained from five patients with three or four previous failed treatments for H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was investigated by agar dilution and confirmed by DNA sequencing (Magrogen, Korea). Results: Eight isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to levofloxacin. Susceptibility patterns in isolates from the gastric antrum and the body of the stomach were different in three patients. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first evidence of multiple H. pylori resistance in Colombia in previously treated patients. Results demonstrated the consequences of using an ineffective antibiotic scheme and the need to assess antibiotic susceptibility in different anatomical sites of the stomach. The consequences of multiple resistance decrease possible antibiotic effectiveness to eradicate H. pylori in the future.

5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 33(4): 411-422, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-985494

RESUMO

Resumen El virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) tiene un gran impacto mundial. No obstante la disponibilidad de la vacuna, 2000 millones de personas se han infectado agudamente y, de ellos, 240 millones persisten crónicamente infectados. La infección tiene diferentes formas de presentación tales como infección aguda, infección crónica, infección oculta y reactivación cuando hay inmunosupresión. Así mismo, hay marcadores muy sensibles como el anticore, cuya positividad puede tener diversos significados. El recientemente descrito antígeno relacionado con el antígeno core es un marcador emergente que podría reemplazar al ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN) viral. En la presente revisión se discuten los exámenes de laboratorio necesarios para el diagnóstico de los diferentes escenarios de la infección.


Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has an enormous global impact. Despite the availability of a vaccine, two billion people have been acutely infected. Of these, 240 million remain chronically infected. The infection has different forms of presentation including acute infections, chronic infections, hidden infections, and reactivation when there is immunosuppression. Similarly, there are very sensitive markers such as anti-core, but a positive test can have different meanings. This recently described antigen which is related to the core antigen is an emerging marker that could replace viral DNA. In this review we discuss the laboratory tests necessary for diagnosing the various scenarios of the infection.

6.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 38(4): 349-355, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014108

RESUMO

Introducción: La gastritis nodular (GN) es un tipo de gastritis fuertemente relacionada con Helicobacter pylori y puede ser un factor de riesgo para cáncer gástrico. Es una patología altamente prevalente en niños infectados por H. pylori. En Colombia no hay estudios sobre esta entidad y por eso decidimos realizar la presente investigación. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y controles. Caso; gastritis nodular endoscópica e histológica, controles, gastritis crónica sin folículos linfoides a la histología. Población: adultos mayores de 18 años, a quienes se les realizó una endoscopia digestiva alta y que firmaron el consentimiento informado. A todos los pacientes se les tomaron biopsias con el sistema OLGA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 344 pacientes, 172 en cada grupo. Los casos tuvieron 10 años menos que los controles (40,9 vs 50,9, p=0,045). En los casos se encontró H. pylori en el 91,9% vs 47,8% (p < 0,001). Los folículos linfoides fueron más frecuentes en el antro que en el cuerpo (60,5 vs 4,7% p < 0,00001). OLGA II en los casos 6,4% versus 1,2% (p=0,01), OLGA III fue similar. No hubo OLGA IV en ningún paciente En los casos se encontró un cáncer gástrico. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con gastritis nodular son más jóvenes que los controles. El 92% de los casos tenía H. pylori. Recomendaciones. Se recomienda que se investigue y se erradique esa infección en los pacientes con ese tipo de gastritis.


Introduction: Nodular gastritis (GN) is a type of gastritis strongly related to Helicobacter pylori and may be a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is a highly prevalent pathology in children infected with H. pylori. In Colombia there are no studies on this entity and for this reason we decided to carry out the present investigation. Materials and methods: Case studies and controls. Case; endoscopic and histological nodular gastritis, controls, chronic gastritis without lymphoid follicles to histology. Population: adults older than 18 years, who underwent a high digestive endoscopy and signed informed consent. All patients were biopsied with the OLGA system. Results: We included 344 patients, 172 in each group. The cases had 10 years less than the controls (40.9 vs 50.9, p = 0.045). In the cases H. pylori was found in 91.9% vs 47.8% (p <0.001). Lymphoid follicles were more frequent in the antrum than in the body (60.5 vs 4.7% p < 0.00001). OLGA II in cases 6.4% versus 1.2% (p = 0.01), OLGA III was similar. There was no OLGA IV in any patient. In the cases a gastric cancer was found. Conclusions: Patients with nodular gastritis are younger than controls. 92% of the cases had H. pylori. Recommendations: It is recommended that this infection be investigated and eradicated in patients with this type of gastritis.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245044

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a devastating and terminal disease in non-human primates (NHPs). Regular TB screenings using the intradermal tuberculin test (TST) have been the mainstay of TB surveillance and control in NHPs. Historically, Aotus monkeys have been considered less susceptible to TB than other NHPs. Here we present the diagnosis and epidemiology of a TB outbreak at The Gorgas Memorial Institute Aotus colony in Panama, and the results of two cross-sectional randomized TB screening studies, using antibody (Ab) and IFN-gamma release assay testing. RESULTS: Epidemiological and spatial analysis confirmed that the outbreak was the result of a continuing intermittent exposure, with human to monkey transmission as the most likely source. During the outbreak that lasted five months (January-June 2015), Mycobacterium kansassi and MTB were isolated from lung caseous granulomas in 1/7 and 3/7 TB suspicious animals respectively. Furthermore, MTB was detected by qRT-PCR in formalin fixed lung and liver granulomas in 2/7 and 1/6 monkeys respectively, suggesting an aerosol route of infection. Likewise, a random sample that included 63 / 313 adult (>2 year-old) monkeys, screened for latent TB with the Primagam® IFN-gamma release assay, between March-May, 2016, were all non-reactors; indicating that the outbreak was self-limiting and the colony was likely free or latent TB infection. Control measures included, quarantine, disinfection and TST screening of all personnel. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Aotus are highly susceptible to TB, therefore, TB prevention measures should be strictly enforced in Aotus monkey colonies.


Assuntos
Aotidae , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/veterinária , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Panamá/epidemiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 33(2): 134-144, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-960051

RESUMO

Resumen El tumor metastásico no siempre tiene un origen evidente, hasta en un tercio de los casos nunca se encuentra el tumor primario. Este artículo es una guía de los avances más recientes para mejorar el enfoque diagnóstico y el manejo del paciente con este tumor fatal y frecuente. El objetivo de este artículo, además de ser una guía, es ayudar a evitar errores comunes y graves. Uno de los errores más importantes es no tener en cuenta el papel fundamental de la confirmación histológica, pues esta puede evitar investigaciones innecesarias. En el artículo también se detallan los componentes de la evaluación estándar, la clasificación según su pronóstico y las indicaciones de la evaluación secundaria, que incluye las indicaciones de la endoscopia alta y baja, los marcadores tumorales, la tomografía por emisión de positrones (TEP), el papel que ocupa el perfil genético, la epigenética y el ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN) viral. Adicionalmente, se indica el momento en que se debe detener la investigación. Recientemente, el tratamiento se ha modificado, lo que parece cambiar la historia de estos pacientes y de sus contrapartes con primario conocido.


Abstract Metastatic tumors do not always have obvious origins: in one third of these cases, the primary tumor is never found. This article is a guide to the most recent advances in diagnostic approaches and patient management of these fatal and frequent tumors. An additional objective of this article is to help avoid common and serious errors. One of the most important errors is not taking the fundamental role of histological confirmation into account since it can avoid unnecessary investigations. The article also details the components of a standard evaluation, classification according to prognosis and indications for a secondary evaluation. These include indications for upper and lower endoscopy, tumor markers, positron emission tomography, and the roles of genetic profiling, epigenetics and viral DNA. It also indicates the moment at which an investigation should be stopped. Recently, treatment has changed, and these changes seems to have changed the history of these patients and their counterparts with known primary tumors.

10.
mBio ; 9(3)2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739900

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax causes heavy burdens of disease across malarious regions worldwide. Mature P. vivax asexual and transmissive gametocyte stages occur in the blood circulation, and it is often assumed that accumulation/sequestration in tissues is not an important phase in their development. Here, we present a systematic study of P. vivax stage distributions in infected tissues of nonhuman primate (NHP) malaria models as well as in blood from human infections. In a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage parasites, we found a conserved cascade of stage-specific gene expression despite the greatly different gametocyte maturity times of these two species. Using this knowledge, we validated a set of conserved asexual- and gametocyte-stage markers both by quantitative real-time PCR and by antibody assays of peripheral blood samples from infected patients and NHP (Aotus sp.). Histological analyses of P. vivax parasites in organs of 13 infected NHP (Aotus and Saimiri species) demonstrated a major fraction of immature gametocytes in the parenchyma of the bone marrow, while asexual schizont forms were enriched to a somewhat lesser extent in this region of the bone marrow as well as in sinusoids of the liver. These findings suggest that the bone marrow is an important reservoir for gametocyte development and proliferation of malaria parasites.IMPORTANCEPlasmodium vivax malaria continues to cause major public health burdens worldwide. Yet, significant knowledge gaps in the basic biology and epidemiology of P. vivax malaria remain, largely due to limited available tools for research and diagnostics. Here, we present a systematic examination of tissue sequestration during P. vivax infection. Studies of nonhuman primates and malaria patients revealed enrichment of developing sexual stages (gametocytes) and mature replicative stages (schizonts) in the bone marrow and liver, relative to those present in peripheral blood. Identification of the bone marrow as a major P. vivax tissue reservoir has important implications for parasite diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmodium vivax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Aotidae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Saimiri
11.
Rev Gastroenterol Peru ; 38(4): 349-355, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nodular gastritis (GN) is a type of gastritis strongly related to Helicobacter pylori and may be a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is a highly prevalent pathology in children infected with H. pylori. In Colombia there are no studies on this entity and for this reason we decided to carry out the present investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case studies and controls. Case; endoscopic and histological nodular gastritis, controls, chronic gastritis without lymphoid follicles to histology. POPULATION: adults older than 18 years, who underwent a high digestive endoscopy and signed informed consent. All patients were biopsied with the OLGA system. RESULTS: We included 344 patients, 172 in each group. The cases had 10 years less than the controls (40.9 vs 50.9, p = 0.045). In the cases H. pylori was found in 91.9% vs 47.8% (p <0.001). Lymphoid follicles were more frequent in the antrum than in the body (60.5 vs 4.7% p < 0.00001). OLGA II in cases 6.4% versus 1.2% (p = 0.01), OLGA III was similar. There was no OLGA IV in any patient. In the cases a gastric cancer was found. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with nodular gastritis are younger than controls. 92% of the cases had H. pylori. RECOMMENDATIONS: It is recommended that this infection be investigated and eradicated in patients with this type of gastritis.


Assuntos
Gastrite/microbiologia , Gastrite/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/microbiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
12.
Med. UIS ; 30(3): 111-120, sep.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-894224

RESUMO

Resumen Helicobacter pylori es una bacteria que infecta la mucosa gástrica de alrededor de la mitad de la población mundial y está involucrada en la patogénesis de un gran número de enfermedades gástricas y extragástricas en el huésped. Varios antígenos, adyuvantes y rutas de inmunización han sido evaluados buscando una vacuna que ayude a prevenir o erradicar la infección, consiguiéndose diferentes grados de éxito, si bien la inmunidad esterilizante solo se ha conseguido en algunos modelos animales. Varios mecanismos se han propuesto para explicar los resultados obtenidos con las vacunas potenciales evaluadas y para explicar cómo esta bacteria elude la respuesta inmune inducida por ella misma o por intentos de inmunización. El panorama hasta el momento, si bien no parece sencillo, no deja de ser esperanzador por los favorables resultados que vendrían tras la obtención de una vacuna eficaz y por algunos estudios que motivan a la posibilidad de su consecución. MÉD.UIS. 2017;30(3):111-20.


Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria that infects the gastric mucosa of around half of the world's population and it's implicated in the pathogenesis of various gastric and extragastric diseases in the infected host. Several antigens, adyuvants and routes of immunization have been tested in order to find a vaccine that helps in the control of this bacteria, with varying degrees of success so far, however, sterilizing immunity has been achieved only in animals. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the outcomes obtained by testing the potential vaccines and to understand how this bacteria avoids the immunity triggered by itself or by the vaccines tested so far. The current picture does not seem easy but it's still encouraging since some studies have given hope to the possibility of achieving an effective vaccine. MÉD.UIS. 2017;30(3):111-20.


Assuntos
Humanos , Helicobacter pylori , Vacinação , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Imunização , Gastroenterologia , Antígenos
13.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 24(4)2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179404

RESUMO

Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which are transmitted to humans by the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. After the elimination of Plasmodium falciparum, it is predicted that Plasmodium vivax will remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality outside Africa, stressing the importance of developing a vaccine against P. vivax malaria. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two P. vivax antigens, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142) in a plasmid recombinant DNA prime/adenoviral (Ad) vector boost regimen in Aotus monkeys. Groups of 4 to 5 monkeys were immunized with plasmid DNA alone, Ad alone, prime/boost regimens with each antigen, prime/boost regimens with both antigens, and empty vector controls and then subjected to blood-stage challenge. The heterologous immunization regimen with the antigen pair was more protective than either antigen alone or both antigens delivered with a single vaccine platform, on the basis of their ability to induce the longest prepatent period and the longest time to the peak level of parasitemia, the lowest peak and mean levels of parasitemia, the smallest area under the parasitemia curve, and the highest self-cure rate. Overall, prechallenge MSP142 antibody titers strongly correlated with a decreased parasite burden. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of immunized animals developed anemia. In conclusion, the P. vivax plasmid DNA/Ad serotype 5 vaccine encoding blood-stage parasite antigens AMA1 and MSP142 in a heterologous prime/boost immunization regimen provided significant protection against blood-stage challenge in Aotus monkeys, indicating the suitability of these antigens and this regimen for further development.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoito/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Aotidae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Masculino , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem
14.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 32(1): 55-59, 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-900674

RESUMO

En pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) de larga duración, pueden aparecer pólipos postinflamatorios o seudopólipos, los cuales se presentan en los sitios en donde previamente hubo inflamación severa. Se describe el caso de un paciente con colitis ulcerativa de 5 años de evolución, en quien se encontró una poliposis postinflamatoria generalizada durante la colonoscopia de control. Se hace una revisión del significado de esta alteración, su clasificación y de su tratamiento.


Post-inflammatory polyps or “pseudopolyps” may occur in patients who have long-term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They occur at sites where severe inflammation had previously occurred. We describe the case of a patient who had suffered from ulcerative colitis for five years when generalized post-inflammatory polyposis was discovered during a follow-upl colonoscopy. We review the meaning of this condition as well as its classification and treatment


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Pólipos , Revisão
15.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 31(4): 360-367, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-960032

RESUMO

Introducción: la gastritis crónica atrófica (GCA) es una entidad clinicopatológica relacionada con cáncer gástrico (CG) de tipo intestinal. Su principal causa es Helicobacter pylori. Actualmente, además del diagnóstico, se recomienda evaluar la extensión de la atrofia o de la metaplasia intestinal, para estadificar el riesgo de CG. El método más preciso para la atrofia es el OLGA, que exige 5 biopsias: 2 del cuerpo, 2 del antro y 1 de la incisura angularis, marcadas y enviadas en frascos separados. En Colombia, no se ha evaluado el rendimiento de OLGA en el estudio de la atrofia gástrica. Materiales y métodos: estudio de casos y controles. Los casos son pacientes en quienes se hizo el muestreo de biopsias para el OLGA. Los controles pacientes con menos de 5 biopsias gástricas, sin el muestreo del OLGA. Resultados: 1599 casos y 4191 controles. Edad promedio de los casos: 49±12 años versus controles 54±10 años (p: NS). H. pylori: 60% versus 57%. GCA en casos: 42% versus 26%. El 12,3% tenía OLGA III/IV y el 88%, OLGA 0, I o II, los cuales no ameritarían vigilancia endoscópica. Conclusión: el sistema OLGA permite detectar un 61,8% más de atrofia que la detectada con un muestreo insuficiente de biopsias gástricas. La mayoría de los casos (88%) tuvo bajo riesgo de CG (estado 0-II) y no se justificaría vigilancia endoscópica.


Introduction: Chronic atrophic gastritis (GCA) is a clinicopathological entity related to intestinal type gastric cancer (GC) whose main cause is helicobacter pylori. Currently, in addition to the diagnosis, it is recommended that the extent of atrophy or intestinal metaplasia be evaluated in order to stage the GC risk. The most accurate method for atrophy is OLGA which requires five biopsies: two from the corpus, two from the antrum and one from the angular incisure. Each biopsy is marked placed in a separate tube and marked. In Colombia, the use of OLGA to study gastric atrophy had not been evaluated previously. Materials and methods: This is a case and control study whose cases are patients who had biopsies taken to be studied with OLGA. Control patients had less than five gastric biopsies, without OLGA sampling. Results: This study includes 1,599 cases and 4,191 controls. The average age of cases was 49 +/- 12 years, and the average age of controls was 54 +/- 10 years (p: NS). H. pylori infections were found in 60% of the cases and in 57% of the controls while 42% of the cases were found to have gastric cancer and 26% of the cases were found to have GC. 12.3% had OLGA III or IV and 88% had OLGA 0, I or II and did not merit endoscopic monitoring. Conclusion: The OLGA system detects 61.8% more atrophy than is detected with less sampling of gastric biopsies. Most of the cases (88%) had low risk of GC (stages 0-II) and did not require endoscopic monitoring

16.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0160007, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27454429

RESUMO

Increased resistance of Helicobacter pylori to clarithromycin and metronidazole has resulted in recommendation to substitute fluoroquinolones for eradication therapy. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and changes in primary levofloxacin resistance related to H. pylori gyrA sequences. The study utilized H. pylori strains isolated from patients undergoing gastroscopy in Bogotá, Colombia from 2009 to 2014. Levofloxacin susceptibility was assessed by agar dilution. Mutations in gyrA sequences affecting the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) were evaluated by direct sequencing. Overall, the mean prevalence of primary levofloxacin resistance was 18.2% (80 of 439 samples). Resistance increased from 11.8% (12/102) in 2009 to 27.3% (21/77) in 2014 (p = 0.001). gyrA mutations in levofloxacin resistant strains were present in QRDR positions 87 and 91. The most common mutation was N87I (43.8%, 35/80) followed by D91N (28.8%, 23/80) and N87K (11.3%, 9/80). Levofloxacin resistance increased markedly in Colombia during the six-year study period. Primary levofloxacin resistance was most often mediated by point mutations in gyrA, with N87I being the most common QRDR mutation related to levofloxacin resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colômbia/epidemiologia , DNA Girase/genética , Feminino , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21216, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880111

RESUMO

Infections with Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic of the Plasmodium species affecting man, have been reduced in part due to artemisinin-based combination therapies. However, artemisinin resistant parasites have recently emerged in South-East Asia. Novel intervention strategies are therefore urgently needed to maintain the current momentum for control and elimination of this disease. In the present study we characterize the phenotypic and genetic properties of the multi drug resistant (MDR) P. falciparum Thai C2A parasite strain in the non-human Aotus primate model, and across multiple passages. Aotus infections with C2A failed to clear upon oral artesunate and mefloquine treatment alone or in combination, and ex vivo drug assays demonstrated reduction in drug susceptibility profiles in later Aotus passages. Further analysis revealed mutations in the pfcrt and pfdhfr loci and increased parasite multiplication rate (PMR) across passages, despite elevated pfmdr1 copy number. Altogether our experiments suggest alterations in parasite population structure and increased fitness during Aotus adaptation. We also present data of early treatment failures with an oral artemisinin combination therapy in a pre-artemisinin resistant P. falciparum Thai isolate in this animal model.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Aotidae , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Artesunato , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Fenótipo , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Primatas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Falha de Tratamento
19.
Bogotá; Asociacion Colombiana de Gastroenterologia; 2016. [1-32] p.
Monografia em Espanhol | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-967698

RESUMO

Objetivo: brindar una guía de práctica clínica basada en la evidencia más reciente para el diagnóstico y tratamiento del reflujo gastroesofágico teniendo en cuenta la efectividad y seguridad de las intervenciones dirigidas a pacientes, personal asistencial, administrativo y entes gubernamentales de cualquier servicio de atención en Colombia


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Esôfago de Barrett , Refluxo Gastroesofágico
20.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 30(supl.1): 67-74, oct.-dic. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: lil-776330

RESUMO

Objetivo: desarrollar una guía de práctica clínica con la evidencia más reciente para la tamización de cáncer de colon y recto en población asintomática de riesgo promedio, dirigida a pacientes, personal asistencial, administrativo y entes gubernamentales de cualquier servicio de atención en Colombia. Materiales y métodos: esta guía fue desarrollada por un equipo multidisciplinario con apoyo de la Asociación Colombiana de Gastroenterología, el Grupo Cochrane ITS y el Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Se desarrollaron preguntas clínicas relevantes y se realizó la búsqueda de guías nacionales e internacionales en bases de datos especializadas. Las guías existentes fueron evaluadas en términos de calidad y aplicabilidad; ninguna de ellas cumplió el criterio de adaptación, por lo que se decidió construir una guía de novo. El Grupo Cochrane realizó la búsqueda sistemática de la literatura. Las tablas de evidencia y recomendaciones fueron realizadas con base en la metodología GRADE. Las recomendaciones de la guía fueron socializadas en una reunión de expertos con entes gubernamentales y pacientes. Resultados: se desarrolló una guía de práctica clínica basada en la evidencia para la tamización del cáncer de colon y recto en Colombia. Conclusiones: la tamización de pacientes asintomáticos de riesgo promedio en Colombia en forma adecuada con estándares de calidad tiene el potencial de impactar la carga de cáncer de colon en el país.


Objective: To provide an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the screening of colon and rectal cancer for patients, caregivers, administrative and government bodies at all levels of care in Colombia. Materials and Methods: This guide was developed by a multidisciplinary team with the support of the Colombian Association of Gastroenterology, Cochrane STI Group and Clinical Research Institute of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Relevant clinical questions were developed and the search for national and international guidelines in databases was performed. Existing guidelines were evaluated for quality and applicability. None of the guidelines met the criteria for adaptation, so the group decided to develop a de novo guideline. Systematic literature searches were conducted by the Cochrane Group. The tables of evidence and recommendations were made based on the GRADE methodology. The recommendations of the guide were socialized in a meeting of experts with government agencies and patients. Results: An evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the screening of colorectal cancer was developed for the Colombian context. Conclusions: The opportune detection of colon cancer would have an impact of the disease in Colombia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias Colorretais , Peneiramento de Líquidos
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