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Front Immunol ; 8: 798, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769923


Mutations of the recombinase-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in humans are associated with a broad range of phenotypes. For patients with severe clinical presentation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents the only curative treatment; however, high rates of graft failure and incomplete immune reconstitution have been observed, especially after unconditioned haploidentical transplantation. Studies in mice have shown that Rag-/- natural killer (NK) cells have a mature phenotype, reduced fitness, and increased cytotoxicity. We aimed to analyze NK cell phenotype and function in patients with mutations in RAG and in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) genes. Here, we provide evidence that NK cells from these patients have an immature phenotype, with significant expansion of CD56bright CD16-/int CD57- cells, yet increased degranulation and high perforin content. Correlation was observed between in vitro recombinase activity of the mutant proteins, NK cell abnormalities, and in vivo clinical phenotype. Addition of serotherapy in the conditioning regimen, with the aim of depleting the autologous NK cell compartment, may be important to facilitate engraftment and immune reconstitution in patients with RAG and NHEJ defects treated by HSCT.

Front Immunol ; 6: 250, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26052330


Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other severe non-SCID primary immunodeficiencies (non-SCID PID) can be treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, but when histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-matched donors are lacking, this can be a high-risk procedure. Correcting the patient's own HSCs with gene therapy offers an attractive alternative. Gene therapies currently being used in clinical settings insert a functional copy of the entire gene by means of a viral vector. With this treatment, severe complications may result due to integration within oncogenes. A promising alternative is the use of endonucleases such as ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce a double-stranded break in the DNA and thus induce homology-directed repair. With these genome-editing tools a correct copy can be inserted in a precisely targeted "safe harbor." They can also be used to correct pathogenic mutations in situ and to develop cellular or animal models needed to study the pathogenic effects of specific genetic defects found in immunodeficient patients. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these endonucleases in gene correction and modeling with an emphasis on CRISPR/Cas9, which offers the most promise due to its efficacy and versatility.