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1.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 32(12): 1533-40, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23765159

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of public health importance. In Chile, the Cordobes/Chilean clone was the predominant healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) clone in 1998. Since then, the molecular epidemiological surveillance of MRSA has not been performed in Southern Chile. We aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HA-MRSA infections in Southern Chile to identify the MRSA clones involved, and their evolutionary relationships with epidemic international MRSA lineages. A total of 303 single inpatient isolates of S. aureus were collected in the Valdivia County Hospital (2007-2008), revealing 33% (100 MRSA/303) prevalence for HA-MRSA infections. The SCCmec types I and IV were identified in 97% and 3% of HA-MRSA, respectively. All isolates lacked the pvl genes. A random sample (n = 29) of all MRSA was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec subtyping, agr and spa typing, and virulence genes profiling. PFGE analysis revealed the predominance (89%, 26/29) of pulsotype A and three additional pulsotypes, designated H1, I33, and G1. Pulsotype A (ST5-SCCmecI-spa-t149) is clonally related to the Cordobes/Chilean clone. Pulsotype H1 (ST5-SCCmecIVNT-spa-t002) is genetically related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-SCCmecIV). Pulsotype I33 (ST5-SCCmecIVc-spa-t002) is clonally related by PFGE to the community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) clone spread in Argentina, I-ST5-IVa-PVL(+). The G1 pulsotype (ST8-SCCmecIVc-spa-t024) is clonally related to the epidemic USA300 CA-MRSA. Here, we demonstrate the stability of the Cordobes/Chilean clone over time as the major HA-MRSA clone in Southern Chile. The identification of two CA-MRSA clones might suggest that these clones have entered into the healthcare setting from the community. These results emphasize the importance of the local surveillance of MRSA infections in the community and hospital settings.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(1): 232-235, Feb. 2010. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-543094

RESUMO

A susceptibilidade de 10 amostras de Arcobacter butzleri ao soro humano foi estudada. A maior atividade bactericida foi encontrada no soro humano normal, com taxas de sobrevivência bacterianainversamente proporcionais à diluição do soro. As maiores taxas de sobrevivência foram obtidas com o soro inativado pelo calor. As taxas de sobrevivência decresceram com a adição de soro fresco ao inativado. O soro com valores reduzidos de gamaglobulinas e valores normais de complemento mostrou ativo efeito bactericida. Os resultados demonstraram que A. butzleri é altamente susceptível ao efeito bactericida do soro humano, sugerindo que pode ser capaz de ativar diretamente o complemento pela via alternativa.


Assuntos
Animais , Arcobacter/química , Soro/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
3.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 25(3): 175-8, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18580993

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: In vitro susceptibility of nosocomial and community acquired strains of Staphylococcus aureus must be periodically evaluated because of its continuous evolution. AIM: To know the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus isolated in Valdivia, to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistance and global patterns of resistance and to compare the evolution of the susceptibility along the years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 278 S. aureus strains were evaluated: 136 obtained from hospitalized patients, 50 belonged to outpatients and 92 to healthy carriers. Antimicrobial agents tested were: penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, lincomycin and erythromycin. RESULTS: Thirty three, 28 and 1.1% of strains isolated from hospitalized, outpatients and carriers, respectively, were methicillin-resistant. Six resistance patterns were found. No vancomycin resistant strain was isolated. COMMENT: It is worrisome that 2% of S. aureus strains obtained from hospitalized patients showed intermediate resistance to vancomycin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Portador Sadio , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 25(3): 175-178, jun. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-484884

RESUMO

La susceptibilidad in vitro de Staphylococcus aureus adquirido, tanto en el ambiente hospitalario como en la comunidad, debe ser monitorizada periódicamente por su continua evolución. Objetivos: Conocer la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de S. aureus aisladas en Valdivia, determinar la prevalencia de cepas resistentes a meticilina y sus respectivos patrones de resistencia, analizar la evolución de esta susceptibilidad a través de los años. Material y Métodos: Se evaluaron 278 cepas de S. aureus: 136 obtenidas de pacientes hospitalizados, 50 de pacientes ambulatorios y 92 de portadores. Los antimicrobianos ensayados fueron: penicilina, oxacilina, vancomicina, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, lincomicina y eritromicina.


In vitro susceptibility of nosocomial and community acquired strains of Staphylococcus aureus must be periodically evaluated because of its continuous evolution. Aim: To know the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus isolated in Valdivia, to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistance and global patterns of resistance and to compare the evolution of the susceptibility along the years. Material and Methods: A total of 278 S. aureus strains were evaluated: 136 obtained from hospitalized patients, 50 belonged to outpatients and 92 to healthy carriers. Antimicrobial agents tested were: penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, lincomycin and erythromycin. Results: Thirty three, 28 and 1.1 percent of strains isolated from hospitalized, outpatients and carriers, respectively, were methicillin-resistant. Six resistance patterns were found. No vancomycin resistant strain was isolated. Comment: It is worrisome that 2 percent of S. aureus strains obtained from hospitalized patients showed intermediate resistance to vancomycin.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Portador Sadio , Chile/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 135(5): 596-601, mayo 2007. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-456676

RESUMO

Background: Methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an important cause of nosocomial infections. Aim: To determine the genotypes of MRSA strains. Material and methods: Fifty five strains of MRSA, isolated from patients hospitalized in Hospital Base Valdivia, were studied. The phenotype was determined through MicroScan® in all strains and by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in 41. The genotype of the strains was analyzed by a duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the mecA gene, amplifying eight hypervariable DNA regions associated to such gene. Results: According to MIC, 88 percent of strains had a pattern of resistance against multiple antimicrobial (penicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, íincomycin and erythromycin). Vancomicin resistan strains were not detected. Only 53 strains (96 percent) had at least one of the eight hypervariable regions and were classified as MRSA. Genotypic patterns types 15 were the most commonly detected in 38 percent and 34 percent of strains, respectively. MicroScan® erroneously classified five strains in an incorrect phenotype, according to results obtained with duplex PCR. MIC results did not differ from those of duplex PCR. Conclusions: Duplex- PCR is a useful tool to detect hyper variable regions associated to mecA gene.


Assuntos
Humanos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genótipo , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(8): 1135-1136, Nov. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-304653

RESUMO

The seroprevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in hantavirus seronegative patients, who had symptoms and signs compatible with pneumonia was established. For this purpose we used the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Titers > or =1:16 for C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae were found in 8.6 percent and 17.1 percent of the serum, respectively, showing evidence of recent or current infection


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Hantavirus , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(8): 1135-6, 2001 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11784935

RESUMO

The seroprevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in hantavirus seronegative patients, who had symptoms and signs compatible with pneumonia was established. For this purpose we used the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Titers > or = 1:16 for C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae were found in 8.6% and 17.1% of the serum, respectively, showing evidence of recent or current infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/imunologia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Hantavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Bol Chil Parasitol ; 52(1-2): 3-11, 1997.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9497533

RESUMO

During 1993, the prevalences of infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths (IPH) in the riverside schoolchildren population of two sectors of Valdivia river, with different levels of fecal contamination, were compared in relation to their contact with river water (swimming, bathing) and basic sanitation elements (BSE) of their houses: feces and garbage disposal, and water supply. Populations of children from sectors A (n = 418), with significatively greater (SG) total coliform most probable number (MPN), and sector B (n = 400), were examined. PAFS test was used for the stool examination of one sample, from each child. The global prevalence of infection by IPH was similar in A (74.8%) and B (72.5%) sectors. From 10 identified IPH, only Entamoeba histolytica and Hymenolepis nana showed prevalences of infection SG in sector A, than in sector B. The contact of the children with the water of the river showed association with SG prevalences for E. histolytica, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana in sector B and for E. histolytica in sector A. No sanitary condition for the different BSE contributed to SG prevalences for E. histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in both sectors, and for E. coli in sector B. The contact with the river water and the different BSE contributed to prevalences SG in 5 and 3 IPH in sectors B and A, respectively. The results suggest that a project in study for the development of a treatment plant of wastewater in sector A, could contribute to control infection by IPH. But, this measure must be associated with improvement of the BSE, health education, and application of chemotherapy measures for geohelminthosis in both sectors.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Saneamento
10.
Chest ; 103(4): 1023-7, 1993 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8131433

RESUMO

We compared the diagnostic value of quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and telescoping plugged catheter (TPC) samples in 40 patients with moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). None had received antibiotics previously. BAL quantitative cultures were performed in 13 control patients without pneumonia. In 28 (70 percent) patients, TPC cultures yielded > or = 10(3) cfu/ml of a pathogenic bacterium in pure culture. In 27 of these cases and in four additional cases, BAL cultures yielded > or = 10(3) cfu/ml. BAL cultures from the control group were sterile in seven cases, yielded normal flora in three cases, and yielded microorganisms thought to be not significant in two cases. Microbiologic agreement was reached by both TPC and BAL for 32 (84 percent) of 38 microorganisms recovered. Quantitative cultures from both techniques correlated very well (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001). We conclude that both TPC and BAL have similar accuracy to determine etiologic diagnosis of CAP. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between both techniques.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Broncoscopia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Brônquios/microbiologia , Broncoscópios , Cateterismo , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Escarro/microbiologia
11.
Rev Med Chil ; 118(5): 543-7, 1990 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2127315

RESUMO

From 1985 to 1987 we obtained urethral samples from 453 patients with a clinical diagnosis of urethritis. N gonorrhoeae was isolated in 55%, a rate that increased along the study period. The most common other agent was U urealyticum alone or in combination with other organisms. Among 82 patients, the incidence of chlamydia trachomatis was 19%. The proportion of Beta-lactamase producing strains among N gonorrhoeae varied form 7% in 1985 to 13% in 87 and 3% in 1988.


Assuntos
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Ureaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Uretrite/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Violeta Genciana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenazinas
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 23(6): 443-6, 1989 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2701783

RESUMO

The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was studied by the direct immunofluorescence test, as also was that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma by the standard methods, in 82 patients with urethral discharge. Ch. trachomatis was found in 19.5% (16) of the cases and in 11 of them (68.8%) there was association with the other bacteria investigated. This eleven patients presented a scanty gelatinous discharge.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Uretra/microbiologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Imunofluorescência , Violeta Genciana , Humanos , Fenazinas , Uretrite/microbiologia
13.
Rev Med Chil ; 117(11): 1267-70, 1989 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2519803

RESUMO

247 strains of N gonorrhoeae were isolated from 453 patients with acute urethritis from 1985 to 1987. 19 strains produced beta-lactamase for a 7, 13 and 3% incidence in each of the 3 years. MIC between 1 and 8 micrograms/ml or between 65 and 256 micrograms/ml were found in 2 groups of beta lactamase producing strains. An increase in the sensitivity rate (81%) to penicillin of non beta-lactamase producing strains was observed in this period. The sensitivity to erythromycin and chloramphenicol remained constant while a slight increase in resistance to tetracycline was observed.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/enzimologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Uretrite/microbiologia
16.
Rev. argent. micol ; 10(1): 6-9, ene.-feb. 1987. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-26745

RESUMO

La piel contiene distintos ácidos grasos y otros compuestos que han demostrado poseer una actividad antimicótica. Se estudió la acción inibitoria de los ácidos grasos undecilénico, láurico, mirístico y del escualeno sobre dermatofitos, candida sp., Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus sp. y Scopulariopsis sp. Para ello se usó el método de dilución en agar de Chmel y Louria con un inóculo definido por Negroni. El ácido undecilénico inhibió al 100% de los dermatofitos con concentraciones inferiores o iguales a 64 Ag/ml de medio. En cambio, la mayoría de las cepas de Aspergillus y Scopulariopsis crecieron con concentraciones superiores a 128 Ag/ml. El ácido láurico inhibió al 53.2% de las cepas con concentraciones inferiores o iguales a 128 Ag/ml. Fueron particularmente sensibles (100%) las cepas de Trichophyton verrucosum (64Ag/ml). El escualeno y el ácido mirístico presentaron una mínima actividad antimicotica (AU)


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Candida , Pele/fisiologia , Meios de Cultura
17.
Rev. argent. micol ; 10(1): 6-9, ene.-feb. 1987. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-103253

RESUMO

La piel contiene distintos ácidos grasos y otros compuestos que han demostrado poseer una actividad antimicótica. Se estudió la acción inibitoria de los ácidos grasos undecilénico, láurico, mirístico y del escualeno sobre dermatofitos, candida sp., Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus sp. y Scopulariopsis sp. Para ello se usó el método de dilución en agar de Chmel y Louria con un inóculo definido por Negroni. El ácido undecilénico inhibió al 100% de los dermatofitos con concentraciones inferiores o iguales a 64 µg/ml de medio. En cambio, la mayoría de las cepas de Aspergillus y Scopulariopsis crecieron con concentraciones superiores a 128 µg/ml. El ácido láurico inhibió al 53.2% de las cepas con concentraciones inferiores o iguales a 128 µg/ml. Fueron particularmente sensibles (100%) las cepas de Trichophyton verrucosum (64µg/ml). El escualeno y el ácido mirístico presentaron una mínima actividad antimicotica


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura , Pele/fisiologia
18.
Rev. argent. micol ; 9(2): 18-22, mayo-ago. 1986. ilus, Tab
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-31901

RESUMO

Se estudió la actividad de tolciclato frente a dermatofitos, Candida y otros hongos con dos inóculos diferentes. Con el inóculo definido por Negroni los dermatofitos fueron inhibidos en un 100% a una concentración inferior o igual a 2,56 microng/ml. En cambio con el inóculo definido por Bianchi, el 100% de estas cepas fue susceptible a concentraciones inferiores o iguales a 0,08 microns/ml. El 100% de las cepas de C. albicans fueron resistentes a 5,12 microng/ml con ambos inóculos (AU)


Assuntos
Técnicas In Vitro , Estudo Comparativo , Antibiose , Fungos , Tiocarbamatos/farmacologia
19.
Rev. argent. micol ; 9(2): 18-22, mayo-ago. 1986. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-40988

RESUMO

Se estudió la actividad de tolciclato frente a dermatofitos, Candida y otros hongos con dos inóculos diferentes. Con el inóculo definido por Negroni los dermatofitos fueron inhibidos en un 100% a una concentración inferior o igual a 2,56 microng/ml. En cambio con el inóculo definido por Bianchi, el 100% de estas cepas fue susceptible a concentraciones inferiores o iguales a 0,08 microns/ml. El 100% de las cepas de C. albicans fueron resistentes a 5,12 microng/ml con ambos inóculos


Assuntos
Antibiose , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Tiocarbamatos/farmacologia
20.
Bol. micol ; 2(4): 151-5, jun. 1986. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-40121

RESUMO

Se estudió el comportamiento de dermatofitos, Candida y otros hongos como también de bacterias aisladas en Valdivia, Chile, frente a S-acetil-N-terbutil tiosalicilamida. El 94,5% de los dermatofitos fueron inhibidos por CIM iguales o inferiores a 64 micron-grama/ml. de medio del S-acetil derivado. El 41,7% de las cepas de C. albicans y el 25% de las cepas de Scopulariopsis brevicaulis fueron resistentes a concentraciones de 128 micron-grama/ml. de medio. Staphylococcus aureus fue inhibido en un 100% a concentraciones iguales o inferiores a l6 micron-grama/ml


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Salicilamidas/farmacologia , Chile
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