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1.
Angiology ; 70(8): 737-746, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030528

RESUMO

GlycA, a composite biomarker of systemic inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, but its relationship with peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unknown. We assessed whether plasma GlycA is associated with ankle-brachial index (ABI), carotid plaque (CP), and incident clinical PAD among 6466 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants without CVD at baseline. GlycA, ABI, and CP were measured at baseline. Both ABI and CP were remeasured at 10 years. Incident clinical PAD was ascertained from hospital records. We used logistic, Cox, and linear mixed regression models adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. Mean (standard deviation, SD) was 62 (10) years for age and 381 (61) µmol/L for GlycA; 53% were women. GlycA was associated with both prevalent low ABI ≤0.8 (prevalence odds ratio [95% confidence interval, CI] per SD increment in GlycA, 1.65 [1.39-1.97]) and CP (1.19 [1.11-1.27]) at baseline. There were no significant associations of GlycA with incident low ABI, incident CP, or 10-year change in ABI or CP score. We identified 110 incident cases of PAD after 79 590 person-years. The hazard ratio (95% CI) of incident PAD per SD increment in GlycA was 1.38 (1.14-1.66). In conclusion, GlycA was associated with prevalent low ABI, prevalent CP, and incident PAD after a median of 14 years.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
2.
Atherosclerosis ; 282: 91-99, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: GlycA is a novel composite biomarker of systemic inflammation reflecting posttranslational glycosylation of acute phase reactants. GlycA has been associated with coronary artery calcium, cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. Vascular calcifications outside of the coronary arteries are risk markers of CVD and mortality. Whether GlycA is linked to extra-coronary calcifications (ECC) is not well established. METHODS: We studied 6462 MESA participants free of clinical CVD who had plasma GlycA measured at baseline. ECCs [calcification in aortic valve (AVC), mitral annulus (MAC), ascending and descending thoracic aorta (ATAC, DTAC)] were ascertained at baseline and follow-up visit (median 2.3-yrs later) by cardiac CT. Poisson regression models with robust variance estimation assessed associations of GlycA with prevalent and incident ECC. Linear mixed models assessed the cross-sectional and 2-year change in ECC. Models were adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, GlycA (per SD increment) was positively associated with prevalent AVC, ATAC and DTAC with adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI) of 1.08 (1.01-1.14), 1.18 (1.03-1.34) and 1.10 (1.06-1.14), respectively. There was also a significant association between GlycA and baseline extent of both ATAC and DTAC. Longitudinally, GlycA was positively associated with incident MAC and DTAC, with adjusted incidence ratios of 1.18 (1.03-1.37) and 1.17 (1.07-1.28), respectively. GlycA was also associated with 2-year change in MAC and DTAC extent. CONCLUSIONS: In this diverse cohort free from clinical CVD, we found GlycA was positively associated with prevalent and incident ECC measures, in particular for progression of MAC and DTAC.

3.
J Clin Med ; 7(12)2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518023

RESUMO

Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are linked to metabolic disease, but their relevance for prediction of type 2 diabetes development is unclear. We determined the association of plasma BCAAs with type 2 diabetes risk in the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease (PREVEND) cohort. The BCAAs were measured by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We evaluated the prospective associations of BCAAs with type 2 diabetes in 6244 subjects. The BCAAs were positively associated with HOMA-IR after multivariable adjustment (p < 0.0001). During median follow-up for 7.5 years, 301 cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained. The Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated that patients in the highest BCAA quartile presented a higher risk (p log-rank < 0.001). Cox regression analyses revealed a positive association between BCAA and type 2 diabetes; the hazard ratio (HR) for the highest quartile was 6.15 (95% CI: 4.08, 9.24, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for multiple clinical and laboratory variables, the association remained (HR 2.80 (95% CI: 1.72, 4.53), p < 0.0001). C-statistics, Net reclassification improvement, and -2 log likelihood were better after adding BCAAs to the traditional risk model (p = 0.01 to <0.001). In conclusions, high concentrations of BCAAs associate with insulin resistance and with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This association is independent of multiple risk factors, HOMA-IR and ß cell function.

4.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(11): 1439-1445, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy lifestyles and inflammation contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). GlycA is a novel biomarker of systemic inflammation representing post-translational glycosylation of acute phase reactants and associated with increased clinical CVD risk. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), as assessed by (higher) Life's Simple 7 (LS7) scores, would be associated with lower GlycA levels among individuals free of CVD in a multiethnic community-based population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 6479 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants [53% women; mean age 62 ± 10 years] with GlycA levels measured at baseline by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The LS7 metrics (smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose) were each scored as ideal (2), moderate (1), or poor (0). Total scores were summed and categorized as optimal (12-14), average (8-11), and inadequate (0-7). Linear regression assessed percent difference in GlycA by LS7 scores, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, income, family history of CVD, and other inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: GlycA levels were 403.4 ± 63.1, 374.4 ± 59.2, and 350.3 ± 56.2 micromoles per liter (µmol/L) for inadequate, average, and optimal CVH, respectively (P-trend <0.001). After multivariable adjustment, GlycA remained independently and inversely associated with CVH categories, with a lower mean GlycA level of 5 µmol/L (95% confidence interval 4.5-5.8) for each one unit increment in LS7 score. CONCLUSIONS: Among this group of ethnically diverse individuals without CVD, suboptimal CVH is associated with higher GlycA levels, independent of traditional inflammatory biomarkers. Strategies aimed at improving CVH might reduce GlycA, which could be a marker of reduced risk of future CVD events.

5.
AIDS ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: GlycA, a novel NMR biomarker of inflammation, has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but its association with CVD among HIV-infected individuals is unknown. We examined the associations between GlycA and subclinical coronary plaque among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men participating in MACS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 935 men with plasma measurement of GlycA and noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) and/or coronary CT angiography. METHODS: We used multivariable Poisson and linear regression to assess associations of GlycA with prevalent coronary atherosclerosis and plaque extent, respectively. RESULTS: Mean ±â€ŠSD age was 54 ±â€Š7 years; 31% were black; 63% HIV-infected. GlycA levels were higher in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected men (397 ±â€Š68 vs. 380 ±â€Š60 µmol/l, P = 0.0001), and higher for men with detectable viral load vs. undetectable (413 ±â€Š79 vs. 393 ±â€Š65 µmol/l, P = 0.004). After adjusting for HIV serostatus, demographic and CVD risk factors, every 1SD increment in GlycA level was associated with a higher prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC >0) [prevalence ratio 1.09 (95% CI 1.03-1.15)] and coronary stenosis at least 50% [1.20 (1.02-1.41)]. These associations did not significantly differ after adjusting for traditional inflammatory biomarkers or by HIV serostatus. Among men with plaque, GlycA was positively associated with the extent of CAC and total plaque. CONCLUSION: HIV infection was associated with higher GlycA levels. In both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals, GlycA was significantly associated with several measures of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, independent of other CVD risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers. These findings suggest the potential role of GlycA in CVD risk stratification among HIV patients.

6.
Clin Chem ; 64(10): 1485-1495, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the usefulness of standard lipid parameters for cardiovascular disease risk assessment, undiagnosed residual risk remains high. Advanced lipoprotein testing (ALT) was developed to provide physicians with more predictive diagnostic tools. ALT methods separate and/or measure lipoproteins according to different parameters such as size, density, charge, or content, and equivalence of results across methods has not been demonstrated. METHODS: Through a split-sample study, 25 clinical specimens (CSs) were assayed in 10 laboratories before and after freezing using the major ALT methods for non-HDL particles (non-HDL-P) or apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) measurements with the intent to assess their comparability in the current state of the art. RESULTS: The overall relative standard deviation (CV) of non-HDL-P and apoB-100 concentrations measured by electrospray differential mobility analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, immunonephelometry, LC-MS/MS, and vertical autoprofile in the 25 frozen CSs was 14.1%. Within-method comparability was heterogeneous, and CV among 4 different LC-MS/MS methods was 11.4% for apoB-100. No significant effect of freezing and thawing was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that ALT methods do not yet provide equivalent results for the measurement of non-HDL-P and apoB-100. The better agreement between methods harmonized to the WHO/IFCC reference material suggests that standardizing ALT methods by use of a common commutable calibrator will improve cross-platform comparability. This study provides further evidence that LC-MS/MS is the most suitable candidate reference measurement procedure to standardize apoB-100 measurement, as it would provide results with SI traceability. The absence of freezing and thawing effect suggests that frozen serum pools could be used as secondary reference materials.

7.
Am Heart J ; 202: 27-32, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GlycA is an inflammatory marker that is raised in patients with cardiometabolic diseases and associated with cardiovascular (CV) events. We sought to determine if GlycA adds independent value to hsCRP for CV risk prediction. METHODS: Patients in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study who underwent coronary angiography and had plasma GlycA and hsCRP levels were studied (n = 2996). Patients were followed for 7.0 ±â€¯2.8 years. GlycA and hsCRP were moderately correlated (r = 0.46, P < .0001). GlycA and hsCRP concentrations were stratified into high and low categories by their median values. Multivariable cox hazard regression was utilized to determine the associations of GlycA quartiles, as well as high and low categories of GlycA and hsCRP, with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF) hospitalization, and stroke. RESULTS: The highest GlycA quartile was associated with future MACE [HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.22-1.69; P < .0001]. Patients with high GlycA and high hsCRP had more diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, HF, renal failure and MI, but not coronary artery disease. High GlycA and hsCRP (H/H) versus low GlycA and hsCRP (L/L) was associated with MACE, death and HF hospitalization, but not MI or stroke. Combined MACE rates were 33.5%, 41.3%, 35.7% and 49.1% for L/L, L/H, H/L and H/H categories of GlycA/hsCRP, respectively (P-trend < .0001). The interaction between GlycA and hsCRP was significant for the outcome of death (P = .03). CONCLUSION: In this study, levels of GlycA and hsCRP were independent and additive markers of risk for MACE, death and HF hospitalization.

8.
J Clin Lipidol ; 12(2): 348-355.e2, 2018 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial showed no incremental benefit of extended-release niacin (ERN) therapy added to simvastatin in subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ERN treatment on lipoprotein particles and GlycA, a new marker of systemic inflammation, and their relations with incident CVD events including mortality. METHODS: GlycA and very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle subclasses were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using available stored baseline (n = 2754) and 1-year in-trial (n = 2581) samples. Associations with CVD events and all-cause mortality were assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age, sex, diabetes, treatment assignment, and lipoproteins. RESULTS: Compared to placebo, ERN treatment lowered very low-density lipoprotein and LDL and increased HDL particle concentrations, increased LDL and HDL particle sizes (all P < .0001), but did not affect GlycA. Baseline and in-trial GlycA levels were associated with increased risk of CVD events: hazard ratio (HR) per SD increment, 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.28) and 1.13 (1.02-1.26), respectively. However, none of the lipoprotein particle classes or subclasses was associated with incident CVD. By contrast, all-cause mortality was significantly associated with both GlycA (baseline HR: 1.46 [1.22-1.75]; in-trial HR: 1.41 [1.24-1.60]) and low levels of small HDL particles (baseline HR: 0.69 [0.56-0.86]; in-trial HR: 0.69 [0.56-0.86]). CONCLUSIONS: This Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial post hoc substudy indicates that inflammation, as indexed by GlycA, is unaffected by ERN treatment but is significantly associated with the residual risk of CVD and death in patients treated to low levels of LDL cholesterol.

9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(7): 988-995, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lipid profiles are altered by active disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may be further modified by treatment with Janus kinase inhibitors and other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. METHODS: Lipid data were analysed from phase II and III studies of 4 mg (n=997) and 2 mg (n=479) oral baricitinib administered once daily in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA. Lipoprotein particle size and number and GlycA were evaluated with nuclear magnetic resonance in one phase III study. The effect of statin therapy on lipid levels was evaluated in patients on statins at baseline and in patients who initiated statins during the study. RESULTS: Treatment with baricitinib was associated with increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides, but no significant change in LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Lipid levels plateaued after 12 weeks of treatment. Baricitinib treatment increased large LDL and decreased small, dense LDL particle numbers and GlycA. Lipid changes from baseline were not significantly different between baseline statin users and non-users. In patients who initiated statin therapy during the study, LDL-C, triglycerides (baricitinib 4 mg only) and apolipoprotein B decreased to pre-baricitinib levels; HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I levels remained elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Baricitinib was associated with increased LDL-C, HDL-C and triglyceride levels, but did not alter the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Evaluation of cardiovascular event rates during long-term treatment is warranted to further characterise these findings and their possible clinical implications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00902486, NCT01469013, NCT01185353, NCT01721044, NCT01721057, NCT01711359, NCT01710358, NCT01885078.

10.
Clin Biochem ; 54: 92-99, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, measured on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics research platforms or by mass spectrometry, have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a new test for quantification of BCAA on a clinical NMR analyzer and used this test to determine the clinical correlates of BCAA in 2 independent cohorts. DESIGN AND METHODS: The performance of the NMR-based BCAA assay was evaluated. A method comparison study was performed with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma BCAA were measured in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, n = 1209; 376 T2DM subjects) and in a Groningen cohort (n = 123; 67 T2DM subjects). In addition, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was measured successfully in 119 subjects from the Groningen cohort. RESULTS: NMR-based BCAA assay results were linear over a range of concentrations. Coefficients of variation for inter- and intra-assay precision ranged from 1.8-6.0, 1.7-5.4, 4.4-9.1, and 8.8-21.3%, for total BCAA, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively. BCAA quantified from the same samples using NMR and LC-MS/MS were highly correlated (R2 = 0.97, 0.95 and 0.90 for valine, leucine and isoleucine). In both cohorts total and individual BCAA were elevated in T2DM (P = 0.01 to ≤0.001). Moreover, cIMT was associated with BCAA independent of age, sex, T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MetS) categorization or alternatively of individual MetS components. CONCLUSIONS: BCAA levels, measured by NMR in the clinical laboratory, are elevated in T2DM and may be associated with cIMT, a proxy of subclinical atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Biomark Med ; 11(11): 991-1001, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160108

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize the effects of hepato-preferential basal insulin peglispro (BIL) and insulin glargine on insulin resistance (lipoprotein insulin resistance index [LP-IR]) and inflammation (GlycA), and to explore the biological implications. METHODS: This substudy included 847 patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) or Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in four cohorts of the BIL development program. LP-IR and GlycA were measured before and after insulin treatment. Correlations between LP-IR, GlycA, clinical parameters and liver biomarkers were assessed. RESULTS: LP-IR and GlycA were higher in T2D than T1D. LP-IR increased in patients switched from basal insulins to BIL but not in insulin-naive patients. GlycA decreased in T2D patients treated with BIL and T1D patients treated with glargine. CONCLUSION: These exploratory analyses help to characterize differences in biological effects between BIL and glargine treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Transl Med ; 15(1): 219, 2017 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GlycA is a novel spectroscopic marker of systemic inflammation with low intra-individual variability and other attributes favoring its clinical use in patients with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. GlycA is unique in its composite nature, reflecting both increased glycan complexity and circulating acute phase protein levels during local and systemic inflammation. Recent studies of GlycA from cross-sectional, observational and interventional studies have been highly informative, demonstrating that GlycA is elevated in acute and chronic inflammation, predicts death in healthy individuals and is associated with disease severity in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and lupus. Moreover, following treatment with biological therapy in psoriasis, reduction in skin disease severity was accompanied by a decrease in GlycA levels and improvement in vascular inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest GlycA is a marker that tracks systemic inflammation and subclinical vascular inflammation. However, larger prospective studies and randomized trials are necessary in order to assess the impact of novel therapies on GlycA in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions, which may be concomitant with cardiovascular benefits.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13781, 2017 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061990

RESUMO

Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is a microbiome-related metabolite that is cleared by the kidney and linked to renal function. We explored the relationship between TMAO and all-cause mortality, and determined whether this association was modified by renal function. A prospective study was performed among PREVEND participants to examine associations of plasma TMAO with all-cause mortality. After median follow-up of 8.3 years in 5,469 participants, 322 subjects died. TMAO was positively associated with age, body mass index, type 2 diabetes mellitus and inversely with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcreatcysC)(all P < 0.001). Subjects in the highest versus lowest TMAO quartile had a crude 1.86-fold higher mortality risk (Ptrend < 0.001). After adjustment for several risk factors, TMAO remained associated with all-cause mortality [HR:1.36 (95% CI, 0.97-1.91),Ptrend = 0.016]. This association was lost after further adjustment for urinary albumin excretion and eGFR [HR:1.15 (95% CI, 0.81-1.64),Ptrend = 0.22]. The association of TMAO with mortality was modified by eGFR in crude and age- and sex-adjusted analyses (interaction P = 0.002). When participants were stratified by renal function (eGFR < vs. ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2), TMAO was associated with all-cause mortality only in subjects with eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 [adjusted HR:1.18 (95% CI, 1.02-1.36),P = 0.023]. In conclusion, TMAO is associated with all-cause mortality, particularly in subjects with eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(8)2017 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is suggested to be a central feature of atherosclerosis, particularly among smokers. We studied whether inflammatory biomarkers GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with cigarette smoking. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 11 509 participants, 6774 from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and 4735 from ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) were included. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between multiple measures of smoking behavior and the inflammatory biomarkers, GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, using regression models adjusted for demographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics. Participants were 57.7±11.1 years old and 46.4% were men. Never, former, and current smokers comprised 51.7%, 34.0%, and 14.3% of the population, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted mean absolute difference in GlycA levels (µmol/L) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were higher for former (4.1, 95% CI, 1.7-6.6 µmol/L) and current smokers (19.9, 95% CI, 16.6-23.2 µmol/L), compared with never smokers. Each 5-unit increase in pack-years of smoking was associated with higher GlycA levels among former (0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.1 µmol/L) and current smokers (1.6, 95% CI, 0.8-2.4 µmol/L). Among former smokers, each 5-year increase in time since quitting smoking was associated with lower GlycA levels (-1.6, 95% CI, -2.4 to -0.8 µmol/L) and each 10-unit increase in number of cigarettes/day was associated with higher GlycA among current smokers (2.8, 95% CI, 0.5-5.2 µmol/L). There were similar significant associations between all measures of smoking behavior, and both log-transformed GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: Acute and chronic exposure to tobacco smoking is associated with inflammation, as quantified by both GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. These biomarkers may have utility for the study and regulation of novel and traditional tobacco products.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/análise , Aterosclerose/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Lipid Res ; 58(9): 1916-1923, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743729

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the depletion of large HDL particles and enrichment of small HDL particles observed in adolescents with T2D. Four groups of adolescents were recruited: 1) lean insulin-sensitive (L-IS), normal BMI and no insulin resistance; 2) lean insulin-resistant (L-IR), normal BMI but insulin resistance (fasting insulin levels ≥ 25 mU/ml and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ≥ 6); 3) obese insulin-sensitive (O-IS), BMI ≥ 95th percentile and no insulin resistance; and 4) obese insulin-resistant (O-IR), BMI ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance. Plasma was separated by using gel-filtration chromatography to assess the HDL subspecies profile and compared with that of obese adolescents with T2D (O-T2D). Large HDL subspecies were significantly lower across groups from L-IS > L-IR > O-IS > O-IR > O-T2D (P < 0.0001); small HDL particles were higher from L-IS to O-T2D (P < 0.0001); and medium-sized particles did not differ across groups. The contributions of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes to HDL subspecies profile were between 23% and 28%, 1% and 10%, and 4% and 9%, respectively. Obesity is the major risk factor associated with the altered HDL subspecies profile previously reported in adolescents with T2D, with smaller contributions from insulin resistance and diabetes.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adolescente , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 16(1): 73, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Phase 2/3 studies of basal insulin peglispro (BIL) compared to insulin glargine, patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes previously treated with insulin and randomized to BIL had an increase in serum triglycerides (TGs). To further understand lipoprotein changes, a lipid substudy which included liver fat content was designed to assess relationships among the measured variables for each diabetes cohort and compare the hepato-preferential insulin BIL to glargine. METHODS: In three cohorts of patients with diabetes (type 1, type 2 insulin naïve, and type 2 previously on insulin; n = 652), liver fat content (LFC) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood lipids were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at baseline, 26 and 52 weeks of treatment. Apolipoproteins, adiponectin, and other lipid parameters were also measured. Descriptive statistics were done, as well as correlation analyses to look for relationships among LFC and lipoproteins or other lipid measures. RESULTS: In patients with type 1 diabetes treated with BIL, but not glargine, small LDL and medium and large VLDL subclass concentrations increased from baseline. In patients with type 2 diabetes previously on insulin and treated with BIL, large VLDL concentration increased from baseline. In insulin naïve patients with type 2 diabetes treated with BIL, there were very few changes, while in those treated with glargine, small LDL and large VLDL decreased from baseline. Baseline LFC correlated significantly in one or more cohorts with baseline large VLDL, small LDL, VLDL size, and Apo C3. Changes in LFC by treatment showed generally weak correlations with lipoprotein changes, except for positive correlations with large VLDL and VLDL size. Adiponectin was higher in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to patients with type 2 diabetes, but decreased with treatment with both BIL and glargine. CONCLUSIONS: The lipoprotein changes were in line with the observed changes in serum TGs; i.e., the cohorts experiencing increased TGs and LFC with BIL treatment had decreased LDL size and increased VLDL size. These data and analyses add to the currently available information on the metabolic effects of insulins in a very carefully characterized cohort of patients with diabetes. Clinicaltrials.gov registration numbers and dates NCT01481779 (2011), NCT01435616 (2011), NCT01454284 (2011), NCT01582451 (2012).


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Lispro/análogos & derivados , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Insulina Lispro/efeitos adversos , Insulina Lispro/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Biochem ; 50(16-17): 947-955, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) produced by gut microbiota metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine has been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to provide incremental clinical prognostic utility beyond traditional risk factors for assessing a patient's CVD risk. The aim of this study was to develop an automated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assay for quantification of TMAO concentration in serum and plasma using a high-throughput NMR clinical analyzer. METHODS: Key steps in assay development included: (i) shifting the TMAO analyte peak to a less crowded region of the spectrum with a pH buffer/reagent, (ii) attenuating the broad protein background signal in the spectrum and (iii) using a non-negative least squares algorithm for peak deconvolution. Assay performance was evaluated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A method comparison study was performed to compare TMAO concentrations quantified by NMR and mass spectrometry (MS). RESULTS: The within-run and within-lab imprecision ranged from 4.3 to 14.5%. Under the acquisition method employed, the NMR assay had a limit of blank, detection and quantitation of 1.6, 3.0 and 3.3µM, respectively. Linearity was demonstrated within the reportable range of 3.3 to 3000µM. TMAO measurements using the NMR assay, which involves minimal sample preparation, compared well with values obtained with the MS-based assay (R2=0.98). CONCLUSIONS: The NMR based assay provides a simple and accurate measurement of circulating TMAO levels amenable to the high-throughput demands of the clinical chemistry laboratory. Moreover, assay performance enables the levels of TMAO to be quantified in serum or plasma at clinically actionable concentrations for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risks and individualized dietary monitoring.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metilaminas/sangue , Plasma/química , Soro/química , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Lipids Health Dis ; 16(1): 39, 2017 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cardiovascular risk is associated with paradoxical reductions in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Concentrations of small LDL (LDL-P) and HDL (HDL-P) particles are also reduced with increased inflammation and disease activity in RA patients. Here we sought to identify which measure(s) of inflammation, disease activity and cardiometabolic risk contribute most to the RA-associated lipoprotein profile. METHODS: NMR lipoprotein measurements were obtained for individuals with RA (n = 50) and age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 39). Groups were compared using 39 matched pairs with 11 additional subjects used in RA only analyses. Among RA patients, relationships were determined for lipoprotein parameters with measures of disease activity, disability, pain, inflammation, body composition, insulin sensitivity and exercise. Percentage of time spent in basal activity (<1 metabolic equivalent) and exercise (≥3 metabolic equivalents) were objectively-determined. RESULTS: Subjects with RA had fewer total and small LDL-P as well as larger LDL and HDL size (P < 0.05). Among RA patients, pain and disability were associated with fewer small HDL-P (P < 0.05), while interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were associated with LDL size (P < 0.05). BMI, waist circumference, abdominal visceral adiposity and insulin resistance were associated with more total and small LDL-P, fewer large HDL-P, and a reduction in HDL size (P < 0.05). Most similar to the RA lipoprotein profile, more basal activity (minimal physical activity) and less exercise time were associated with fewer small LDL-P and total and small HDL-P (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The RA-associated lipoprotein profile is associated with a lack of physical activity. As this was a cross-sectional investigation and not an intervention and was performed from 2008-13, this study was not registered in clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Exercício , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
BMC Pediatr ; 16(1): 151, 2016 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27596163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylation patterns of serum proteins, such as α1-acid glycoprotein, are modified during an acute phase reaction. The response of acute Kawasaki disease (KD) patients to IVIG treatment has been linked to sialic acid levels on native IgG, suggesting that protein glycosylation patterns vary during the immune response in acute KD. Additionally, the distribution and function of lipoprotein particles are altered during inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the potential for GlycA, a marker of protein glycosylation, and the lipoprotein particle profile to distinguish pediatric patients with acute KD from those with other febrile illnesses. METHODS: Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to quantify GlycA and lipoprotein particle classes and subclasses in pediatric subjects with acute KD (n = 75), post-treatment subacute (n = 36) and convalescent (n = 63) KD, as well as febrile controls (n = 48), and age-similar healthy controls (n = 48). RESULTS: GlycA was elevated in acute KD subjects compared to febrile controls with bacterial or viral infections, IVIG-treated subacute and convalescent KD subjects, and healthy children (P <0.0001). Acute KD subjects had increased total and small low density lipoprotein particle numbers (LDL-P) (P <0.0001) and decreased total high density lipoprotein particle number (HDL-P) (P <0.0001) compared to febrile controls. Consequently, the ratio of LDL-P to HDL-P was higher in acute KD subjects than all groups tested (P <0.0001). While GlycA, CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, LDL-P and LDL-P/HDL-P ratio were able to distinguish patients with KD from those with other febrile illnesses (AUC = 0.789-0.884), the combinations of GlycA and LDL-P (AUC = 0.909) or GlycA and the LDL-P/HDL-P ratio (AUC = 0.910) were best at discerning KD in patients 6-10 days after illness onset. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of GlycA confirm enhanced protein glycosylation as part of the acute phase response in KD patients. When combined with common laboratory tests and clinical characteristics, GlycA and NMR-measured lipoprotein particle parameters may be useful for distinguishing acute KD from bacterial or viral illnesses in pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lactente , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC
20.
Clin Biochem ; 49(15): 1122-1126, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HDL-C is recognized to be inversely associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, attenuation of the association of HDL-C with CV risk may occur after adjustment for other lipoprotein parameters and in various disease states, especially in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recently, the number of HDL particles (HDL-P) has been suggested to improve CV risk prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=2999) in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study who underwent angiography and had lipoprotein particle measurements determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were studied. Multivariable Cox hazard regression was utilized to evaluate the association of HDL-C, HDL-P, and HDL-P subclasses with future major adverse CV events (MACE: death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke). Patients averaged 64±12years, 66% male, 26% diabetic, and 42% ACS. At angiography, 65% of patients were diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD). HDL-C and HDL-P averaged 41±13mg/dL and 28±8µmol/L, respectively. HDL-P (HR=0.903, p=0.001), but not HDL-C (HR=0.947, p=0.102) was significantly associated with MACE. In a model that included all HDL-P subclasses, both small (HR=0.862, p<0.0001) and medium (HR=0.922, p=0.020) were associated with CV risk, but not large HDL-P (HR=1.0042, p=0.185). Small HDL-P continued to be associated with all of the individual components of MACE, but not stroke. CONCLUSION: In this study of patients undergoing angiography, HDL-P was a strong, independent predictor of future MACE, with the smaller HDL-P accounting for this association.


Assuntos
Angiografia/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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