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1.
Bull Cancer ; 107(9): 925-933, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921398

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease is associated with severe complications and early mortality in adults. In children, hematopoietic stem cell transplant from HLA-identical sibling can stop the progression of the disease and leads to more than 95% long-term free survival without sickle cell disease. The aim of this workshop was to define indications and modalities of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in children and adults with sickle cell disease. Patient and sibling HLA typing should be proposed, early in the course of the disease, when intensification therapies are required. Indications of transplant from HLA-identical sibling in children and adults are, cerebral vasculopathy, occurrence of vaso-occlusive events despite hydroxycarbamide, renal and hepatic diseases related to SCD, chronic anemia<7g/dL despite hydroxycarbamide, need to maintain transfusion programs longer than six months, and major transfusion difficulties related to red blood cell alloimmunization. In children with an HLA-identical sibling donor, we recommend a myeloablative conditioning regimen associating high dose busulfan, cyclophosphamide and ATG, considering the excellent results of this approach In patients over 15 years of age, we recommend the NIH approach consisting of a reduced intensity conditioning regimen by alemtuzumab, and 3Gy total body irradiation, followed by peripheral hematopoietic stem cells and post-transplant immunosuppression by sirolimus In the absence of HLA-identical sibling donor, there is no definitive data for preferring transplant from unrelated versus haplo-identical donors but we recommend to evaluate these approaches in prospective trials.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Transplante Homólogo
2.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(8): 1614-1622, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992846

RESUMO

ELANE neutropenia is associated with myelodysplasia and acute leukemia (MDS-AL), and severe infections. Because the MDS-AL risk has also been shown to be associated with exposure to GCSF, since 2005, in France, patients receiving high daily GCSF doses (>15 µg/kg/day) are eligible for HSCT, in addition to classic indications (MDS-AL or GCSF refractoriness). We analyzed the effect of this policy. Among 144 prospectively followed ELANE-neutropenia patients enrolled in the French Severe Congenital Neutropenia Registry, we defined two groups according to period: "before 2005" for those born before 2005 and followed until 31/12/2004 (1588 person-years); and "after 2005" comprised of those born after 2005 or born before 2005 but followed after 2005 until 31/03/2019 (1327 person-years). Sixteen of our cohort patients underwent HSCT (14 long-term survivors) and six developed MDS-ALs. Six leukemic transformations occurred in the before-2005 group and none after 2005 (respective frequencies 3.8 × 10-3 vs. 0; P < 0.01), while four HSCTs were done before 2005 and 12 since 2005 (respective HSCT rates increased 2.5 × 10-3 vs. 9 × 10-3; P < 0.01). Our results support early HSCT for patients with ELANE mutations who received high GCSF doses, as it might lower the risk of leukemic transformation.

3.
Blood ; 132(12): 1318-1331, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914977

RESUMO

Congenital neutropenias (CNs) are rare heterogeneous genetic disorders, with about 25% of patients without known genetic defects. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous mutation in the SRP54 gene, encoding the signal recognition particle (SRP) 54 GTPase protein, in 3 sporadic cases and 1 autosomal dominant family. We subsequently sequenced the SRP54 gene in 66 probands from the French CN registry. In total, we identified 23 mutated cases (16 sporadic, 7 familial) with 7 distinct germ line SRP54 mutations including a recurrent in-frame deletion (Thr117del) in 14 cases. In nearly all patients, neutropenia was chronic and profound with promyelocytic maturation arrest, occurring within the first months of life, and required long-term granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy with a poor response. Neutropenia was sometimes associated with a severe neurodevelopmental delay (n = 5) and/or an exocrine pancreatic insufficiency requiring enzyme supplementation (n = 3). The SRP54 protein is a key component of the ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates the co-translational targeting of secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We showed that SRP54 was specifically upregulated during the in vitro granulocytic differentiation, and that SRP54 mutations or knockdown led to a drastically reduced proliferation of granulocytic cells associated with an enhanced P53-dependent apoptosis. Bone marrow examination of SRP54-mutated patients revealed a major dysgranulopoiesis and features of cellular ER stress and autophagy that were confirmed using SRP54-mutated primary cells and SRP54 knockdown cells. In conclusion, we characterized a pathological pathway, which represents the second most common cause of CN with maturation arrest in the French CN registry.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/genética , Lipomatose/genética , Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Apoptose , Autofagia , Doenças da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Doenças da Medula Óssea/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome Congênita de Insuficiência da Medula Óssea , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/metabolismo , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lipomatose/metabolismo , Lipomatose/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Neutropenia/patologia , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
4.
Haematologica ; 103(8): 1278-1287, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724903

RESUMO

Heterozygous germline GATA2 mutations strongly predispose to leukemia, immunodeficiency, and/or lymphoedema. We describe a series of 79 patients (53 families) diagnosed since 2011, made up of all patients in France and Belgium, with a follow up of 2249 patients/years. Median age at first clinical symptoms was 18.6 years (range, 0-61 years). Severe infectious diseases (mycobacteria, fungus, and human papilloma virus) and hematologic malignancies were the most common first manifestations. The probability of remaining symptom-free was 8% at 40 years old. Among the 53 probands, 24 had missense mutations including 4 recurrent alleles, 21 had nonsense or frameshift mutations, 4 had a whole-gene deletion, 2 had splice defects, and 2 patients had complex mutations. There were significantly more cases of leukemia in patients with missense mutations (n=14 of 34) than in patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations (n=2 of 28). We also identify new features of the disease: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy related to the JC virus, and immune/inflammatory diseases. A revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score allowed a distinction to be made between a stable disease and hematologic transformation. Chemotherapy is of limited efficacy, and has a high toxicity with severe infectious complications. As the mortality rate is high in our cohort (up to 35% at the age of 40), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the best choice of treatment to avoid severe infectious and/or hematologic complications. The timing of HSCT remains difficult to determine, but the earlier it is performed, the better the outcome.


Assuntos
Deficiência de GATA2/epidemiologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , França , Deficiência de GATA2/complicações , Deficiência de GATA2/genética , Deficiência de GATA2/terapia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Hum Pathol ; 72: 174-179, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899741

RESUMO

Digestive graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication after bone marrow transplantation, but small bowel obstruction is an extremely rare event. We present herein the first pediatric series of 4 cases of small bowel obstruction after bone marrow transplantation with detailed gross, histological data and their genetic status of the NOD2 gene. All patients had a history of severe acute GVHD treated by immunosuppressive agents and/or infliximab (in 3 cases). Acute or progressively worsening abdominal pain accompanied by small bowel occlusion occurred 5-16 months after graft, and computed tomographic scan revealed multiple small intestinal stenoses. Failure of intensive medical treatment led to surgical resection of affected loops. Stigmata of acute (apoptosis of crypts and satellitosis) and chronic GVHD features (submucosal fibrosis and serosae sclerolipomatosis), as well as extensive ulcerations, were observed in all ileal specimens. NOD2 mutation was found in only 1 patient. The follow-up showed successful outcome after surgery.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Obstrução Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Adolescente , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/cirurgia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 21(6): 907-911, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801223

RESUMO

Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficient Niemann-Pick disease is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the SMPD1 gene. The clinical spectrum distinguishes a severe infantile neurological form (type A), a non-neurological visceral form (type B) and a rare intermediate neurovisceral form. We report the first case of presymptomatic cord blood transplantation in a child with the intermediate type of ASM deficiency due to a homozygous Tyr369Cys mutation, whose affected elder brother had developed neurodevelopmental delay from 19 months of age, and had died from severe visceral complications at the age of 3. In the transplanted propositus, neurological deterioration became evident by 4 years of age; the child was alive at age 8, although severely disabled. Whereas the transplant prevented visceral progression and early death, it could only delay neurocognitive deterioration.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Doenças de Niemann-Pick/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Irmãos , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/deficiência , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Infect Dis ; 215(8): 1331-1338, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28368462

RESUMO

Background: Patients with terminal complement pathway deficiency (TPD) are susceptible to recurrent invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) strains infecting these patients are poorly documented in the literature. Methods: We identified patients with TPD and available Nm strains isolated during IMD. We investigated the genetic basis of the different TPDs and the characteristics of the Nm strains. Results: We included 56 patients with C5 (n = 8), C6 (n = 20), C7 (n = 18), C8 (n = 9), or C9 (n = 1) deficiency. Genetic study was performed in 47 patients and 30 pathogenic variants were identified in the genes coding for C5 (n = 4), C6 (n = 5), C7 (n = 12), C8 (n = 7), and C9 (n = 2). We characterized 61 Nm strains responsible for IMD in the 56 patients with TPD. The most frequent strains belonged to groups Y (n = 27 [44%]), B (n = 18 [30%]), and W (n = 8 [13%]). Hyperinvasive clonal complexes (CC11, CC32, CC41/44, and CC269) were responsible for 21% of IMD cases. The CC23 predominates and represented 26% of all invasive isolates. Eleven of the 15 clonal complexes identified fit to 12 different clonal complexes belonging to carriage strains. Conclusions: Unusual meningococcal strains with low level of virulence similar to carriage strains are most frequently responsible for IMD in patients with TPD.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/deficiência , Infecções Meningocócicas/microbiologia , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Meningocócicas/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Paris , Estudos Retrospectivos , Virulência
8.
Pediatr Neurol ; 41(5): 375-7, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19818942

RESUMO

Mycoplasma pneumoniae may cause acute encephalitis, resulting in severe neurologic complications despite antibiotic therapy. We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who presented with acute onset of orofacial tics, motor restlessness, compulsive behavior, and cerebellar symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid examination demonstrated lymphocytic meningitis. Polymerase chain reaction for M. pneumoniae was strongly positive in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were negative for M. pneumoniae antibodies (immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G). The child was administered intravenous gamma-globulin, which led to a dramatic improvement of her clinical condition and disappearance of the symptoms within 72 hours. This novel case points to the potential value of gamma-globulin in M. pneumoniae encephalitis confirmed with polymerase chain reaction and suggests that immediate administration of intravenous gamma-globulin in suspected mycoplasma encephalitis should be investigated in a larger patient cohort.


Assuntos
Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Criança , Encefalite/sangue , Encefalite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 53(6): 1068-73, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19618456

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the efficacy and safety of pegfilgrastim in patients with congenital neutropenia (CN). METHODS: Seventeen patients enrolled in the French Severe CN Register received pegfilgrastim. RESULTS: Median age at pegfilgrastim introduction was 19.1 years (range 3.9-52.3 years). In 14 cases pegfilgrastim replaced GCSF (filgrastim or lenograstim), after a median of 6.9 years of GCSF therapy. The dose of pegfilgrastim was usually one full vial per injection (except in five children, who received 1/6 to 1/2 a vial), resulting in a dose of between 50 and 286 microg/kg. The pegfilgrastim schedule ranged from two injections every 7 days to one injection every 30 days, with treatment-free periods. The median interval between the first and last dose of pegfilgrastim was 0.8 years (0.01-4.1 years). The absolute neutrophil count tended to increase more strongly on pegfilgrastim than on GCSF, but the difference was not statistically significant. During pegfilgrastim therapy, a severe infection occurred in two patients and recurrent ENT infections in two other patients. Bone pain was reported by nine patients, anemia and thrombocytopenia occurred in one patient (WHO grade III), chronic urticaria occurred in one patient (WHO grade III), and a single pegfilgrastim injection was followed by respiratory distress and death 15 days later in a patient with GDSIb. At the last update, 10 patients had stopped receiving pegfilgrastim and seven patients were still receiving pegfilgrastim. CONCLUSION: Compared to conventional GCSF, pegfilgrastim is more difficult to use in congenital neutropenia, with more frequent adverse events and sometimes poor efficacy.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/efeitos adversos , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Células , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Filgrastim , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/complicações , Neutropenia/congênito , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Neutrófilos , Dor , Polietilenoglicóis , Proteínas Recombinantes , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Clin Virol ; 35(3): 257-63, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16183328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) isolates are classified into two variants, termed HHV-6A and HHV-6B, on the basis of distinct genetic, antigenic and biological characteristics, but the specific pathogenicity of each variant remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To design a rapid, sensitive and specific real-time variant-specific PCR (VS-PCR) method to differentiate both variants in biological specimens. STUDY DESIGN: The VS-PCR was adapted from a real-time PCR assay, based on TaqMan technology, previously developed for the genome quantitation of both HHV-6 variants [Gautheret-Dejean A, Manichanh C, Thien-Ah-Koon F, Fillet AM, Mangeney N, Vidaud M, et al. Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of human herpesvirus-6 infection and application to bone marrow transplant patients. J Virol Meth 2002;100:27-35], a consensual reverse primer (Taq2) being changed into two variant-specific primers named H6A and H6B. This method was applied to a large set of biological specimens obtained in different pathological contexts. RESULTS: The sensitivity threshold was about 10 copies/well for HHV-6A-specific PCR (PCR-A) and 1 copy/well for HHV-6B-specific PCR (PCR-B). Both assays showed a linear dynamic range from 10 to 100,000 copies of HHV-6 DNA. Regarding the specificity and the capacity of discrimination of each assay, one variant could be detected and identified in the presence of more than 1000 times higher concentrations of the other variant in virus mixtures. The comparison of the results obtained with this VS-PCR with those previously obtained with a classic PCR method allowed us to validate our new technique on a wide panel of biological samples, including numerous patients with severe HHV-6-related symptoms. The high prevalence of HHV-6B was confirmed in healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients. HHV-6A was identified in distinct samples from several patients exhibiting neurological disorders. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new VS-PCR assay, able to differentiate HHV-6A and HHV-6B in biological samples, even in the case of mixed infections. Our study confirms the wide prevalence of HHV-6B and highlights the potential greater neuropathogenic role of HHV-6A in immunocompromised patients and young infants.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 6/classificação , Herpesvirus Humano 6/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Roseolovirus/virologia , Primers do DNA , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 6/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 6/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Leucócitos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/virologia , Infecções por Roseolovirus/patologia , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 12(1): 22-30, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15604887

RESUMO

The vast majority of known primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are autosomal or X-linked recessive Mendelian traits. Only four classical primary immunodeficiencies are thought to be autosomal-dominant, three of which still lack a well-defined genetic etiology: isolated congenital asplenia, isolated chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and hyper IgE syndrome. The large deletions on chromosome 22q11.2 associated with Di George syndrome suggest that this disease may be dominant but not Mendelian, possibly involving several genes. The clinical and genetic features of six novel autosomal-dominant primary immunodeficiencies have however been described in recent years. These primary immunodeficiencies are caused by germline mutations in seven genes: ELA2, encoding a neutrophil elastase, and GFI1, encoding a regulator of ELA2 (mutations associated with severe congenital neutropenia); CXCR4, encoding a chemokine receptor (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections and myelokathexis syndrome); LCRR8, encoding a key protein for B-cell development (agammaglobulinemia); IFNGR1, encoding the ligand-binding chain of the interferon-gamma receptor; STAT1, encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 downstream from interferon-gammaR1 (Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases); and IKBA, encoding IkappaBalpha, the inhibitor alpha of NF-kappaB (anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency). These recent data suggest that many more autosomal-dominant PIDs are likely to be identified in the near future.


Assuntos
Genes Dominantes , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/classificação , Mutação , Fenótipo
12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 41(5): 2040-6, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12734246

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the advantages of cytomegalovirus (CMV) real-time PCR in blood plasma to monitor CMV infection in a population of adult and pediatric bone marrow recipients in comparison with the pp65 antigenemia method. Fifty allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients from our center, including 23 adults and 27 children, were enrolled. A CMV real-time PCR designed to amplify a well-conserved region of the UL123 gene was evaluated for its results with whole blood and blood plasma. The CMV real-time PCR assay and the CMV antigenemia method were performed in parallel with 558 blood samples. The results obtained by the two techniques were significantly correlated (r = 0.732; P < 0.0001). Twenty patients developed at least one episode of CMV replication, with a total of 24 episodes detected by CMV PCR; antigenemia assays were positive in 17 of these 24 episodes. The first positive PCR test preceded the first positive antigenemia by a median of 8 days. The median time interval necessary to obtain a negative CMV PCR test after implementation of preemptive treatment was 28 days. CMV PCR of plasma was positive in two children with CMV disease (one with early CMV pneumonia and one with CMV gastroenteritis), while CMV antigenemia remained negative. The use of CMV PCR with plasma to guide both implementation and discontinuation of CMV preemptive therapy might reduce the risk of occurrence of CMV disease since patients would be treated earlier, and it might also help to reduce the duration of treatment, which could attenuate the side effects of antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Proteínas Virais , Adulto , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citomegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Genes Virais , Humanos , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/genética , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Plasma/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/sangue , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Replicação Viral
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