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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151303, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although maternal perfluoroalkyl and polyfluroalkyl substances (PFASs) were associated with adverse birth outcomes, much less is known about their impact on infant growth during early infancy. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between maternal PFASs exposure and infant growth during the first 12 months of life. METHODS: Participating 2395 pregnancies were recruited from Shanghai Birth Cohort between 2013 and 2016. Ten PFASs were quantified from maternal plasma collected during early pregnancy (median, 15 gestational weeks). We measured infant length, weight, and head circumference at birth, 42 days, 6 months, and 12 months. Linear mixed regression model was used to estimate the associations between PFAS concentrations and repeated measurements of infant growth. Effect modification by infant sex was estimated. RESULTS: Elevated perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) concentration was negatively associated with infant length-for-age Z score (LAZ) (ß = -0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11, -0.01) during the first year. Adverse associations were also observed for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and weight-for-length Z score (WFL) (ß = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.00) and BMI-for-age Z score (BAZ) (ß = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.00). However, perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) was positively associated with WFL (ß = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.06) and BAZ (ß = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.06). The adverse association of PFHpA and LAZ was more pronounced among males (ß = -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.00) than females (ß = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, negative associations were found for maternal PFHpA exposure and infant LAZ, PFBS and WFL and BAZ. Meanwhile, maternal PFDoA exposure was positively related with WFL and BAZ. The adverse association of maternal PFHpA exposure and infant LAZ was more pronounced among males. The results should be interpreted with caution, further prospective cohort studies with longitudinal and detailed measures are warranted to confirm these findings.

2.
Front Nutr ; 8: 756512, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765632

RESUMO

Background: Sex-related differences in cardiovascular parameters have been well documented in adults, and the impact of birthweight on cardiovascular health in later life has been acknowledged. However, data was limited regarding the association between birthweight and cardiovascular outcomes at an early age, and the sex-disparity in the association remained unclear. Objective: To investigate the association between birthweight and cardiovascular parameters in 4-year-old children. Furthermore, to explore whether sex-disparity exist in this association or in cardiovascular risk. Methods: Follow-up data from the Shanghai Birth Cohort (SBC) was analyzed. Detailed perinatal information including both maternal and offspring datum were recorded. Blood pressure, echocardiography, and anthropometry assessment were conducted during the follow-up of 4-year-old children. Linear regression models were used to analyze the association between birthweight and left ventricle (LV) structure and function changes in each sex and birthweight category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in different birthweight subgroups. Results: Overall, macrosomia was significantly associated with thickened LV posterior wall thickness in systole [LVPWs, (ß = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.45)] and diastole [LVPWd, (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.30)], and thickened interventricular septal thickness in diastole [IVSd, (ß = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.28)]. Boys with macrosomia showed a higher left ventricle mass index [LVMI, (ß = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.14, 2.43)], thickened LVPWs (ß = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.56) and LVPWd (ß = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.36), and thickened IVSd (ß = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.36). However, no significant association of structural changes was found in girls. Furthermore, an increased risk of LVH was found solely in macrosomic boys (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.17, 6.63). Conclusion: Children with macrosomia developed cardiovascular changes as early as 4 years of age. Macrosomia was associated with LV structural changes and higher LVH risk in pre-school-aged boys, while no association was found in girls.

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 740902, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621244

RESUMO

Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been associated with insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) impairs fetal insulin sensitivity. Female newborns are more insulin resistant than male newborns. We sought to evaluate the association between GDM and cord blood FABP4, and explore potential sex dimorphic associations and the roles of sex hormones. This was a nested case-control study in the Shanghai Birth Cohort, including 153 pairs of newborns in GDM vs. euglycemic pregnancies matched by infant sex and gestational age at delivery. Cord plasma FABP4, leptin, total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin, testosterone and estradiol concentrations were measured. Adjusting for maternal and neonatal characteristics, cord plasma FABP4 (Mean ± SD: 27.0 ± 19.6 vs. 18.8 ± 9.6 ng/mL, P=0.045) and estradiol (52.0 ± 28.6 vs. 44.2 ± 26.6, ng/mL, P=0.005) concentrations were higher comparing GDM vs. euglycemic pregnancies in males, but similar in females (all P>0.5). Mediation analyses showed that the positive association between GDM and cord plasma FABP4 in males could be partly mediated by estradiol (P=0.03), but not by testosterone (P=0.72). Cord plasma FABP4 was positively correlated with total adiponectin in females (r=0.17, P=0.053), but the correlation was in the opposite direction in males (r=-0.11, P=0.16) (test for difference in r, P=0.02). Cord plasma FABP4 was not correlated with leptin in both sexes. The study is the first to demonstrate sex-dimorphic associations between GDM and cord plasma FABP4 or estradiol, and between FABP4 and adiponectin in newborns. GDM may affect fetal circulating FABP4 and estradiol levels in males only.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657185

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the association between first trimester vitamin D (VitD) concentrations and increased prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) on early fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 15,651 women with singleton pregnancy who delivered at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital between January 2015 and November 2016. Women were classified in two groups based on their serum 25(OH)D vitamin levels status: VitD sufficient (SUFF) group and VitD insufficient or deficient (INSUFF/DEF). The cut-off point for VitD concentration was 50.00 nmol/L. Comparisons were made between women with normal prepregnancy body weight (BMI 18.5-23.9 kg/m2) and overweight and obese (OWO) women (BMI > 24.0 kg/m2). Early FGR was defined as first-trimester gestational age-adjusted crown-rump length (CRL) in the lowest 20th centile of the population. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between maternal serum 25(OH)D levels and prepregnancy BMI with first trimester CRL and early FGR. RESULTS: In VitD INSUFF/DEF group, the first trimester CRL was decreased (P = 0.005), and the risk of early FGR was increased by 13% (95% CI 1.04-1.24, P = 0.004) compared to the VitD SUFF group. In OWO group, the first trimester CRL was also significantly decreased (P < 0.0001), and the risk of early FGR was significantly increased by 58% (95% CI 1.40-1.78, P < 0.001) compared with normal weight group. Furthermore, there was a significant combined effect of maternal VitD concentrations and OWO on CRL (P for interaction = 0.02) and the risk of early FGR (P for interaction = 0.07). CONCLUSION: Sufficient first trimester serum 25(OH)D concentration was a protective factor for early fetal growth, especially among OWO mothers. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Registration number: ChiCTR1900027447 with date of registration on November 13, 2019-retrospectively registered).

5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 604313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712206

RESUMO

Background: Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antibacterial agent in personal care products and is ubiquitous in the environment. We aimed to examine whether TCS exposure affects microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Methods: After exposure to TCS 0 (Dimethyl Sulphoxide, DMSO control), 0.03, 0.3, 3, 30, 100, and 300ng/ml, respectively, from day 0 to 120days post fertilization (dpf), or for 7days in adult 4-month zebrafish, the long- and short-term impact of TCS exposure on the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region sequencing. Results: The top two most dominant microbiota phyla were Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria phylum in all zebrafish groups. In TCS exposure 0-120 dpf, compared with DMSO control, the mean number of microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was 54.46 lower (p<0.0001), Chao indice 41.40 lower (p=0.0004), and Ace indice 34.10 lower (p=0.0044) in TCS 300ng/ml group, but no change was observed in most of the other TCS concentrations. PCoA diagram showed that the microbial community in the long-term TCS 300ng/ml exposure group clustered differently from those in the DMSO control and other TCS exposure groups. A shorter body length of the zebrafish was observed in the long-term TCS exposure at 0.03, 100, and 300ng/ml. For 7-day short-term exposure in adult zebrafish, no difference was observed in alpha or beta diversity of microbiota nor the relative abundance of Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria phylum among DMSO control and any TCS levels, but a minor difference in microbial composition was observed for TCS exposure. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to high TCS concentration in a window from early embryonic life to early adulthood may reduce diversity and alter the composition of microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of short-term TCS exposure was not observed on the diversity of microbiota but there was a minor change of microbial composition in adult zebrafish with TCS exposure.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112389, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082246

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), which is used ubiquitously as an antimicrobial ingredient in healthcare products and causes contamination in the environment such as air, water, and biosolid-amended soil. Exposure to TCS may increase the risk of reproduction diseases and health issues. Several groups, including ours, have proved that TCS increased the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in different types of steroidogenic cells. However, the precise mechanism of toxic action of TCS on increased steroidogenesis at a molecular level remains to be elucidated. In this study, we try to address the mode of action that TCS affects energy metabolism with increased steroidogenesis. We evaluated the adverse effects of TCS on energy metabolism and steroidogenesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. The goal is to elucidate how increased steroidogenesis can occur with a shortage of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) whereas mitochondria-based energy metabolism is impaired. Our results demonstrated TCS increased estradiol and progesterone levels with upregulated steroidogenesis gene expression at concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 µM. Besides, glucose consumption, lactate level, and pyruvate kinase transcription were increased. Interestingly, the lactate level was attenuated with increased steroidogenesis, suggesting that pyruvate fate was shifted away from the formation of lactate towards steroidogenesis. Our study is gathering evidence suggesting a mode of action that TCS changes energy metabolism by predominating glucose flow towards the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that TCS presents such toxic action in disrupting hormone homeostasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Anaerobiose , Animais , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Progesterona/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7384, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795717

RESUMO

We investigated cross-sectional associations between children's neurodevelopment and their gut microbiota composition. Study children (36 months of age) lived in rural China (n = 46). Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition, yielding the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI). Children's gut microbiota was assessed using 16S rRNA gene profiling. Microbial diversity was characterized using alpha diversity patterns. Additionally, 3 coabundance factors were determined for the 25 most abundant taxa. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to examine the relationships between Bayley scores (MDI and PDI) and children's gut microbiota. In adjusted models, MDI and PDI scores were not associated with alpha diversity indices. However, in adjusted models, MDI and PDI scores were positively associated with the first coabundance factor, which captured positive loadings for the genera Faecalibacterium, Sutterella, and Clostridium cluster XIVa. For an interquartile range increase in the first coabundance factor, MDI scores increased by 3.9 points [95% confidence interval (CI): 0, 7.7], while PDI scores increased by 8.6 points (95% CI 3.1, 14). Our results highlight the potential for gut microbial compositional characteristics to be important correlates of children's Bayley Scales performance at 36 months of age.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Modelos Neurológicos , Mães , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045192, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood overweight and obesity (OWO) is a primary global health challenge. Childhood OWO prevention is now a public health priority in China. The Sino-Canadian Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (SCHeLTI), one of four trials being undertaken by the international HeLTI consortium, aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted, community-family-mother-child intervention on childhood OWO and non-communicable diseases risk. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, cluster-randomised, controlled trial conducted in Shanghai, China. The unit of randomisation is the service area of Maternal Child Health Units (N=36). We will recruit 4500 women/partners/families in maternity and district level hospitals. Participants in the intervention group will receive a multifaceted, integrated package of health promotion interventions beginning in preconception or in the first trimester of pregnancy, continuing into infancy and early childhood. The intervention, which is centred on a modified motivational interviewing approach, will target early-life maternal and child risk factors for adiposity. Through the development of a biological specimen bank, we will study potential mechanisms underlying the effects of the intervention. The primary outcome for the trial is childhood OWO (body mass index for age ≥85th percentile) at 5 years of age, based on WHO sex-specific standards. The study has a power of 0.8 (α=0.05) to detect a 30% risk reduction in the proportion of children with OWO at 5 years of age, from 24.4% in the control group to 17% in the intervention group. Recruitment was launched on 30 August 2018 for the pilot study and 10 January 2019 for the formal study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital in Shanghai, China, and the Research Ethics Board of the Centre Intégré Universitaire de Santé et Services Sociaux de l'Estrie-CHUS in Sherbrooke, Canada. Data sharing policies are consistent with the governance policy of the HeLTI consortium and government legislation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800017773. PROTOCOL VERSION: November 11, 2020 (Version #5).


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 50, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice is an important dietary source for methylmercury; however, rice does not contain the same beneficial nutrients as fish. Our main objective was to assess associations of prenatal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion with child neurodevelopment in rural China. METHODS: Eligible peripartum women were enrolled (n = 391), provided peripartum hair samples, and children's neurodevelopment was assessed at 12 months (n = 264, 68%) and 36 months (n = 190, 48%) using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition, including the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI). Associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure during the third trimester [log2 maternal hair total mercury (THg)] and child's neurodevelopment were assessed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. RESULTS: In adjusted models, a doubling in maternal hair THg corresponded to a 1.3-point decrement in the MDI score [95% confidence interval (CI): - 2.6, - 0.14], and a 1.2-point decrement in the PDI score (95% CI: - 2.6, 0.14). Overall, adverse associations between maternal hair THg and MDI scores attenuated over time. However, associations were robust and stable over time among children whose primary caregiver was their parent(s). During the study follow-up, an increasing proportion of children were raised by grandparents (12 months: 9% versus 36 months: 27%), a trend associated with rural-to-urban parental migration for work. CONCLUSIONS: For young children living in rural China, a biomarker of prenatal methylmercury exposure was associated with decrements in cognitive function assessed between 12 and 36 months of age. Changes in the family structure over the study follow-up time interval potentially impacted children's sensitivity to prenatal methylmercury exposure.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Exposição Dietética , Cabelo/química , Exposição Materna , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Oryza , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural
10.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(2): 248-256, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al) is a well-established neurotoxicant. However, little is known about its effects on the neurodevelopment of infants. OBJECTIVES: To examine early-life exposure to Al in relation to neurodevelopment in healthy infants. METHODS: Nail Al concentrations were measured among 747 newborn babies within 6 months of delivery in the Shanghai Birth Cohort. Neurodevelopment was assessed using Ages and stages questionnaire (third edition, ASQ-3) at ages 6 and 12 months. General linear regression models were performed to estimate the associations between Al concentrations and ASQ-3 scores. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, early-life exposure to Al was not associated with any neurodevelopmental performance at age 6 months. However, Al level was associated with an increased risk of having a low fine motor score (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, mean difference (MD): -1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.22, -0.05; P-trend < 0.01) at 12 months. No association was found for communication, gross motor, problem-solving, or personal-social score at 12 months. SIGNIFICANCE: Early-life exposure to Al may be associated with poor fine motor skills in a dose-response manner among apparently healthy infants at age 12 months.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 550319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193081

RESUMO

Objective: Early life is a critical period for gut microbial development. It is still controversial whether there is placental microbiota during a healthy pregnancy. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in the offspring, and the mechanisms are unclear. We sought to explore whether microbiota in placenta and cord blood may be altered in GDM. Methods: Placenta and cord blood samples were collected from eight GDM and seven euglycemic (control) term pregnancies in cesarean deliveries without evidence of clinical infections. The Illumina MiSeq Sequencing System was used to detect the microbiota based on the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Results: The microbiota were detectable in all placental samples. Comparing GDM vs. controls, there were more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (mean ± SE = 373.63 ± 14.61 vs. 332.43 ± 9.92, P = 0.024) and higher ACE index (395.15 ± 10.56 vs. 356.27 ± 8.47, P = 0.029) and Chao index (397.67 ± 10.24 vs. 361.32 ± 8.87, P = 0.04). The placental microbiota was mainly composed of four phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria at the phylum level and 10 dominant genera at the genus level in both GDM and controls. Despite the dominant similarity in microbiota composition, at the OTU level, the abundance of Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, Paraprevotella, and Lactobacillus were higher, whereas Veillonella was lower in the placentas of GDM vs. controls. The microbiota was detected in one of the 15 cord blood samples, and its components were similar as to the corresponding placental microbiota at both phylum and genus levels suggesting placental microbiota as the potential source. Conclusions: The most abundant phyla and genus of placental microbiota were similar in GDM and euglycemic pregnancies, but GDM was associated with higher diversity of placental microbiota. Further study is needed to confirm the existence of microbiota in cord blood in pregnancies without clinical infection.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/microbiologia , Sangue Fetal/microbiologia , Microbiota , Placenta/microbiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 567955, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117283

RESUMO

Fetuin-A is a multifunctional glycoprotein that has been implicated in insulin resistance and bone metabolism. We assessed whether fetuin-A is associated with poor or excessive fetal growth. In the Shanghai Birth Cohort, we conducted a nested case-control study of 60 trios of small-for-gestational-age (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile), optimal-for-gestational-age (OGA, 25-75th, the reference) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA, >90th percentile) infants matched by sex and gestational age. Cord plasma concentrations of fetuin-A and fetal growth factors [insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II] were measured. Cord plasma fetuin-A concentrations were higher in SGA (809.4 ± 306.9 µg/ml, P = 0.026) and LGA (924.2 ± 375.9 µg/ml, P < 0.001) relative to OGA (680.7 ± 262.1 µg/ml) newborns, and were not correlated to insulin, proinsulin, IGF-I and IGF-II (all P > 0.2). Higher fetuin-A concentrations were associated with increased risks of SGA [OR = 1.67 (1.08-2.58) per SD increment, P = 0.024] and LGA [OR = 2.36 (1.53-3.66), P < 0.001]. Adjusting for maternal and neonatal characteristics and fetal growth factors, the elevated risk changed little for LGA [adjusted OR = 2.28 (1.29-4.01), P = 0.005], but became non-significant for SGA (P = 0.202). Our study is the first to demonstrate that fetuin-A may be involved in excessive fetal growth. This association is independent of fetal growth factors.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/sangue , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973071

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes (GD) is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in newborns. Adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) are involved in regulating insulin sensitivity. Females are more likely to develop diabetes at young ages than males. We tested the hypothesis that GD may affect RBP-4 and adiponectin levels in early life, and there may be sex-dimorphic associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a nested case-control study of 153 matched pairs of neonates of mothers with GD and euglycemic pregnancies in the Shanghai Birth Cohort, we evaluated cord plasma leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) and total adiponectin and RBP-4 concentrations. RESULTS: Comparing GD versus euglycemic pregnancies adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics in female newborns, cord plasma total adiponectin (mean±SD: 30.8±14.3 vs 37.1±16.1 µg/mL, p=0.048) and HMW adiponectin (14.6±7.7 vs 19.3±8.3 µg/mL, p=0.004) concentrations were lower, while RBP-4 concentrations were higher (21.7±5.4 vs 20.0±4.8 µg/mL, p=0.007). In contrast, there were no differences in male newborns (all p>0.2). RBP-4 concentrations were higher in female versus male newborns (21.7±5.4 vs 18.8±4.5 µg/mL, p<0.001) in GD pregnancies only. HMW adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in female versus male newborns in euglycemic pregnancies only (19.3±8.3 vs 16.1±7.4 µg/mL, p=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: GD was associated with lower cord plasma HMW adiponectin and higher RBP-4 concentrations in female newborns only. The study is the first to reveal a sex-dimorphic early life impact of GD on metabolic health biomarkers in the offspring. GD may alter the normal presence (HMW adiponectin) or absence (RBP-4) of sex dimorphism in some insulin sensitivity regulation-relevant adipokines in early life.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Diabetes Gestacional , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais
14.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115008, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574892

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the first 1000 days of life may have long-lasting adverse effects on cardio-metabolic risk in later life. This study aimed to examine the associations between maternal prenatal Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and child cardio-metabolic risk factors at age 2 years in a prospective cohort. During 2012-2013, 218 pregnant women were enrolled at late pregnancy from Shanghai, China. Urinary BPA concentration was measured in prenatal and child 2-year spot urine samples, and classified into high, medium and low tertiles. Child adiposity anthropometric measurements, random morning plasma glucose, serum insulin, and lipids (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglyceride), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between prenatal BPA and each of the cardio-metabolic risk factors in boys and girls, respectively, adjusting for pertinent prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/L) in 98.2% of mothers prenatally and 99.4% of children at age 2 years. Compared to those with low prenatal BPA, mean SBP was 7.0 (95%CI: 2.9-11.2) mmHg higher, and DBP was 4.4 (95%CI: 1.2-7.5) mmHg higher in girls with high prenatal BPA levels, but these associations were not found in boys. In boys, medium maternal prenatal BPA level was associated with 0.36 (95% CI: 0.04-0.68) mmol/L higher plasma glucose. No associations were found between prenatal BPA and child BMI, skinfold thicknesses, serum lipids, or insulin in either girls or boys. There were no associations between concurrent child urinary BPA and cardio-metabolic risk factors. These results support that BPA exposure during prenatal period, susceptible time for fetal development, may be associated with increase in child BP and plasma glucose in a sex-specific manner. Further independent cohort studies are needed to confirm the findings.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenóis , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114557, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of the embryo and fetal brain depends on maternal transfer of thyroid hormones (THs) in early pregnancy. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoralkyl substances (PFAS) may disrupt maternal TH homeostasis in pregnancy, but findings from epidemiologic studies were inconsistent. We aimed to assess this relationship in early pregnancy in a large prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1885 pregnant women enrolled in the Shanghai Birth Cohort were used. Ten PFAS, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were measured in maternal blood collected prior to 16 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression accompanied by restricted cubic spline was used to examine the association and the exposure-response relationship between each PFAS and TH in separate models. Possible effect modification by TPOAb status was also investigated. RESULTS: Perfluorooctanoic acid [PFOA, ß = 0.121, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015, 0.227] and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, ß = 0.123, 95% CI: 0.024, 0.222) were positively associated with FT4. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, ß = 0.179, 95% CI: 0.047, 0.311) and PFHxS (ß = 0.197, 95% CI: 0.054, 0.339) were positively associated with FT3, while PFHxS was negatively associated with TSH (ß = -0.115, 95%CI: 0.216, -0.014). TPOAb-positivity appeared to modify the associations between PFAS and THs. In TPOAb-positive women, several long-chain PFAS were positively associated with FT4 and/or FT3 and tended to be negatively associated with TSH. CONCLUSIONS: Several long-chain PFAS were associated with disrupted TH homeostasis in Chinese pregnant women, especially among TPOAb-positive women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fetuin-A is a glycoprotein produced by hepatocytes and has been associated with insulin resistance and bone growth in postnatal life. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition characterized by insulin resistance. It is unclear whether GDM may affect cord blood fetuin-A levels and whether fetuin-A is associated with fetal growth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a nested case-control study of 153 matched pairs of neonates of mothers with GDM and euglycemic pregnancies in the Shanghai Birth Cohort, we evaluated cord blood fetuin-A in association with GDM and fetal growth. RESULTS: Comparing the newborns of GDM versus euglycemic mothers, cord blood fetuin-A concentrations were similar (mean±SD: 783.6±320.0 vs 754.8±281.9 µg/mL, p=0.53), while insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (76.6±27.8 ng/mL vs 68.1±25.1 ng/mL, p=0.008) and IGF-II (195.3±32.5 ng/mL vs 187.5±30.8 ng/mL, p=0.042) concentrations were higher. Cord blood fetuin-A was not correlated with insulin, IGF-I or IGF-II. Cord blood fetuin-A was negatively correlated with birth weight (r=-0.19, p=0.025) and birth length (r=-0.24, p=0.005) z scores in GDM pregnancies, while there were no significant correlations in euglycemic pregnancies (tests for interaction: p=0.014 for birth length, p=0.013 for birth length). Adjusting for maternal and neonatal characteristics, the differential associations remained. CONCLUSIONS: GDM was not associated with cord blood fetuin-A levels. Fetuin-A was negatively associated with fetal growth in GDM but not in euglycemic pregnancies. This novel observation suggests a GDM-conditional negative correlation of fetuin-A with fetal growth.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Desenvolvimento Fetal , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/análise , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Gravidez
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 10939-10949, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953761

RESUMO

Animal studies indicated that bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during pregnancy may disrupt thyroid function which is critical for fetal development. However, few epidemiological studies have examined this topic and the results were inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal BPA exposure is associated with thyroid hormone levels in Chinese mothers and newborns with stratification by maternal body mass index (BMI). BPA concentration were measured in urine samples collected from 555 women at late pregnancy. Maternal serum free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) concentrations at the third trimester were abstracted from medical records. Cord serum-free triiodothyronine (FT3), FT4, TSH, and TPO-Ab levels were measured in 398 newborns. Prenatal urinary BPA was detected in 98.5% of mothers with a geometric mean of 1.32 ng/mL (95% CI 1.17-1.49 ng/mL). With each 10-fold increase in BPA concentrations, maternal log10_(TSH) mIU/L was 0.10 lowered (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.005, p < 0.05) among pre-pregnancy BMI > 23 kg/m2, with adjustment for maternal age, maternal education, gestation diabetes mellitus (GDM), husband smoking during pregnancy, parity, and gestational age at thyroid parameters measured, but no association was observed in pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5, or 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 stratum. No BPA-associated changes were observed in maternal FT4 level or odds of positive TPO-Ab in all BMI stratum. Also, no associations were observed between prenatal urinary BPA concentration and cord serum FT4, FT3, TSH levels, and odds of positive TPO-Ab in both male and female newborns among pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5, 18.5-22.9 or > 23 kg/m2 stratum. In this study, prenatal urinary BPA concentration was associated with lower maternal TSH among women with overweight, but not associated with other maternal thyroid parameters or cord serum thyroid parameters across maternal BMI categories. More research on pregnant women and newborns cohort with BPA exposure are warranted.


Assuntos
Mães , Glândula Tireoide , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenóis , Gravidez , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina , Tiroxina
18.
Pediatr Res ; 87(5): 946-951, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) is an adipokine involved in regulating insulin sensitivity which would affect fetal growth. It is unclear whether RBP-4 is associated with fetal overgrowth, and unexplored which fetal growth factor(s) may mediate the association. METHODS: In the Shanghai Birth Cohort, we studied 125 pairs of larger-for-gestational-age (LGA, birth weight >90th percentile, an indicator of fetal overgrowth) and optimal-for-gestational-age (OGA, 25-75th percentiles) control infants matched by sex and gestational age. We measured cord blood concentrations of RBP-4, insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-II. RESULTS: Cord blood RBP-4 concentrations were elevated in LGA vs. OGA infants (21.9 ± 6.2 vs. 20.2 ± 5.1 µg/ml, P = 0.011), and positively correlated with birth weight z score (r = 0.19, P = 0.003), cord blood proinsulin (r = 0.21, P < 0.001), IGF-I (r = 0.24, P < 0.001), and IGF-II (r = 0.15, P = 0.016). Adjusting for maternal and neonatal characteristics, each SD increment in cord blood RBP-4 was associated with a 0.28 (0.12-0.45) increase in birth weight z score (P < 0.001). Mediation analyses showed that IGF-I could account for 31.7% of the variation in birth weight z score in association with RBP-4 (P = 0.01), while IGF-II was not an effect mediator. CONCLUSIONS: RBP-4 was positively associated with fetal overgrowth. IGF-I (but not IGF-II) may mediate this association.


Assuntos
Macrossomia Fetal/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(5): 375-383, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845721

RESUMO

Organophosphates (OPs) are the most heavily used pesticides in China. The Chinese population, including preconceptional women, is highly exposed, yet little is known regarding the associations between OP exposure and menstruation in humans. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in women preparing for pregnancy to investigate the relationship between biomarkers of OP exposure and menstrual cycle characteristics. From 2013 to 2015, 627 women visiting free preconception-care clinics at 2 maternity hospitals in Shanghai, China, were included. Information on menstrual cycle characteristics was obtained through questionnaires. OP exposure was assessed by measuring urine concentrations of 6 dialkylphosphate metabolites (dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate). The relationship between concentrations of dialkylphosphate metabolites and menstrual cycle characteristics was analyzed using multiple linear regression models and logistic regression models. Log-transformed levels of diethyl phosphate metabolites (the sum of diethylphosphate and diethylthiophosphate levels) were related to a higher risk of irregularity of menstrual cycles (adjusted odds ratio = 2.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.28, 4.34). Subjects with a higher concentration of diethyl phosphate metabolites (log-transformed) had a shorter duration of menstrual bleeding (adjusted ß = -0.33, 95% confidence interval: -0.64, -0.02). The findings suggest that OP exposure may be associated with alterations in menstrual function in preconceptional women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos , Organofosfatos/urina , Praguicidas/urina , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Adulto , China , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Estatísticos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866947

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication. Its etiology remains incompletely understood. Studies in recent years suggest that fetal sex may affect maternal metabolic milieu during pregnancy. We sought to assess whether there is fetal sex dimorphism in the risk factors of GDM. In a prospective pregnancy cohort in Shanghai, China, we studied 2,435 singleton pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes. GDM was diagnosed according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG)' criteria. Log-binomial models were applied to obtain the adjusted relative risk (aRR). A total of 380 (15.6%) women developed GDM. Family history of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of GDM in women bearing a female fetus [aRR 1.74 (1.27-2.40), p < 0.001], but not in women bearing a male fetus (p = 0.68) (test for interaction, p = 0.03). Alcohol drinking was associated with an increased risk of GDM in women bearing a male fetus only (p = 0.023), although the test for interaction did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.055). In conclusion, family history of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of GDM in women bearing a female fetus only in this Chinese pregnancy cohort. There may be a need to consider fetal sex dimorphism in evaluating the risk factors of GDM.

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