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1.
Eur Biophys J ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609147

RESUMO

Lysins are a class of hydrolytic enzymes used by bacteriophages to target and cleave the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls during their lytic cycle. The lysins from bacteriophages that infect Gram-positive bacteria are typically monomeric and consist of one or two catalytic domains (CD) and a cell binding domain (CBD). However, multimeric lysins encoded by a single gene have also been reported, among which Lys170 from enterococcal phage F170/08 was one of the first identified. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Lys170 CBD at 1.40 Å resolution. The structure reveals that Lys170 CBDs assemble into a tetrameric functional unit and that each monomer folds into a three-stranded ß-sheet core capped on each side by an α-helix. In addition, we identified key residues of Lys170 CBD involved in host cell binding. Our work provides a basis for designing highly efficient lysins targeting Enterococcus faecalis.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111091, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341044

RESUMO

The marine environment is an enormous source of marine-derived natural products (MNPs), and future investigation into anticancer drug discovery. Current progress in anticancer drugs offers a rise in isolation and clinical validation of numerous innovative developments and advances in anticancer therapy. However, only a limited number of FDA-approved marine-derived anticancer drugs are available due to several challenges and limitations highlighted here. The use of chitosan in developing marine-derived drugs is promising in the nanotech sector projected for a prolific anticancer drug delivery system (DDS). The cGAS-STING-mediated immune signaling pathway is crucial, which has not been significantly investigated in anticancer therapy and needs further attention. Additionally, a small range of anticancer mediators is currently involved in regulating various JAK/STAT signaling pathways, such as immunity, cell death, and tumor formation. This review addressed critical features associated with MNPs, origin, and development of anticancer drugs. Moreover, recent advances in the nanotech delivery of anticancer drugs and understanding into cancer immunity are detailed for improved human health.

3.
Mol Cell ; 80(5): 810-827.e7, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171123

RESUMO

Mitochondrial morphology shifts rapidly to manage cellular metabolism, organelle integrity, and cell fate. It remains unknown whether innate nucleic acid sensing, the central and general mechanisms of monitoring both microbial invasion and cellular damage, can reprogram and govern mitochondrial dynamics and function. Here, we unexpectedly observed that upon activation of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-MAVS signaling, TBK1 directly phosphorylated DRP1/DNM1L, which disabled DRP1, preventing its high-order oligomerization and mitochondrial fragmentation function. The TBK1-DRP1 axis was essential for assembly of large MAVS aggregates and healthy antiviral immunity and underlay nutrient-triggered mitochondrial dynamics and cell fate determination. Knockin (KI) strategies mimicking TBK1-DRP1 signaling produced dominant-negative phenotypes reminiscent of human DRP1 inborn mutations, while interrupting the TBK1-DRP1 connection compromised antiviral responses. Thus, our findings establish an unrecognized function of innate immunity governing both morphology and physiology of a major organelle, identify a lacking loop during innate RNA sensing, and report an elegant mechanism of shaping mitochondrial dynamics.

4.
Elife ; 92020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136002

RESUMO

Legionella pneumophila extensively modulates the host ubiquitin network to create the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) for its replication. Many of its virulence factors function as ubiquitin ligases or deubiquitinases (DUBs). Here, we identify Lem27 as a DUB that displays a preference for diubiquitin formed by K6, K11, or K48. Lem27 is associated with the LCV where it regulates Rab10 ubiquitination in concert with SidC and SdcA, two bacterial E3 ubiquitin ligases. Structural analysis of the complex formed by an active fragment of Lem27 and the substrate-based suicide inhibitor ubiquitin-propargylamide (PA) reveals that it harbors a fold resembling those in the OTU1 DUB subfamily with a Cys-His catalytic dyad and that it recognizes ubiquitin via extensive hydrogen bonding at six contact sites. Our results establish Lem27 as a DUB that functions to regulate protein ubiquitination on L. pneumophila phagosomes by counteracting the activity of bacterial ubiquitin E3 ligases.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(19): 11054-11067, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045733

RESUMO

The two-gene module HEPN/MNT is predicted to be the most abundant toxin/antitoxin (TA) system in prokaryotes. However, its physiological function and neutralization mechanism remains obscure. Here, we discovered that the MntA antitoxin (MNT-domain protein) acts as an adenylyltransferase and chemically modifies the HepT toxin (HEPN-domain protein) to block its toxicity as an RNase. Biochemical and structural studies revealed that MntA mediates the transfer of three AMPs to a tyrosine residue next to the RNase domain of HepT in Shewanella oneidensis. Furthermore, in vitro enzymatic assays showed that the three AMPs are transferred to HepT by MntA consecutively with ATP serving as the substrate, and this polyadenylylation is crucial for reducing HepT toxicity. Additionally, the GSX10DXD motif, which is conserved among MntA proteins, is the key active motif for polyadenylylating and neutralizing HepT. Thus, HepT/MntA represents a new type of TA system, and the polyadenylylation-dependent TA neutralization mechanism is prevalent in bacteria and archaea.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Shewanella/metabolismo , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina
6.
J Virol ; 94(22)2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817223

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoV) have caused a number of major epidemics in humans and animals, including the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has brought a renewed focus on the evolution and interspecies transmission of coronaviruses. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), which was recently identified in piglets in southern China, is an alphacoronavirus that originates from the same genus of horseshoe bats as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and that was reported to be capable of infecting cells from a broad range of species, suggesting a considerable potential for interspecies transmission. Given the importance of the coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein in host range determination and viral entry, we report a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the SADS-CoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation at a 3.55-Å resolution. Our structure reveals that the SADS-CoV S trimer assumes an intrasubunit quaternary packing mode in which the S1 subunit N-terminal domain (S1-NTD) and the S1 subunit C-terminal domain (S1-CTD) of the same protomer pack together by facing each other in the lying-down state. SADS-CoV S has several distinctive structural features that may facilitate immune escape, such as a relatively compact architecture of the S trimer and epitope masking by glycan shielding. Comparison of SADS-CoV S with the spike proteins of the other coronavirus genera suggested that the structural features of SADS-CoV S are evolutionarily related to those of the spike proteins of the other genera rather than to the spike protein of a typical alphacoronavirus. These data provide new insights into the evolutionary relationship between spike glycoproteins of SADS-CoV and those of other coronaviruses and extend our understanding of their structural and functional diversity.IMPORTANCE In this article, we report the atomic-resolution prefusion structure of the spike protein from swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV). SADS-CoV is a pathogenic alphacoronavirus that was responsible for a large-scale outbreak of fatal disease in pigs and that was reported to be capable of interspecies transmission. We describe the overall structure of the SADS-CoV spike protein and conducted a detailed analysis of its main structural elements. Our results and analyses are consistent with those of previous phylogenetic studies and suggest that the SADS-CoV spike protein is evolutionarily related to the spike proteins of betacoronaviruses, with a strong similarity in S1-NTDs and a marked divergence in S1-CTDs. Moreover, we discuss the possible immune evasion strategies used by the SADS-CoV spike protein. Our study provides insights into the structure and immune evasion strategies of the SADS-CoV spike protein and broadens the understanding of the evolutionary relationships between coronavirus spike proteins of different genera.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Evolução Molecular , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Modelos Moleculares , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína
7.
J Virol ; 94(20)2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699095

RESUMO

The Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus), reservoir host of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), carries many bat SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs) with high genetic diversity, particularly in the spike gene. Despite these variations, some bat SARSr-CoVs can utilize the orthologs of the human SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), for entry. It is speculated that the interaction between bat ACE2 and SARSr-CoV spike proteins drives diversity. Here, we identified a series of R. sinicus ACE2 variants with some polymorphic sites involved in the interaction with the SARS-CoV spike protein. Pseudoviruses or SARSr-CoVs carrying different spike proteins showed different infection efficiencies in cells transiently expressing bat ACE2 variants. Consistent results were observed by binding affinity assays between SARS-CoV and SARSr-CoV spike proteins and receptor molecules from bats and humans. All tested bat SARSr-CoV spike proteins had a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to bat ACE2, although they showed a 10-fold lower binding affinity to human ACE2 compared with that of their SARS-CoV counterpart. Structure modeling revealed that the difference in binding affinity between spike and ACE2 might be caused by the alteration of some key residues in the interface of these two molecules. Molecular evolution analysis indicates that some key residues were under positive selection. These results suggest that the SARSr-CoV spike protein and R. sinicus ACE2 may have coevolved over time and experienced selection pressure from each other, triggering the evolutionary arms race dynamics.IMPORTANCE Evolutionary arms race dynamics shape the diversity of viruses and their receptors. Identification of key residues which are involved in interspecies transmission is important to predict potential pathogen spillover from wildlife to humans. Previously, we have identified genetically diverse SARSr-CoVs in Chinese horseshoe bats. Here, we show the highly polymorphic ACE2 in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. These ACE2 variants support SARS-CoV and SARSr-CoV infection but with different binding affinities to different spike proteins. The higher binding affinity of SARSr-CoV spike to human ACE2 suggests that these viruses have the capacity for spillover to humans. The positive selection of residues at the interface between ACE2 and SARSr-CoV spike protein suggests long-term and ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between them. Continued surveillance of this group of viruses in bats is necessary for the prevention of the next SARS-like disease.


Assuntos
Coevolução Biológica , Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Quirópteros/classificação , Quirópteros/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Seleção Genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(12): 2000871, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596129

RESUMO

The Legionella pneumophila effector MavC is a transglutaminase that carries out atypical ubiquitination of the host ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugation enzyme UBE2N by catalyzing the formation of an isopeptide bond between Gln40Ub and Lys92UBE2N, which leads to inhibition of signaling in the NF-κB pathway. In the absence of UBE2N, MavC deamidates Ub at Gln40 or catalyzes self-ubiquitination. However, the mechanisms underlying these enzymatic activities of MavC are poorly understood at the molecular level. This study reports the structure of the MavC-UBE2N-Ub ternary complex representing a snapshot of MavC-catalyzed crosslinking of UBE2N and Ub, which reveals the way by which UBE2N-Ub binds to the Insertion and Tail domains of MavC. Based on the structural and experimental data, the catalytic mechanism for the deamidase and transglutaminase activities of MavC is proposed. Finally, by comparing the structures of MavC and MvcA, the homologous protein that reverses MavC-induced UBE2N ubiquitination, several essential regions and two key residues (Trp255MavC and Phe268MvcA) responsible for their respective enzymatic activities are identified. The results provide insights into the mechanisms for substrate recognition and ubiquitination mediated by MavC as well as explanations for the opposite activity of MavC and MvcA in terms of regulation of UBE2N ubiquitination.

9.
J Virol ; 94(15)2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434890

RESUMO

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a highly pathogenic Vesiculovirus in the common carp. The phosphoprotein (P protein) of SVCV is a multifunctional protein that acts as a polymerase cofactor and an antagonist of cellular interferon (IFN) response. Here, we report the 1.5-Å-resolution crystal structure of the P protein central domain (PCD) of SVCV (SVCVPCD). The PCD monomer consists of two ß sheets, an α helix, and another two ß sheets. Two PCD monomers pack together through their hydrophobic surfaces to form a dimer. The mutations of residues on the hydrophobic surfaces of PCD disrupt the dimer formation to different degrees and affect the expression of host IFN consistently. Therefore, the oligomeric state formation of the P protein of SVCV is an important mechanism to negatively regulate host IFN response.IMPORTANCE SVCV can cause spring viremia of carp with up to 90% lethality, and it is the homologous virus of the notorious vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). There are currently no drugs that effectively cure this disease. P proteins of negative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs) play an essential role in many steps during the replication cycle and an additional role in immunosuppression as a cofactor. All P proteins of NSVs are oligomeric, but the studies on the role of this oligomerization mainly focus on the process of virus transcription or replication, and there are few studies on the role of PCD in immunosuppression. Here, we present the crystal structure of SVCVPCD A new mechanism of immune evasion is clarified by exploring the relationship between SVCVPCD and host IFN response from a structural biology point of view. These findings may provide more accurate target sites for drug design against SVCV and provide new insights into the function of NSVPCD.


Assuntos
Fosfoproteínas/química , Rhabdoviridae/química , Proteínas Virais/química , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(3): e1008394, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176738

RESUMO

Using bacteriophage-derived endolysins as an alternative strategy for fighting drug-resistant bacteria has recently been garnering renewed interest. However, their application is still hindered by their narrow spectra of activity. In our previous work, we demonstrated that the endolysin LysIME-EF1 possesses efficient bactericidal activity against multiple strains of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Herein, we observed an 8 kDa fragment and hypothesized that it contributes to LysIME-EF1 lytic activity. To examine our hypothesis, we determined the structure of LysIME-EF1 at 1.75 Å resolution. LysIME-EF1 exhibits a unique architecture in which one full-length LysIME-EF1 forms a tetramer with three additional C-terminal cell-wall binding domains (CBDs) that correspond to the abovementioned 8 kDa fragment. Furthermore, we identified an internal ribosomal binding site (RBS) and alternative start codon within LysIME-EF1 gene, which are demonstrated to be responsible for the translation of the truncated CBD. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for the lytic activity of LysIME-EF1, we combined mutagenesis, lytic activity assays and in vivo animal infection experiments. The results confirmed that the additional LysIME-EF1 CBDs are important for LysIME-EF1 architecture and its lytic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first determined structure of multimeric endolysin encoded by a single gene in E. faecalis phages. As such, it may provide valuable insights into designing potent endolysins against the opportunistic pathogen E. faecalis.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/química , Endopeptidases/química , Enterococcus faecalis/virologia , Genes Virais , Proteínas Virais/química , Bacteriófagos/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Endopeptidases/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/química , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Virais/genética
11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(6): 1902599, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195086

RESUMO

Early detection of infectious nucleic acids released from invading pathogens by the innate immune system is critical for immune defense. Detection of these nucleic acids by host immune sensors and regulation of DNA sensing pathways have been significant interests in the past years. Here, current understandings of evolutionarily conserved DNA sensing cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) are highlighted. Precise activation and tight regulation of cGAS are vital in appropriate innate immune responses, senescence, tumorigenesis and immunotherapy, and autoimmunity. Hence, substantial insights into cytosolic DNA sensing and immunotherapy of indispensable cytosolic sensors have been detailed to extend limited knowledge available thus far. This Review offers a critical, in-depth understanding of cGAS regulation, cytosolic DNA sensing, and currently established therapeutic approaches of essential cytosolic immune agents for improved human health.

12.
J Immunol ; 204(8): 2216-2231, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169843

RESUMO

Nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) detect diverse pathogen-associated molecular patterns to activate the innate immune response. The role of mammalian NLR NOD1 in sensing bacteria is well established. Although several studies suggest NOD1 also plays a role in sensing viruses, the mechanisms behind this are still largely unknown. In this study, we report on the synergism and antagonism between NOD1 and MDA5 isoforms in teleost. In zebrafish, the overexpression of NOD1 enhances the antiviral response and mRNA abundances of key antiviral genes involved in RLR-mediated signaling, whereas the loss of NOD1 has the opposite effect. Notably, spring viremia of carp virus-infected NOD1-/- zebrafish exhibit reduced survival compared with wild-type counterparts. Mechanistically, NOD1 targets MDA5 isoforms and TRAF3 to modulate the formation of MDA5-MAVS and TRAF3-MAVS complexes. The cumulative effects of NOD1 and MDA5a (MDA5 normal form) were observed for the binding with poly(I:C) and the formation of the MDA5a-MAVS complex, which led to increased transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. However, the antagonism between NOD1 and MDA5b (MDA5 truncated form) was clearly observed during proteasomal degradation of NOD1 by MDA5b. In humans, the interactions between NOD1-MDA5 and NOD1-TRAF3 were confirmed. Furthermore, the roles that NOD1 plays in enhancing the binding of MDA5 to MAVS and poly(I:C) are also evolutionarily conserved across species. Taken together, our findings suggest that mutual regulation between NOD1 and MDA5 isoforms may play a crucial role in the innate immune response and that NOD1 acts as a positive regulator of MDA5/MAVS normal form-mediated immune signaling in vertebrates.

13.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000654, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134919

RESUMO

Proteasomes are highly abundant and conserved protease complexes that eliminate unwanted proteins in the cells. As a single-chain ATP-independent nuclear proteasome activator, proteasome activator 200 (PA200) associates with 20S core particle to form proteasome complex that catalyzes polyubiquitin-independent degradation of acetylated histones, thus playing a pivotal role in DNA repair and spermatogenesis. Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the human PA200-20S complex and PA200 at 2.72 Å and 3.75 Å, respectively. PA200 exhibits a dome-like architecture that caps 20S and uses its C-terminal YYA (Tyr-Tyr-Ala) to induce the α-ring rearrangements and partial opening of the 20S gate. Our structural data also indicate that PA200 has two openings formed by numerous positively charged residues that respectively bind (5,6)-bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate (5,6[PP]2-InsP4) and inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and are likely to be the gates that lead unfolded proteins through PA200 and into the 20S. Besides, our structural analysis of PA200 found that the bromodomain (BRD)-like (BRDL) domain of PA200 shows considerable sequence variation in comparison to other human BRDs, as it contains only 82 residues because of a short ZA loop, and cannot be classified into any of the eight typical human BRD families. Taken together, the results obtained from this study provide important insights into human PA200-induced 20S gate opening for substrate degradation and the opportunities to explore the mechanism for its recognition of H4 histone in acetylation-mediated proteasomal degradation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteólise , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
J Biol Chem ; 295(6): 1646-1657, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907282

RESUMO

Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of the lung malady Legionnaires' disease, it modulates host function to create a niche termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) that permits intracellular L. pneumophila replication. One important aspect of such modulation is the co-option of the host ubiquitin network with a panel of effector proteins. Here, using recombinantly expressed and purified proteins, analytic ultracentrifugation, structural analysis, and computational modeling, along with deubiquitinase (DUB), and bacterial infection assays, we found that the bacterial defective in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication effector Ceg23 is a member of the ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB family. We found that Ceg23 displays high specificity toward Lys-63-linked polyubiquitin chains and is localized on the LCV, where it removes ubiquitin moieties from proteins ubiquitinated by the Lys-63-chain type. Analysis of the crystal structure of a Ceg23 variant lacking two putative transmembrane domains at 2.80 Å resolution revealed that despite very limited homology to established members of the OTU family at the primary sequence level, Ceg23 harbors a catalytic motif resembling those associated with typical OTU-type DUBs. ceg23 deletion increased the association of Lys-63-linked polyubiquitin with the bacterial phagosome, indicating that Ceg23 regulates Lys-63-linked ubiquitin signaling on the LCV. In summary, our findings indicate that Ceg23 contributes to the regulation of the association of Lys-63 type polyubiquitin with the Legionella phagosome. Future identification of host substrates targeted by Ceg23 could clarify the roles of these polyubiquitin chains in the intracellular life cycle of L. pneumophila and Ceg23's role in bacterial virulence.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Legionella pneumophila/metabolismo , Doença dos Legionários/microbiologia , Poliubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/química , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/química , Doença dos Legionários/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Fagossomos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato , Ubiquitinação
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 523-530, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881328

RESUMO

Interferon (IFN) is a vital antiviral factor in host in the early stages after the viral invasion. Meanwhile, viruses have to survive by taking advantage of the cellular machinery and complete their replication. As a result, viruses evolved several immune escape mechanisms to inhibit host IFN expression. However, the mechanisms used to escape the host's IFN system are still unclear for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). In this study, we report that the N protein of IHNV inhibits IFN1 production in rainbow trout by degrading the MITA. Firstly, the upregulation of IFN1 promoter activity stimulated by poly I:C was suppressed by IHNV infection. Consistent with this result, the overexpression of the N protein of IHNV blocked the IFN1 transcription that was activated by poly I:C and MITA. Secondly, MITA was remarkably decreased by the overexpression of N protein at the protein level. Further analysis demonstrated that the N protein targeted MITA and promoted the ubiquitination of MITA. Taken together, these data suggested that the production of rainbow trout IFN1 could be suppressed by the N protein of IHNV via degrading MITA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Vírus da Necrose Hematopoética Infecciosa/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Necrose Hematopoética Infecciosa/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/virologia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae , Ubiquitinação
16.
EMBO J ; 39(4): e102806, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825121

RESUMO

The Legionella pneumophila effector MavC induces ubiquitination of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2N by transglutamination, thereby abolishing its function in the synthesis of K63 -type polyubiquitin chains. The inhibition of UBE2N activity creates a conundrum because this E2 enzyme is important in multiple signaling pathways, including some that are important for intracellular L. pneumophila replication. Here, we show that prolonged inhibition of UBE2N activity by MavC restricts intracellular bacterial replication and that the activity of UBE2N is restored by MvcA, an ortholog of MavC (50% identity) with ubiquitin deamidase activity. MvcA functions to deubiquitinate UBE2N-Ub using the same catalytic triad required for its deamidase activity. Structural analysis of the MvcA-UBE2N-Ub complex reveals a crucial role of the insertion domain in MvcA in substrate recognition. Our study establishes a deubiquitination mechanism catalyzed by a deamidase, which, together with MavC, imposes temporal regulation of the activity of UBE2N during L. pneumophila infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Legionella pneumophila/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/enzimologia , Legionella pneumophila/genética , Legionella pneumophila/patogenicidade , Poliubiquitina/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitinação
17.
iScience ; 19: 796-808, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494495

RESUMO

Biotin is an indispensable cofactor in the three domains of life. The unusual virulence factor BioJ of Francisella catalyzes the formation of pimeloyl-ACP, an intermediate in biotin synthesis. Here, we report the 1.58 Å crystal structure of BioJ, the enzymatic activity of which is determined with the in vitro reconstituted reaction and biotin bioassay in vivo. Unlike the paradigm BioH, BioJ displays an atypical α/ß-hydrolase fold. A structurally conserved catalytic triad (S151, D248, and H278) of BioJ is functionally defined. A proposed model for BioJ catalysis involves two basic residues-rich cavities, of which cavity-1, rather than cavity-2, binds to the ACP moiety of its physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester. In summary, this finding provides molecular insights into the BioJ gatekeeper of biotin synthesis.

18.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(3): 369-384.e8, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513772

RESUMO

Pathogen pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) trigger innate immune responses to invading pathogens. All known PRRs for viral RNA have extranuclear localization. However, for many viruses, replication generates dsRNA in the nucleus. Here, we show that the nuclear matrix protein SAFA (also known as HnRNPU) functions as a nuclear viral dsRNA sensor for both DNA and RNA viruses. Upon recognition of viral dsRNA, SAFA oligomerizes and activates the enhancers of antiviral genes, including IFNB1. Moreover, SAFA is required for the activation of super-enhancers, which direct vigorous immune gene transcription to establish the antiviral state. Myeloid-specific SAFA-deficient mice were more susceptible to lethal HSV-1 and VSV infection, with decreased type I IFNs. Thus, SAFA functions as a nuclear viral RNA sensor and trans-activator to bridge innate sensing with chromatin remodeling and potentiate robust antiviral responses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/imunologia , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/imunologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Animais , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Vírus de DNA , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Vírus de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Vírus
19.
Nature ; 572(7769): 387-391, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330531

RESUMO

The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila creates an intracellular niche permissive for its replication by extensively modulating host-cell functions using hundreds of effector proteins delivered by its Dot/Icm secretion system1. Among these, members of the SidE family (SidEs) regulate several cellular processes through a unique phosphoribosyl ubiquitination mechanism that bypasses the canonical ubiquitination machinery2-4. The activity of SidEs is regulated by another Dot/Icm effector known as SidJ5; however, the mechanism of this regulation is not completely understood6,7. Here we demonstrate that SidJ inhibits the activity of SidEs by inducing the covalent attachment of glutamate moieties to SdeA-a member of the SidE family-at E860, one of the catalytic residues that is required for the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity involved in ubiquitin activation2. This inhibition by SidJ is spatially restricted in host cells because its activity requires the eukaryote-specific protein calmodulin (CaM). We solved a structure of SidJ-CaM in complex with AMP and found that the ATP used in this reaction is cleaved at the α-phosphate position by SidJ, which-in the absence of glutamate or modifiable SdeA-undergoes self-AMPylation. Our results reveal a mechanism of regulation in bacterial pathogenicity in which a glutamylation reaction that inhibits the activity of virulence factors is activated by host-factor-dependent acyl-adenylation.


Assuntos
Calmodulina/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Legionella pneumophila/enzimologia , Legionella pneumophila/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , ADP-Ribosilação , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/citologia , Modelos Moleculares , Ubiquitina/química , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
20.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(8): 1027-1040, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332347

RESUMO

Sensing cytosolic DNA through the cGAS-STING pathway constitutes a widespread innate immune mechanism to monitor cellular damage and microbial invasion. Evading this surveillance is crucial in tumorigenesis, but the process remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 (also known as ErbB-2 or Neu) potently inhibits cGAS-STING signalling and prevents cancer cells from producing cytokines, entering senescence and undergoing apoptosis. HER2, but not EGFR, associates strongly with STING and recruits AKT1 (also known as PKB) to directly phosphorylate TBK1, which prevents the TBK1-STING association and TBK1 K63-linked ubiquitination, thus attenuating STING signalling. Unexpectedly, we observed that DNA sensing robustly activates the HER2-AKT1 axis, resulting in negative feedback. Accordingly, genetic or pharmacological targeting of the HER2-AKT1 cascade augments damage-induced cellular senescence and apoptosis, and enhances STING-mediated antiviral and antitumour immunity. Thus, our findings reveal a critical function of the oncogenic pathway in innate immune regulation and unexpectedly connect HER2-AKT1 signalling to the surveillance of cellular damage and antitumour immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/imunologia , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Ubiquitinação/imunologia
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