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1.
Chemistry ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297999

RESUMO

FeSb2 exhibits a colossal Seebeck coefficient ( ) and a record breaking high thermoelectric power factor. It also has an atypical shift from diamagnetism to paramagnetism with increasing temperature, and the fine details of its electron correlation effects have been widely discussed. The extraordinary physical properties must be rooted in the nature of the chemical bonding, and indeed the chemical bonding in this archetypical marcasite structure has been heavily debated on a theoretical basis since the 1960's. The two prevalent models for describing the bonding interactions in FeSb2 are either based on ligand-field stabilisation of Fe or a network structure of Sb hosting Fe-ions. However, neither model can account for the observed properties of FeSb2. Here we report an experimental electron density study based on analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data measured at 15 K on a minute single crystal to limit systematic errors. The analysis is supplemented with Density Functional Theory calculations in the experimental geometry. The experimental data are at variance with both the additional single-electron Sb-Sb bond implied by the covalent model, and the large formal charge and expected -orbital splitting advocated by the ionic model. The structure is best described as an extended covalent network in agreement with expectations based on electronegativity differences.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 59(3): 1682-1691, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944683

RESUMO

Single-molecule magnet materials owe their function to the presence of significant magnetic anisotropy, which arises from the interplay between the ligand field and spin-orbit coupling, and this is responsible for setting up an energy barrier for magnetic relaxation. Therefore, chemical control of magnetic anisotropy is a central challenge in the quest to synthesize new molecular nanomagnets with improved properties. There have been several reports of design principles targeting such control; however, these principles rely on idealized geometries, which are rarely obtained in crystal structures. Here, we present the results of high-pressure single-crystal diffraction on the single-ion magnet, Co(SPh)4(PPh4)2, in the pressure range of 0-9.2 GPa. Upon pressurization a sequence of small geometrical distortions of the central CoS4 moeity are observed, enabling a thorough analysis of the magneto-structural correlations. The magneto-structural correlations are investigated by theoretical analyses of the pressure-dependent experimental molecular structures. We observed a significant increase in the magnitude of the zero-field splitting parameter D, from -54.6 cm-1 to -89.7 cm-1, which was clearly explained from the reduction of the energy difference between the essential dxy and dx2-y2 orbitals, and structurally assigned to the change of an angle of compression of the CoS4 moeity.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 59(1): 717-729, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829583

RESUMO

Single-ion magnets based on lanthanide ions in pseudo-D5h symmetry have gained much attention in recent years as they are reported to possess a large blocking temperature and a large barrier for magnetization reversal. Magneto-structural correlations reveal that the axial O-Ln-O angle is an important parameter to control the barrier, and while it can be fine-tuned by chemical modification, an alternative would be to utilize hydrostatic pressure. Herein, we report the crystal structures and static magnetic properties of two air-stable isostructural lanthanide SIMs under applied pressures. The complexes exhibit pseudo-D5h symmetry around the Ln(III)-ion (Ln = Dy or Ho), which coordinates to five equatorial water molecules and two large neutral phosphonic diamide ligands along the axial direction. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments revealed two phase-transitions and an increasing deviation from D5h-symmetry between ambient pressure and 3.6 GPa. High-pressure direct-current magnetic measurements of the Dy(III) compound showed large steps in the hysteresis loops near zero field, indicative of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). These steps grow in size with increasing pressure, suggesting that QTM becomes progressively more active, which correlates well with the pressure-induced increased overall deviation from pseudo-D5h symmetry and decreasing axial O-Dy-O angle. A strong temperature dependence of the step size is seen at 0.3 GPa, which shows that the SMM character persists even at this pressure. To understand the origin of significant variation in the tunneling probability upon pressure, we performed a range of ab initio calculations based on the CASSCF/RASSI-SO/SINGLE_ANISO method on both Dy and Ho complexes. From the energies and magnetic anisotropy of the mJ sublevels, we find a complex variation of the energy barrier with pressure, and using a constructed geometrical parameter, R, taking into account changes in both bond angles and distances, we link the magnetic properties to the first coordination sphere of the molecules.

4.
Nat Chem ; 12(2): 213-219, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844195

RESUMO

The distribution of electrons in the 4f orbitals of lanthanide ions is often assigned a crucial role in the design of single-molecule magnets, which maintain magnetization in zero external field. Optimal spatial complementarity between the 4f-electron density and the ligand field is key to maximizing magnetic anisotropy, which is an important factor in the ability of lanthanide complexes to display single-molecule magnet behaviour. Here we have experimentally determined the electron density distribution in two dysprosium molecular complexes by interpreting high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a multipole model. The ground-state 4f-electron density is found to be an oblate ellipsoid, as is often deduced from a simplified Sievers model that assumes a pure |±15/2> ground-state doublet for the lanthanide ion. The large equatorial asymmetry-determined by a model wavefunction-was found to contain considerable MJ mixing of |±11/2> and only 81% of |±15/2>. The experimental molecular magnetic easy axes were recovered, and found to deviate by 13.1° and 8.7° from those obtained by ab initio calculations.

5.
Org Lett ; 21(13): 5305-5309, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247764

RESUMO

Unprecedented α-imino N-acyl pyrazoles were efficiently and selectively prepared through the 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD)-catalyzed reaction of nitrosoarenes with N-acyl pyrazoles via an N-nitroso aldol reaction/dehydration sequence. The α-imino acyl pyrazoles were demonstrated to be new versatile intermediates for practical one-pot syntheses of α-imino amides, dipeptide precursors, esters, and ß-amino alcohols. The synthetic method competes with known protocols in terms of ready availability of the reagents and catalyst, mild and catalytic reaction conditions, gram-scale applicability, and scope of the α-imino acid derivatives achievable.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(23): 3410-3413, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839031

RESUMO

Solvated lithium closo-dodecaborate, Li2B12H12 with tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, show unexpected melting below 150 °C. This feature has been explored to melt-infiltrate Li2B12H12 in a nanoporous SiO2 scaffold. The ionic conductivity of Li2B12H12·xACN reaches 0.08 mS cm-1 in the liquid state at 150 °C making them suitable as battery electrolytes.

7.
Chemistry ; 25(27): 6814-6822, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821859

RESUMO

The covalent nature of the low-barrier N-H-N hydrogen bonds in the negative thermal expansion material H3 [Co(CN)6 ] has been established by using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction electron density analysis and theoretical calculations. This finding explains why negative thermal expansion can occur in a material not commonly considered to be built from rigid linkers. The pertinent hydrogen atom is located symmetrically between two nitrogen atoms in a double-well potential with hydrogen above the barrier for proton transfer, thus forming a low-barrier hydrogen bond. Hydrogen is covalently bonded to the two nitrogen atoms, which is the first experimentally confirmed covalent hydrogen bond in a network structure. Source function calculations established that the present N-H-N hydrogen bond follows the trends observed for negatively charge-assisted hydrogen bonds and low-barrier hydrogen bonds previously established for O-H-O hydrogen bonds. The bonding between the cobalt and cyanide ligands was found to be a typical donor-acceptor bond involving a high-field ligand and a transition metal in a low-spin configuration.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 58(5): 3211-3218, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762344

RESUMO

A breakthrough in the study of single-molecule magnets occurred with the discovery of zero-field slow magnetic relaxation and hysteresis for the linear iron(I) complex [Fe(C(SiMe3)3)2]- (1), which has one of the largest spin-reversal barriers among mononuclear transition-metal single-molecule magnets. Theoretical studies have suggested that the magnetic anisotropy in 1 is made possible by pronounced stabilization of the iron d z2 orbital due to 3d z2-4s mixing, an effect which is predicted to be less pronounced in the neutral iron(II) complex Fe(C(SiMe3)3)2 (2). However, experimental support for this interpretation has remained lacking. Here, we use high-resolution single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to generate multipole models of the electron density in these two complexes, which clearly show that the iron d z2 orbital is more populated in 1 than in 2. This result can be interpreted as arising from greater stabilization of the d z2 orbital in 1, thus offering an unprecedented experimental rationale for the origin of magnetic anisotropy in 1.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(9): 3965-3976, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761898

RESUMO

High-resolution synchrotron and neutron single-crystal diffraction data of 18-crown-6/(pentakis)urea measured at 30 K are combined, with the aim of better appreciating the electrostatics associated with intermolecular interactions in condensed matter. With two 18-crown-6 molecules and five different urea molecules in the crystal, this represents the most ambitious combined X-ray/synchrotron and neutron experimental charge density analysis to date on a cocrystal or host-guest system incorporating such a large number of unique molecules. The dipole moments of the five urea guest molecules in the crystal are enhanced considerably compared to values determined for isolated molecules, and 2D maps of the electrostatic potential and electric field show clearly how the urea molecules are oriented with dipole moments aligned along the electric field exerted by their molecular neighbors. Experimental electric fields in the range of 10-19 GV m-1, obtained for the five different urea environments, corroborate independent measurements of electric fields in the active sites of enzymes and provide an important experimental reference point for recent discussions focused on electric-field-assisted catalysis.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 58(3): 2133-2139, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645110

RESUMO

The electron density distribution of the complex monoanion Cu(CF3)4 in (Bu4N)[Cu(CF3)4] has been studied by high-resolution X-ray single-crystal diffraction and augmented with theoretical calculations. The study finds that the central copper bears an atomic charge of close to +1, while the occupancy of its d x2- y2 orbital is only 1.26. Using topological analysis combined with theoretical calculations, the depopulation of d x2- y2 is shown to be due to significant covalency in the Cu-C bonds. The combination of the monovalent picture and the covalency is interpreted as a confirmation of an inverted ligand field.

11.
Science ; 362(6421)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442763

RESUMO

Orbital angular momentum is a prerequisite for magnetic anisotropy, although in transition metal complexes it is typically quenched by the ligand field. By reducing the basicity of the carbon donor atoms in a pair of alkyl ligands, we synthesized a cobalt(II) dialkyl complex, Co(C(SiMe2ONaph)3)2 (where Me is methyl and Naph is a naphthyl group), wherein the ligand field is sufficiently weak that interelectron repulsion and spin-orbit coupling play a dominant role in determining the electronic ground state. Assignment of a non-Aufbau (d x 2 -y 2 , d xy )3(d xz , d yz )3(d z 2 )1 electron configuration is supported by dc magnetic susceptibility data, experimental charge density maps, and ab initio calculations. Variable-field far-infrared spectroscopy and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements further reveal slow magnetic relaxation via a 450-wave number magnetic excited state.

12.
Chemistry ; 24(62): 16576-16581, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095193

RESUMO

The anisotropy of the magnetic properties of molecular magnets is a key descriptor in the search for improved magnets. Herein, it is shown how an analytical approach using single-crystal polarized neutron diffraction (PND) provides direct access to atomic magnetic susceptibility tensors. The technique was applied for the first time to two Dy-based single-molecule magnets and showed clear axial atomic susceptibility for both DyIII ions. For the triclinic system, bulk magnetization methods are not symmetry-restricted, and the experimental magnetic easy axes from both PND, angular-resolved magnetometry (ARM), and theoretical approaches all match reasonably well. ARM curves simulated from the molecular susceptibility tensor determined with PND show strong resemblance with the experimental ones. For the monoclinic compound, comparison can only be made with the theoretically calculated magnetic anisotropy, and in this case PND yields an easy-axis direction that matches that predicted by electrostatic methods. Importantly, this technique allows the determination of all elements of the magnetic susceptibility tensor and not just the easy-axis direction, as is available from electrostatic predictions. Furthermore, it has the capacity to provide each of the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility tensors for all independent magnetic ions in a molecule and thus allows studies on polynuclear complexes and compounds of higher crystalline symmetry than triclinic.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 57(12): 6913-6920, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862809

RESUMO

The tetrahedral cobalt(II) compound (Ph4P)2[Co(SPh)4] was the first mononuclear transition-metal complex shown to exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization in zero external magnetic field. Because the relative populations of the d orbitals play a vital role in dictating the magnitude of the magnetic anisotropy, the magnetic behavior of this complex is directly related to its electronic structure, yet the exact role of the soft, thiophenolate ligands in influencing the d-electron configuration has previously only been investigated via theoretical methods. To provide detailed experimental insight into the effect of this ligand field, the electron density distribution in this compound was determined from low-temperature, single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and subsequent multipole modeling. Topological analysis of the electron density indicates significant covalent contributions to the cobalt-sulfur bonds. The derived d-orbital populations further reveal a fully occupied d z2 orbital, minor d xz orbital population, and nearly equal population of the d xy, d x2- y2, and d yz orbitals. Notably, we find that an electrostatic interaction between Co(II) and one hydrogen atom from a thiophenolate group in the xz plane increases the energy of the d x2- y2 orbital, leading to the nearly equal population with d xy and strong magnetic anisotropy.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(11): 3031-3044, 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481082

RESUMO

Experimental charge density distribution studies, complemented by quantum mechanical theoretical calculations, of a host-guest system composed of a macrocycle (1) and barbital (2) in a 1:1 ratio (3) have been carried out via high-resolution single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The data were modeled using the conventional multipole model of electron density according to the Hansen-Coppens formalism. The asymmetric unit of macrocycle 1 contained an intraannular ethanol molecule and an extraannular acetonitrile molecule, and the asymmetric unit of 3 also contained an intraannular ethanol molecule. Visual comparison of the conformations of the macrocyclic ring shows the rotation by 180° of an amide bond attributed to competitive hydrogen bonding. It was found that the intraannular and extraannular molecules inside were orientated to maximize the number of hydrogen bonds present, with the presence of barbital in 3 resulting in the greatest stabilization. Hydrogen bonds ranging in strength from 4 to 70 kJ mol-1 were the main stabilizing force. Further analysis of the electrostatic potential among 1, 2, and 3 showed significant charge redistribution when cocrystallization occurred, which was further confirmed by a comparison of atomic charges. The findings presented herein introduce the possibility of high-resolution X-ray crystallography playing a more prominent role in the drug design process.


Assuntos
Barbital/química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Teoria Quântica , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Nat Mater ; 17(3): 249-252, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434305

RESUMO

Van der Waals (vdW) solids have attracted great attention ever since the discovery of graphene, with the essential feature being the weak chemical bonding across the vdW gap. The nature of these weak interactions is decisive for many extraordinary properties, but it is a strong challenge for current theory to accurately model long-range electron correlations. Here we use synchrotron X-ray diffraction data to precisely determine the electron density in the archetypal vdW solid, TiS2, and compare the results with density functional theory calculations. Quantitative agreement is observed for the chemical bonding description in the covalent TiS2 slabs, but significant differences are identified for the interactions across the gap, with experiment revealing more electron deformation than theory. The present data provide an experimental benchmark for testing theoretical models of weak chemical bonding.

16.
Chemistry ; 24(19): 4973-4981, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364550

RESUMO

The extent of cyclic π-electron delocalization in the N-heterocyclic ring of an imidazol-2-ylidene (i.e., 1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazol-2-ylidene) and its corresponding imidazolium salt (i.e., 1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazolium chloride) has been investigated theoretically by using Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) descriptors, delocalization indices, electron localizability indicators (ELI-Ds), and the source function tool. In addition, the experimental electron density distribution for the imidazolium salt has been obtained and analyzed from 100 K X-ray diffraction data. A significant drop is found in the ellipticity of the electron density along the Ccarbene -N bond path in the imidazol-2-ylidene. This is shown to be a natural consequence of the σ lone pair of the Ccarbene atom, which overwhelms the π-electron density, rather than a sign of a significantly diminished degree of π-electron delocalization in the imidazol-2-ylidene compared to its imidazolium salt. In fact, the source functions, the ELI-Ds, and the delocalization indices all probe a quite similar extent of cyclic π-electron delocalization in the N-heterocyclic rings of the two compounds.

17.
IUCrJ ; 5(Pt 1): 32-44, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354269

RESUMO

Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a novel X-ray structure refinement technique that employs aspherical atomic scattering factors obtained from stockholder partitioning of a theoretically determined tailor-made static electron density. HAR overcomes many of the known limitations of independent atom modelling (IAM), such as too short element-hydrogen distances, r(X-H), or too large atomic displacement parameters (ADPs). This study probes the accuracy and precision of anisotropic hydrogen and non-hydrogen ADPs and of r(X-H) values obtained from HAR. These quantities are compared and found to agree with those obtained from (i) accurate neutron diffraction data measured at the same temperatures as the X-ray data and (ii) multipole modelling (MM), an established alternative method for interpreting X-ray diffraction data with the help of aspherical atomic scattering factors. Results are presented for three chemically different systems: the aromatic hydro-carbon rubrene (orthorhombic 5,6,11,12-tetra-phenyl-tetracene), a co-crystal of zwitterionic betaine, imidazolium cations and picrate anions (BIPa), and the salt potassium hydrogen oxalate (KHOx). The non-hydrogen HAR-ADPs are as accurate and precise as the MM-ADPs. Both show excellent agreement with the neutron-based values and are superior to IAM-ADPs. The anisotropic hydrogen HAR-ADPs show a somewhat larger deviation from neutron-based values than the hydrogen SHADE-ADPs used in MM. Element-hydrogen bond lengths from HAR are in excellent agreement with those obtained from neutron diffraction experiments, although they are somewhat less precise. The residual density contour maps after HAR show fewer features than those after MM. Calculating the static electron density with the def2-TZVP basis set instead of the simpler def2-SVP one does not improve the refinement results significantly. All HARs were performed within the recently introduced HARt option implemented in the Olex2 program. They are easily launched inside its graphical user interface following a conventional IAM.

18.
Chemistry ; 24(5): 1204-1208, 2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29168579

RESUMO

Two protocols for the organocatalyzed decarboxylative trichloromethylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) substrates have been developed. Applying sodium trichloroacetate, as the trichloromethyl anion precursor, in combination with an organocatalyst and acetylated MBH-alcohols, the desired trichloromethylated products were obtained in good yields at room temperature in batch. The method was next extrapolated into a two-step continuous flow protocol, starting directly from the MBH alcohols, in combination with tributylamine acting both as base and catalyst. The flow process proved superior to the batch approach, reducing the reaction time from 16 hours to only 20 minutes, with increased yields for all investigated entries. Two examples were also taken to scale-up in flow producing more than 10 grams of both trichloromethylated targets. Finally, substitution of the organocatalyst to (DHQ)2 PHAL or (DHQD)2 PHAL induced chiral transfer to the generated stereocenter in the reaction attaining selectivities with nearly 90 % ee.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(50): 15910-15915, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076608

RESUMO

A series of crystalline sp3 -sp3 diboron(4) compounds were synthesized and shown to promote the facile reduction of water with dihydrogen formation. The application of these diborons as simple and effective dihydrogen and dideuterium sources was demonstrated by conducting a series of selective reductions of alkynes and alkenes, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange reactions using two-chamber reactors. Finally, as the water reduction reaction generates an intermediate borohydride species, a range of aldehydes and ketones were reduced by using water as the hydride source.

20.
Org Lett ; 19(19): 5030-5033, 2017 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28906120

RESUMO

Readily available chiral amine-thioureas are effective catalysts for the first diastereo- and enantioselective epoxidation of unsaturated pyrazolones. The trans- or cis-spiroepoxides are preferentially obtained in good yield and high to excellent enantioselectivity using an appropriate organocatalyst and tert-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidant. The epoxidation appears applicable to highly challenging ß,ß'-substituted unsaturated pyrazolones, giving access to spiroepoxides bearing two vicinal quaternary stereocenters. The reaction represents a unique example of Weitz-Scheffer epoxidation, where the catalyst-controlled ring-closure step is usefully exploited to prepare both enantioenriched diastereomeric epoxides.

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