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1.
AIDS ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Persistence of the viral reservoir is the main barrier to curing HIV. Initiation of ART during acute HIV infection can limit the size and diversity of the reservoir. In depth characterization of the reservoir in individuals who initiate ART during acute infection will be critical for clinical trial design and cure strategies. METHODS: Four cohorts with participants who initiated ART during acute infection or during chronic infection were enrolled in a cross-sectional, non-interventional study. Viral reservoir was evaluated by the Intact Proviral DNA Assay (IPDA), the Total HIV DNA assay (THDA) and the Quantitative Viral Outgrowth Assay (QVOA). Viral diversity and susceptibility to V3-glycan bNAbs were determined by genotyping of the viral envelope gene. RESULTS: Participants who initiated ART during the acute Fiebig I-IV stages had lower level of total HIV DNA than participants who initiated ART during chronic infection whereas no difference was observed in intact HIV DNA or outgrowth virus. Participants who initiated ART during Fiebig I-IV also had lower viral diversity and appeared to have higher susceptibility to bNAbs than participants initiating ART during chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals initiating ART during Fiebig I-IV had small viral reservoirs, low viral diversity and high susceptibility to bNAbs, and would be an optimal target population for proof of concept HIV cure trials.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 595-608, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective long-acting injectable agents for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are needed to increase the options for preventing HIV infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial to compare long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB-LA, an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor [INSTI]) at a dose of 600 mg, given intramuscularly every 8 weeks, with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection in at-risk cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and in at-risk transgender women who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive one of the two regimens and were followed for 153 weeks. HIV testing and safety evaluations were performed. The primary end point was incident HIV infection. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 4566 participants who underwent randomization; 570 (12.5%) identified as transgender women, and the median age was 26 years (interquartile range, 22 to 32). The trial was stopped early for efficacy on review of the results of the first preplanned interim end-point analysis. Among 1698 participants from the United States, 845 (49.8%) identified as Black. Incident HIV infection occurred in 52 participants: 13 in the cabotegravir group (incidence, 0.41 per 100 person-years) and 39 in the TDF-FTC group (incidence, 1.22 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.62). The effect was consistent across prespecified subgroups. Injection-site reactions were reported in 81.4% of the participants in the cabotegravir group and in 31.3% of those in the TDF-FTC group. In the participants in whom HIV infection was diagnosed after exposure to CAB-LA, INSTI resistance and delays in the detection of HIV infection were noted. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: CAB-LA was superior to daily oral TDF-FTC in preventing HIV infection among MSM and transgender women. Strategies are needed to prevent INSTI resistance in cases of CAB-LA PrEP failure. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 083 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02720094.).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 117, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337687

RESUMO

We evaluated the association of bone fracture with mortality among persons with HIV, controlling for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors. Incident fracture was associated with 48% greater risk of all-cause mortality, underscoring the need for bone mineral density screening and fracture prevention. PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture are more common among persons with HIV (PWH) than those without HIV infection. We evaluated the association of bone fracture with mortality among PWH, controlling for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors. METHODS: We analyzed data from HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants seen at nine US HIV clinics during January 1, 2000, through September 30, 2017. Incident fracture rates and post-fracture mortality were compared across four calendar periods. Cox proportional hazards analyses determined factors associated with all-cause mortality among all participants and those with incident fracture. RESULTS: Among 6763 HOPS participants, 504 (7.5%) had incident fracture (median age = 47 years) and 719 (10.6%) died. Of fractures, 135 (26.8%) were major osteoporotic (hip/pelvis, wrist, spine, arm/shoulder). During observation, 27 participants with major osteoporotic fractures died (crude mortality 2.97/100 person-years [PY]), and 48 with other site fractures died (crude mortality 2.51/100 PY). Post-fracture, age- and sex-adjusted all-cause mortality rates per 100 PY decreased from 8.5 during 2000-2004 to 1.9 during 2013-2017 (P<0.001 for trend). In multivariable analysis, incident fracture was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.91). Among 504 participants followed post-fracture, pulmonary, kidney, and cardiovascular disease, hepatitis C virus co-infection, and non-AIDS cancer, remained independently associated with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Incident fracture was associated with 48% greater risk of all-cause mortality among US PWH in care, underscoring the need for BMD screening and fracture prevention. Although fracture rates among PWH increased during follow-up, post-fracture death rates decreased, likely reflecting advances in HIV care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, antiretroviral therapy, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors may contribute to future CV events in persons with HIV (PWH). METHODS: Among participants in the global REPRIEVE randomized trial, we characterized demographics and HIV characteristics relative to ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) for atherosclerotic CV disease predicted risk and CV health evaluated by Life's Simple 7 (LS7; includes smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose). RESULTS: Among 7382 REPRIEVE participants (31% women, 45% Black or African American), the median PCE risk score was 4.5% (Q1, Q3: 2.2, 7.2); 29% had a PCE score <2.5% and 9% scored above 10%. PCE score was related closely to known CV risk factors and modestly (<1% difference in risk score) to immune function and HIV parameters. The median LS7 score was 9 (Q1, Q3: 7, 10) of a possible 14. Only 24 participants (0.3%) had 7/7 ideal components, and 36% had ≤2 ideal components; 90% had <5 ideal components. The distribution of LS7 did not vary by age or natal sex, while ideal health was more common in low sociodemographic index countries and among Asians. Poor dietary and physical activity patterns on LS7 were seen across all PCE scores, including the lowest risk categories. CONCLUSIONS: Poor CV health by LS7 was common among REPRIEVE participants, regardless of PCE. This suggests a critical and independent role for lifestyle interventions in conjunction with conventional treatment to improve CV outcomes in PWH.

5.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169526

RESUMO

Ruxolitinib is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved orally administered Janus kinase (1/2) inhibitor that reduces cytokine-induced inflammation. As part of a randomized, phase 2, open-label trial, ruxolitinib (10 mg twice daily) was administered to HIV-positive, virologically suppressed individuals (33 men, 7 women) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 5 weeks. Herein, we report the population PK subsequently determined from this study. Plasma concentrations of ruxolitinib (294 samples) and antiretroviral agents were measured at week 1 (N = 39 participants) and week 4 or 5 (N = 37). Ruxolitinib PK was adequately described with a 2-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination with distribution volumes normalized to mean body weight (91.5 kg) and a separate typical clearance for participants administered efavirenz (a known cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer). Participants administered an ART regimen with efavirenz had an elevated typical apparent oral clearance versus the integrase inhibitor regimen group (22.5 vs 12.9 L/hr; N = 14 vs 25). Post hoc predicted apparent oral clearance was likewise more variable and higher (P < .0001) in those administered efavirenz. There was  an ≈25% variation in ruxolitinib plasma exposures between week 1 and week 4/5. ART plasma concentrations resembled those from PK studies without ruxolitinib. Therefore, integrase inhibitor-based ART regimens may be preferred over efavirenz-based regimens when ruxolitinib is administered to HIV-positive individuals.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2114923, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185068

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased among people with HIV (PWH), but little is known regarding the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and associated biological factors in PWH with low to moderate traditional CVD risk. Objectives: To determine unique factors associated with CVD in PWH and to assess CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and critical pathways of arterial inflammation and immune activation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study among male and female PWH, aged 40 to 75 years, without known CVD, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy, and with low to moderate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equation, was part of the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE), a large, ongoing primary prevention trial of statin therapy among PWH conducted at 31 US sites. Participants were enrolled from May 2015 to February 2018. Data analysis was conducted from May to December 2020. Exposure: HIV disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the prevalence and composition of CAD assessed by coronary CTA and, secondarily, the association of CAD with traditional risk indices and circulating biomarkers, including insulin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL) 6, soluble CD14 (sCD14), sCD163, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Results: The sample included 755 participants, with a mean (SD) age of 51 (6) years, 124 (16%) female participants, 267 (35%) Black or African American participants, 182 (24%) Latinx participants, a low median (interquartile range) ASCVD risk (4.5% [2.6%-6.8%]), and well-controlled viremia. Overall, plaque was seen in 368 participants (49%), including among 52 of 175 participants (30%) with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk of less than 2.5%. Luminal obstruction of at least 50% was rare (25 [3%]), but vulnerable plaque and high Leaman score (ie, >5) were more frequently observed (172 of 755 [23%] and 118 of 743 [16%], respectively). Overall, 251 of 718 participants (35%) demonstrated coronary artery calcium score scores greater than 0. IL-6, LpPLA2, oxLDL, and MCP-1 levels were higher in those with plaque compared with those without (eg, median [IQR] IL-6 level, 1.71 [1.05-3.04] pg/mL vs 1.45 [0.96-2.60] pg/mL; P = .008). LpPLA2 and IL-6 levels were associated with plaque in adjusted modeling, independent of traditional risk indices and HIV parameters (eg, IL-6: adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of a large primary prevention cohort of individuals with well-controlled HIV and low to moderate ASCVD risk, CAD, including noncalcified, nonobstructive, and vulnerable plaque, was highly prevalent. Participants with plaque demonstrated higher levels of immune activation and arterial inflammation, independent of traditional ASCVD risk and HIV parameters.

7.
Patient ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in HIV-1 therapeutics have led to the development of a range of daily oral treatment regimens, which share similar high efficacy rates. Consequently, more emphasis is being placed upon the individual's experience of treatment and impact on quality of life. The first long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 (long-acting cabotegravir + rilpivirine [CAB + RPV LA]) may address challenges associated with oral treatment for HIV-1, such as stigma, pill burden/fatigue, drug-food interactions, and adherence. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) collected in an HIV-1 clinical trial (ATLAS-2M; NCT03299049) comparing participants' experience with two dosing regimens (every 4 weeks [Q4W] vs. every 8 weeks [Q8W]) of CAB + RPV LA are presented herein. METHODS: PRO endpoints evaluated through 48 weeks of therapy included treatment satisfaction (HIV Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire [HIVTSQ]), treatment acceptance ("General Acceptance" domain of the Chronic Treatment Acceptance [ACCEPT®] questionnaire), acceptability of injections (Perception of Injection [PIN] questionnaire), treatment preference (questionnaire), and reasons for switching to/continuing long-acting therapy (exploratory endpoint; questionnaire). Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive CAB + RPV LA Q8W or Q4W. Results were stratified by prior CAB + RPV exposure in either preplanned or post hoc analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 1045 participants were randomized to the Q8W (n = 522) and Q4W (n = 523) regimens; 37% (n = 391/1045) had previously received CAB + RPV in ATLAS. For participants without prior CAB + RPV exposure, large increases from baseline were reported in treatment satisfaction in both long-acting arms (HIVTSQ status version), with Q8W dosing statistically significantly favored at Weeks 24 (p = 0.036) and 48 (p = 0.004). Additionally, improvements from baseline were also observed in the "General Acceptance" domain of the ACCEPT questionnaire in both long-acting arms for participants without prior CAB + RPV exposure; however, no statistically significant difference was observed between arms at either timepoint (Week 24, p = 0.379; Week 48, p = 0.525). Significant improvements (p < 0.001) in the "Acceptance of Injection Site Reactions" domain of the PIN questionnaire were observed from Week 8 to Weeks 24 and 48 in both arms for participants without prior CAB + RPV exposure. Participants with prior CAB + RPV exposure reported high treatment satisfaction (mean [HIVTSQ status version]: Q8W 62.2/66.0; Q4W 62.0/66.0), treatment acceptance (mean: Q8W 89.3/100; Q4W 91.2/100), and acceptance of injection site reactions (mean [5 = not at all acceptable; 1 = totally acceptable]: Q8W 1.72; Q4W 1.59) at baseline/Week 8 that were maintained over time. Participants without prior CAB + RPV exposure who received Q8W dosing preferred this regimen over oral CAB + RPV (98%, n = 300/306). Among those with prior Q4W exposure, 94% (n = 179/191) preferred Q8W dosing versus Q4W dosing (3%, n = 6/191) or oral CAB + RPV (2%, n = 4/191). CONCLUSIONS: Both long-acting regimens provided high treatment satisfaction and acceptance, irrespective of prior CAB + RPV exposure, with most participants preferring Q8W dosing over both the Q4W regimen and their previous daily oral regimen. The PRO data collected at Week 48 support the therapeutic potential of CAB + RPV LA. FUNDING: ViiV Healthcare and Janssen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ATLAS-2M: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03299049, registered October 2, 2017.

9.
Kidney Med ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748738

RESUMO

Patients receiving in-center hemodialysis are at a high risk of infections, due to relative immunosuppression as well as to limited ability to physically distance and frequent encounters with the health care setting; this has been particularly evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe two patients with suspected recurrent COVID-19 infection, each with documented clearance of virus between episodes. The duration between a negative RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and symptomatic reinfection was 31 and 55 days, respectively, in the two patients. A higher risk for infection with COVID-19 and poor outcomes if infected, including a 20% or higher short term mortality risk, is worrisome in this patient population. Continued measures, such as infection prevention, community outreach and early testing may play a role in establishing protocols to protect the vulnerable dialysis population.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is associated with end-organ disease and mortality for people with HIV (PWH). Ruxolitinib, a Jak 1/2 inhibitor, reduces systemic inflammation for individuals without HIV and HIV reservoir markers ex vivo. The goal of this trial was to determine safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib for PWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: ACTG A5336 was an open-label, multi-site, randomized-controlled trial (RCT). Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) using centralized software to ruxolitinib (10mg twice-daily) plus stable ART for five weeks versus ART alone, stratified by efavirenz-use. Eligible participants were suppressed on ART for ≥2 years, without comorbidities, and had >350 CD4+ T-cells/µL. Primary endpoints were premature discontinuation, safety events, and change in plasma IL-6. Secondary endpoints included other measures of inflammation/immune activation and HIV reservoir. RESULTS: Sixty participants enrolled from May 16, 2016 to January 10, 2018. Primary safety events occurred in 2.5% (one participant) for ruxolitinib and 0% for controls, (p=0.67). Three participants (7.5%) prematurely discontinued ruxolitinib. By week five, differences in IL-6 (mean Fold Change (FC) 0.93 vs 1.10, p=0.18) and sCD14 levels (mean FC 0.96 vs 1.08, relative FC=0.96 (90%CI: 0.90,1.02)) for ruxolitinib versus controls was observed. Ruxolitinib reduced CD4+ T-cells expressing HLADR/CD38 (difference in means -0.34%, 90%CI: -0.66,-0.12)) and Bcl-2 (-3.30%, 90%CI: (-4.72,-1.87)). CONCLUSIONS: In this RCT of healthy, virologically-suppressed PWH on ART, ruxolitinib was well-tolerated. Baseline IL-6 levels were normal, and showed no significant reduction. Ruxolitinib significantly decreased markers of immune activation and cell survival. Future studies of Jak inhibitors should target PWH with residual inflammation despite suppressive ART.

11.
Am J Transplant ; 21(3): 938-949, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885604

RESUMO

Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at increased risk of influenza disease and associated complications. The mainstay of prevention is the annual standard-dose influenza vaccine, as studies showed decreased influenza-related morbidity and mortality in vaccinated SOT recipients compared to those unvaccinated. Nonetheless, the immune response in this high-risk population is suboptimal compared to healthy individuals. Over the past two decades, several vaccination strategies have been investigated to overcome this inadequate immune response in SOT recipients. Howbeit, the best vaccination strategy and optimal timing of influenza vaccination remain unclear. This review will provide a detailed summary of studies of various influenza vaccination strategies in adult SOT recipients, discussing immunogenicity results, and addressing their limitations and knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Transplante de Órgãos , Adulto , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplantados , Vacinação
13.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(1): 181-191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin persistence and adherence are low among US adults. Most individuals with HIV in the US have high adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), but less is known about their statin persistence and adherence. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed persistence and adherence to statin therapy among adults with and without HIV. METHODS: We analyzed claims data from adults in the MarketScan database who initiated statin therapy between 2007 and 2016. People with HIV (n = 5619) were frequency matched 1-to-4 to those without HIV (n = 22,476) based on age, sex, and calendar year of statin initiation. Statin persistence was defined by having dispensed statin medication during the last 90 days of the 365 days following initiation. High statin adherence was defined as a proportion of days covered (PDC) ≥0.80 during the 365 days following initiation. Among people with HIV, the PDC for each ART was calculated. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 51 years and 85.8% were men. Statin persistence was higher among adults with versus without HIV (72.8% versus 65.2%, multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio 1.13, 95%CI 1.11-1.15). Among those who were persistent, a higher proportion of people with versus without HIV had high statin adherence (69.6% versus 59.9%, multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio 1.16, 95%CI 1.13-1.19). Among people with HIV and high ART adherence (minimum PDC ≥0.90), 34.6% had a PDC for statin therapy <0.80. CONCLUSION: Adults with HIV were more persistent and adherent to statin medications versus those without HIV. However, a high proportion of adults with HIV had low statin adherence.

14.
Lancet ; 396(10267): 1994-2005, 2021 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase 3 clinical studies showed non-inferiority of long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine dosed every 4 weeks to oral antiretroviral therapy. Important phase 2 results of every 8 weeks dosing, and supportive modelling, underpin further evaluation of every 8 weeks dosing in this trial, which has the potential to offer greater convenience. Our objective was to compare the week 48 antiviral efficacy of cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting dosed every 8 weeks with that of every 4 weeks dosing. METHODS: ATLAS-2M is an ongoing, randomised, multicentre (13 countries; Australia, Argentina, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, and the USA), open-label, phase 3b, non-inferiority study of cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting maintenance therapy administered intramuscularly every 8 weeks (cabotegravir 600 mg plus rilpivirine 900 mg) or every 4 weeks (cabotegravir 400 mg plus rilpivirine 600 mg) to treatment-experienced adults living with HIV-1. Eligible newly recruited individuals must have received an uninterrupted first or second oral standard-of-care regimen for at least 6 months without virological failure and be aged 18 years or older. Eligible participants from the ATLAS trial, from both the oral standard-of-care and long-acting groups, must have completed the 52-week comparative phase with an ATLAS-2M screening plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting every 8 weeks or every 4 weeks. The randomisation schedule was generated by means of the GlaxoSmithKline validated randomisation software RANDALL NG. The primary endpoint at week 48 was HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies per mL (Snapshot, intention-to-treat exposed), with a non-inferiority margin of 4%. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03299049 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Screening occurred between Oct 27, 2017, and May 31, 2018. Of 1149 individuals screened, 1045 participants were randomised to the every 8 weeks (n=522) or every 4 weeks (n=523) groups; 37% (n=391) transitioned from every 4 weeks cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting in ATLAS. Median participant age was 42 years (IQR 34-50); 27% (n=280) female at birth; 73% (n=763) white race. Cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting every 8 weeks was non-inferior to dosing every 4 weeks (HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies per mL; 2% vs 1%) with an adjusted treatment difference of 0·8 (95% CI -0·6-2·2). There were eight (2%, every 8 weeks group) and two (<1%, every 4 weeks group) confirmed virological failures (two sequential measures ≥200 copies per mL). For the every 8 weeks group, five (63%) of eight had archived non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance-associated mutations to rilpivirine at baseline. The safety profile was similar between dosing groups, with 844 (81%) of 1045 participants having adverse events (excluding injection site reactions); no treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: The efficacy and safety profiles of dosing every 8 weeks and dosing every 4 weeks were similar. These results support the use of cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting administered every 2 months as a therapeutic option for people living with HIV-1. FUNDING: ViiV Healthcare and Janssen.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1 , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Rilpivirina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/sangue , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/sangue , RNA Viral/sangue , Rilpivirina/efeitos adversos , Rilpivirina/sangue , Carga Viral
15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 498-506, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-acting (LA) injectable regimens are a potential therapeutic option in people living with HIV-1. SETTING: ATLAS (NCT02951052) and FLAIR (NCT02938520) were 2 randomized, open-label, multicenter, multinational phase 3 studies. METHODS: Adult participants with virologic suppression (plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL) were randomized (1:1) to continue with their current antiretroviral regimen (CAR) or switch to the long-acting (LA) regimen of cabotegravir (CAB) and rilpivirine (RPV). In the LA arm, participants initially received oral CAB + RPV once-daily for 4 weeks to assess individual safety and tolerability, before starting monthly injectable therapy. The primary endpoint of this combined analysis was antiviral efficacy at week 48 (FDA Snapshot algorithm: noninferiority margin of 4% for HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL). Safety, tolerability, and confirmed virologic failure (2 consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥200 copies/mL) were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The pooled intention-to-treat exposed population included 591 participants in each arm [28% women (sex at birth), 19% aged ≥50 years]. Noninferiority criteria at week 48 were met for the primary (HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL) and key secondary (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL) efficacy endpoints. Seven individuals in each arm (1.2%) developed confirmed virologic failure; 6/7 (LA) and 3/7 (CAR) had resistance-associated mutations. Most LA recipients (83%) experienced injection site reactions, which decreased in incidence over time. Injection site reactions led to the withdrawal of 6 (1%) participants. The serious adverse event rate was 4% in each arm. CONCLUSION: This combined analysis demonstrates monthly injections of CAB + RPV LA were noninferior to daily oral CAR for maintaining HIV-1 suppression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1 , Rilpivirina/administração & dosagem , Rilpivirina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rilpivirina/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pathog Immun ; 5(1): 275-290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089036

RESUMO

Background: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected kidney transplant recipients is associated with short-term improvement in protein/creatinine (P/C) ratios, but how HCV cure affects long-term graft outcomes remains unknown. Methods: This is a retrospective follow-up study of 59 HCV-infected patients who underwent kidney transplant at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between 2007-2015 who were followed until the end of 2017. We examined the association of DAA-induced HCV cure with graft failure or death by survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression). Results: Mean age was 55 years, 73% were African American, and 68% were male. Median baseline creatinine was 1.4 mg/dL, P/C ratio was 0.5, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 59 mL/min. Of those who received DAA, 24 (83%) achieved cure. The remaining 5 DAA patients (17%) did not have documented evidence of sustained virologic response (SVR). Overall, 19 (32%) patients experienced graft failure or death; with lower incidence in treated patients than untreated (4 vs 15 events; 2.6 vs 10.3 per 100 person-years [cHR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66]). When adjusted for age, sex, race, and proteinuria, the association remained strong and invariant across time-varying (aHR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.08-1.10), time-averaged (aHR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.07-1.07), and time-varying-cumulative (aHR 0.32, 95% CI: 0.08-1.21) proteinuria metrics. Conclusions: DAAs therapy was associated with improved graft survival and reduced mortality. While not statistically significant, the association was strong, and these single-center findings warrant larger studies to demonstrate the benefits of HCV treatment in this population.

17.
J Infect Dis ; 222(Suppl 1): S41-S51, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is a common comorbid condition among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). We characterized baseline kidney function in the REPRIEVE (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) trial cohort. METHODS: REPRIEVE enrolled PWH with low to moderate cardiovascular risk based on traditional risk factors to evaluate the effect of statin therapy on cardiovascular events. We determined baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Cockcroft-Gault equations, and we evaluated baseline factors associated with eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 by logistic regression. We performed Bland-Altman plots and scatterplots to assess agreement between equations. RESULTS: Among 7770 participants enrolled, the median age was 50 years, 31% were female (natal sex), 43% black or African American and 15% Asian, the median body mass index (calculated as calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 25.8, and the median CD4 cell count 620/µL. The median CKD-EPI eGFR was 97 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 38% had an eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. In the adjusted model, factors associated with eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 included white race, older age, higher body mass index, high-income region of enrollment, hypertension, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The CKD-EPI and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equations demonstrated strong agreement, particularly at lower eGFR values. Overall, there was 56% concordance between the 3 equations (categories <60, 60 to <90, ≥90 mL/min), improving to 73% after accounting for individual body surface area. CONCLUSIONS: REPRIEVE enrolled a diverse cohort including a substantial number of PWH with reduced kidney function. Factors associated with reduced eGFR included traditional risk factors and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate exposure. Three commonly used equations have only fair agreement, with potential implications for both clinical care and epidemiologic studies. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02344290.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuições Estatísticas
18.
J Infect Dis ; 222(Suppl 1): S52-S62, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) are at risk for accelerated development of physical function impairment and frailty; both associated with increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, and death. Identifying factors associated with physical function impairment and frailty can help target interventions. METHODS: The REPRIEVE trial enrolled participants 40-75 years of age, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/mm3, and with low to moderate cardiovascular disease risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of those concurrently enrolled in the ancillary study PREPARE at enrollment. RESULTS: Among the 266 participants, the median age was 51 years; 81% were male, and 45% were black, and 28% had hypertension. Body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 25 to <30 in 38% and ≥30 in 30%, 33% had a high waist circumference, 89% were physically inactive, 37% (95% confidence interval, 31%, 43%) had physical function impairment (Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤10), and 6% (4%, 9%) were frail and 42% prefrail. In the adjusted analyses, older age, black race, greater BMI, and physical inactivity were associated with physical function impairment; depression and hypertension were associated with frailty or prefrailty. CONCLUSIONS: Physical function impairment was common among middle-aged PWH; greater BMI and physical inactivity are important modifiable factors that may prevent further decline in physical function with aging. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02344290.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Estado Funcional , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Longo Prazo ao HIV , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Prevalência , Fatores Raciais , Comportamento Sedentário
19.
J Infect Dis ; 222(Suppl 1): S8-S19, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patterns of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and immunologic correlates vary globally, and contemporary trends are not well described. METHODS: The REPRIEVE trial (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) enrolled persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were aged 40-75 years, receiving ART, and had low-to-moderate cardiovascular disease risk. ART use was summarized within Global Burden of Disease (GBD) super-regions, with adjusted linear and logistic regression analyses examining associations with immune parameters and key demographics. RESULTS: A total of 7770 participants were enrolled, with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range, 45-55 years); 31% were female, 43% were black or African American, 15% were Asian, 56% had a body mass index >25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and 49% were current or former smokers. The median CD4 T-cell count was 620/µL (interquartile range, 447-826/ µ L), and the median duration of prior ART use, 9.5 years (5.3-14.8) years. The most common ART regimens were nucleoside/nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) plus nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (43%), NRTI plus integrase strand transfer inhibitor (25%), and NRTI plus protease inhibitor (19%). Entry ART varied by GBD region, with shifts during the trial enrollment period. In adjusted analyses, entry CD4 cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio were associated with GBD region, sex, entry regimen, duration of ART, and nadir CD4 cell count; CD4 and CD8 cell counts were also associated with body mass index and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: There were substantial variations in ART use by geographic region and over time, likely reflecting the local availability of specific medications, changes in treatment guidelines and provider/patient preferences. The analyses of CD4 cell counts and CD4/CD8 ratios may provide valuable insights regarding immune correlates and outcomes in people living with HIV. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02344290.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Relação CD4-CD8 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
N Engl J Med ; 382(12): 1124-1135, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable regimens may simplify therapy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, randomized, open-label trial in which adults with HIV-1 infection who had not previously received antiretroviral therapy were given 20 weeks of daily oral induction therapy with dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine. Participants who had an HIV-1 RNA level of less than 50 copies per milliliter after 16 weeks were randomly assigned (1:1) to continue the current oral therapy or switch to oral cabotegravir plus rilpivirine for 1 month followed by monthly injections of long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine. The primary end point was the percentage of participants who had an HIV-1 RNA level of 50 copies per milliliter or higher at week 48 (Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm). RESULTS: At week 48, an HIV-1 RNA level of 50 copies per milliliter or higher was found in 6 of 283 participants (2.1%) who received long-acting therapy and in 7 of 283 (2.5%) who received oral therapy (adjusted difference, -0.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to 2.1), a result that met the criterion for noninferiority for the primary end point (margin, 6 percentage points). An HIV-1 RNA level of less than 50 copies per milliliter at week 48 was found in 93.6% who received long-acting therapy and in 93.3% who received oral therapy (adjusted difference, 0.4 percentage points; 95% CI, -3.7 to 4.5), a result that met the criterion for noninferiority for this end point (margin, -10 percentage points). Of the participants who received long-acting therapy, 86% reported injection-site reactions (median duration, 3 days; mild or moderate severity, 99% of cases); 4 participants withdrew from the trial for injection-related reasons. Grade 3 or higher adverse events and events that met liver-related stopping criteria occurred in 11% and 2%, respectively, who received long-acting therapy and in 4% and 1% who received oral therapy. Treatment satisfaction increased after participants switched to long-acting therapy; 91% preferred long-acting therapy at week 48. CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine was noninferior to oral therapy with dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine with regard to maintaining HIV-1 suppression. Injection-site reactions were common. (Funded by ViiV Healthcare and Janssen; FLAIR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02938520.).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Rilpivirina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/sangue , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Injeções Intramusculares , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/sangue , RNA Viral/sangue , Rilpivirina/efeitos adversos , Rilpivirina/sangue , Carga Viral
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