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2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; : OF1-OF10, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current epidemiologic evidence indicates that smoking is associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk. However, it is unknown if this association is causal or confounded. To further elucidate the role of smoking in endometrial cancer risk, we conducted complementary observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. METHODS: The observational analyses included 286,415 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and 179,271 participants in the UK Biobank, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. In two-sample MR analyses, genetic variants robustly associated with lifetime amount of smoking (n = 126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly (n = 112 variants) were selected and their association with endometrial cancer risk (12,906 cancer/108,979 controls from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium) was examined. RESULTS: In the observational analysis, lifetime amount of smoking and ever having smoked regularly were associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk. In the MR analysis accounting for body mass index, a genetic predisposition to a higher lifetime amount of smoking was not associated with endometrial cancer risk (OR per 1-SD increment: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.91-1.44). Genetic predisposition to ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risk of endometrial cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was inversely associated with endometrial cancer in the observational analyses, although unsupported by the MR. Additional studies are required to better understand the possible confounders and mechanisms underlying the observed associations between smoking and endometrial cancer. IMPACT: The results from this analysis indicate that smoking is unlikely to be causally linked with endometrial cancer risk.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830197

RESUMO

It is unclear whether diet, and in particular certain foods or nutrients, are associated with lung cancer risk. We assessed associations of 92 dietary factors with lung cancer risk in 327 790 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) per SD higher intake/day of each food/nutrient. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate and identified associations were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). In EPIC, 2420 incident lung cancer cases were identified during a median of 15 years of follow-up. Higher intakes of fibre (HR per 1 SD higher intake/day = 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.96), fruit (HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.96) and vitamin C (HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.96) were associated with a lower risk of lung cancer, whereas offal (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14), retinol (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10) and beer/cider (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07) intakes were positively associated with lung cancer risk. Associations did not differ by sex and there was less evidence for associations among never smokers. None of the six associations with overall lung cancer risk identified in EPIC were replicated in the NLCS (2861 cases), however in analyses of histological subtypes, inverse associations of fruit and vitamin C with squamous cell carcinoma were replicated in the NLCS. Overall, there is little evidence that intakes of specific foods and nutrients play a major role in primary lung cancer risk, but fruit and vitamin C intakes seem to be inversely associated with squamous cell lung cancer.

4.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(2)2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between physical activity before cancer diagnosis and survival among lung cancer patients. In this pooled analysis of 11 prospective cohorts, we investigated associations of prediagnosis leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with all-cause and lung cancer-specific mortality among incident lung cancer patients. METHODS: Using self-reported data on regular engagement in exercise and sports activities collected at study enrollment, we assessed metabolic equivalent hours (MET-h) of prediagnosis LTPA per week. According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, prediagnosis LTPA was classified into inactivity, less than 8.3 and at least 8.3 MET-h per week (the minimum recommended range). Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for all-cause and lung cancer-specific mortality after adjustment for major prognostic factors and lifetime smoking history. RESULTS: Of 20 494 incident lung cancer patients, 16 864 died, including 13 596 deaths from lung cancer (overall 5-year relative survival rate = 20.9%, 95% CI = 20.3% to 21.5%). Compared with inactivity, prediagnosis LTPA of more than 8.3 MET-h per week was associated with a lower hazard of all-cause mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88 to 0.99), but not with lung cancer-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.04), among the overall population. Additive interaction was found by tumor stage (Pinteraction = .008 for all-cause mortality and .003 for lung cancer-specific mortality). When restricted to localized cancer, prediagnosis LTPA of at least 8.3 MET-h per week linked to 20% lower mortality: multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.80 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.97) for all-cause mortality and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.65 to 0.99) for lung cancer-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Regular participation in LTPA that met or exceeded the minimum Physical Activity Guidelines was associated with reduced hazards of mortality among lung cancer patients, especially those with early stage cancer.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Atividade Motora , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is thought to initiate or promote differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and previous studies have shown that diet can modulate this inflammatory process. We aimed to evaluate the association of several dietary scores reflecting the inflammatory potential of the diet with DTC risk. METHODS: Within the EPIC cohort, 450,063 participants were followed during a mean period of 14 years, and 712 newly incident DTC cases were identified. Associations between four dietary inflammatory scores [the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and two energy-adjusted derivatives (the E-DIIr and the E-DIId), and the Inflammatory Score of the Diet (ISD)] and DTC risk were evaluated in the EPIC cohort using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between DTC risk and the DIIs (HR for 1 SD increase in DII: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.23, similar results for its derivatives), but not with the ISD (HR for 1 SD increase: 1.04, 95% CI 0.93, 1.16). CONCLUSION: Diet-associated inflammation, as estimated by the DII and its derivatives, was weakly positively associated with DTC risk in a European adult population. These results suggesting that diet-associated inflammation acts in the etiology of DTC need to be validated in independent studies.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 151(5): 708-716, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366005

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that components of one-carbon metabolism, particularly circulating vitamin B6, have an etiological role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in the transsulfuration pathway. We sought to holistically investigate the role of the transsulfuration pathway in RCC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study (455 RCC cases and 455 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Plasma samples from the baseline visit were analyzed for metabolites of the transsulfuration pathway, including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the biologically active form of vitamin B6), homocysteine, serine, cystathionine, and cysteine, in addition to folate. Bayesian conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations of metabolites with RCC risk as well as interactions with established RCC risk factors. Circulating PLP and cysteine were inversely associated with RCC risk, and these associations were not attenuated after adjustment for other transsulfuration metabolites (odds ratio (OR) and 90% credible interval (CrI) per 1 SD increase in log concentration: 0.76 [0.66, 0.87]; 0.81 [0.66, 0.96], respectively). A comparison of joint metabolite profiles suggested substantially greater RCC risk for the profile representative of low overall transsulfuration function compared to high function (OR 2.70 [90% CrI 1.26, 5.70]). We found some statistical evidence of interactions of cysteine with body mass index, and PLP and homocysteine with smoking status, on their associations with RCC risk. In conclusion, we found evidence suggesting that the transsulfuration pathway may play a role in metabolic dysregulation leading to RCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cisteína , Homocisteína , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fosfato de Piridoxal , Vitamina B 6
7.
Occup Environ Med ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between occupational noise exposure and stroke incidence in a pooled study of five Scandinavian cohorts (NordSOUND). METHODS: We pooled and harmonised data from five Scandinavian cohorts resulting in 78 389 participants. We obtained job data from national registries or questionnaires and recoded these to match a job-exposure matrix developed in Sweden, which specified the annual average daily noise exposure in five exposure classes (LAeq8h): <70, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, ≥85 dB(A). We identified residential address history and estimated 1-year average road traffic noise at baseline. Using national patient and mortality registers, we identified 7777 stroke cases with a median follow-up of 20.2 years. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for individual and area-level potential confounders. RESULTS: Exposure to occupational noise at baseline was not associated with overall stroke in the fully adjusted models. For ischaemic stroke, occupational noise was associated with HRs (95% CI) of 1.08 (0.98 to 1.20), 1.09 (0.97 to 1.24) and 1.06 (0.92 to 1.21) in the 75-79, 80-84 and ≥85 dB(A) exposure groups, compared with <70 dB(A), respectively. In subanalyses using time-varying occupational noise exposure, we observed an indication of higher stroke risk among the most exposed (≥85 dB(A)), particularly when restricting analyses to people exposed to occupational noise within the last year (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.63). CONCLUSIONS: We found no association between occupational noise and risk of overall stroke after adjustment for confounders. However, the non-significantly increased risk of ischaemic stroke warrants further investigation.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(7): e2952-e2961, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated reproductive aging, in women indicated by early natural menopause, is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in observational studies. Conversely, an adverse CHD risk profile has been suggested to accelerate menopause. OBJECTIVES: To study the direction and evidence for causality of the relationship between reproductive aging and (non-)fatal CHD and CHD risk factors in a bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, using age at natural menopause (ANM) genetic variants as a measure for genetically determined reproductive aging in women. We also studied the association of these variants with CHD risk (factors) in men. DESIGN: Two-sample MR, using both cohort data as well as summary statistics, with 4 methods: simple and weighted median-based, standard inverse-variance weighted (IVW) regression, and MR-Egger regression. PARTICIPANTS: Data from EPIC-CVD and summary statistics from UK Biobank and publicly available genome-wide association studies were pooled for the different analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CHD, CHD risk factors, and ANM. RESULTS: Across different methods of MR, no association was found between genetically determined reproductive aging and CHD risk in women (relative risk estimateIVW = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.01), or any of the CHD risk factors. Similarly, no associations were found in men. Neither did the reversed analyses show evidence for an association between CHD (risk factors) and reproductive aging. CONCLUSION: Genetically determined reproductive aging is not causally associated with CHD risk (factors) in women, nor were the genetic variants associated in men. We found no evidence for a reverse association in a combined sample of women and men.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Envelhecimento/genética , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Eur Respir J ; 60(2)2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Higher flavonoid intakes are beneficially associated with pulmonary function parameters; however, their association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. This study aimed to examine associations between intakes of 1) total flavonoids, 2) flavonoid subclasses and 3) major flavonoid compounds with incident COPD in participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. METHODS: This prospective cohort included 55 413 men and women without COPD, aged 50-65 years at recruitment. Habitual flavonoid intakes at baseline were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire using Phenol-Explorer. Danish nationwide registers were used to identify incident cases of COPD. Associations were modelled using restricted cubic splines within Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 23 years of follow-up, 5557 participants were diagnosed with COPD. Of these, 4013 were current smokers, 1062 were former smokers and 482 were never-smokers. After multivariable adjustments, participants with the highest total flavonoid intakes had a 20% lower risk of COPD than those with the lowest intakes (quintile 5 versus quintile 1: HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87); a 6-22% lower risk was observed for each flavonoid subclass. The inverse association between total flavonoid intake and COPD was present in both men and women but only in current smokers (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84) and former smokers (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.97), not never-smokers. Furthermore, higher flavonoid intakes appeared to lessen, but not negate, the higher risk of COPD associated with smoking intensity. CONCLUSION: Dietary flavonoids may be important for partially mitigating the risk of smoking-related COPD. However, smoking cessation should remain the highest priority.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes
10.
Br J Cancer ; 126(9): 1301-1309, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9-18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone. CONCLUSION: Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0-9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Antígeno Ca-125 , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Curva ROC
11.
Epidemiology ; 33(2): 185-192, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest cadmium exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, including heart failure. However, prior findings may be influenced by tobacco smoking, a dominant source of cadmium exposure and risk factor for heart failure. The present study leverages up to 20 years of follow-up in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to examine the relationship between urinary cadmium and incident heart failure among people who never smoked. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1997, 19,394 never-smoking participants (ages 50-64 years) enrolled and provided a urine sample. From this sample, we randomly selected a subcohort of 600 men and 600 women and identified 958 incident heart failure cases occurring between baseline and 2015. Using a case-cohort approach, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for heart failure in Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time scale. RESULTS: Participants had relatively low concentrations of urinary cadmium, as expected for never smokers (median = 0.20; 25th, 75th = 0.13, 0.32 µg cadmium/g creatinine). In adjusted models, we found that higher urinary cadmium was associated with a higher rate of incident heart failure overall (aHR = 1.1 per interquartile range difference [95% CI = 1.0, 1.2). In sex-stratified analyses, the association seemed restricted to men (aHR = 1.5 [95% CI = 1.2, 1.9]). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of people who never smoked tobacco, environmental cadmium was positively associated with incident heart failure, especially among men.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Cádmio/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes
12.
Stroke ; 53(1): 154-163, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the association between adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet, a sustainable and mostly plant-based diet, and risk of stroke and subtypes of stroke in a Danish population. For comparison, we also investigated the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI). METHODS: We used the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (n=55 016) including adults aged 50 to 64 years at baseline (1993-1997). A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake and group participants according to adherence to the diets. Stroke cases were identified using a national registry and subsequently validated by review of medical records (n=2253). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for associations with the EAT-Lancet diet or the AHEI and risk of stroke and stroke subtypes. RESULTS: Adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet was associated with a lower risk of stroke, although not statistically significant (highest versus lowest adherence: hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.76-1.09]). A lower risk was observed for AHEI (0.75 [95% CI, 0.64-0.87]). For stroke subtypes, we found that adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet was associated with a lower risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.73]), and the AHEI was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke (0.76 [95% CI, 0.64-0.90]) and intracerebral hemorrhage (0.58 [95% CI, 0.36-0.93]). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet in midlife was associated with a lower risk of subarachnoid stroke, and the AHEI was associated with a lower risk of total stroke, mainly ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/tendências , Dieta Vegetariana/tendências , Cooperação do Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/dietoterapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/tendências , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(5): e1061-e1082, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Br J Nutr ; 127(4): 563-569, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829978

RESUMO

Recent studies found positive associations between intake of red meat and processed meat and total mortality; however, substitution of red meat with poultry and fish has been poorly investigated. We aimed to investigate associations for substitutions of red meat (unprocessed/processed) and total mortality and deaths due to cancer or CVD. We used data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, including 57 053 participants aged 50-64 years at baseline. Information on diet was collected through a validated 192-item FFQ. Information regarding total mortality, deaths due to cancer and deaths due to CVD was obtained by record linkage. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of 150 g/week substitutions of red meat with poultry or fish. During a follow-up (mean 16·1 years), 8840 deaths occurred (4567 were due to cancer; 1816 due to CVD). The adjusted HR for total death when substituting 150 g/week total red meat with poultry was 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·00) and with fish 0·99 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·01). Corresponding HR for cancer death or CVD death were similar. Substitution of processed red meat with fish or poultry was more consistently associated with a lower mortality than substitution of unprocessed red meat. For example, the adjusted HR for total death when substituting 150 g/week processed red meat with poultry was 0·95 (95 % CI 0·92, 0·98). We found that replacing processed red meat with poultry or fish was associated with a lower risk of total mortality and deaths due to cancer, but not deaths due to CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Causas de Morte , Dieta , Peixes , Humanos , Carne , Aves Domésticas , Fatores de Risco
15.
Br J Nutr ; 127(10): 1557-1566, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289916

RESUMO

A daily intake of dairy products is recommended in many countries in order to maintain optimal health throughout life. However, evidence regarding the association between intake of individual dairy products and mortality is limited. We therfore, explored associations between intake of different dairy products and all-cause and cause-specific mortality using specified theoretical substitution analyses. We analysed data from 55 775 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years between 1993 and 1997. Information about dairy product intake at baseline was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Information about vital status and causes of death was obtained through national registers. Measures of associations were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During a median follow-up of 19·0 years, 11 586 participants died. For all-cause mortality, we observed that the intake of low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or low-fat yogurt products in place of cheese was associated with a higher rate of death (hazard ratios between 1·03 and 1·12 per serving/d substituted). The same pattern was present for CVD mortality. For cancer mortality, whole-fat milk and low-fat yogurt products in place of cheese were also associated with a higher rate of death for men while for women, whole-fat milk in place of buttermilk was associated with a higher cancer mortality rate. The results appeared robust in several sensitivity analyses. Our results suggest that intake of low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or low-fat yogurt products in place of cheese is associated with a higher rate of all-cause and cause-specific mortality.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias , Animais , Causas de Morte , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Fatores de Risco
16.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(1): e13649, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between adipose tissue content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: In this case-cohort study based on data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, a total of 5255 incident cases of AF was identified during 16.9 years of follow-up. Adipose tissue biopsies collected at baseline from all cases and from a randomly drawn subcohort of 3440 participants were determined by gas chromatography. Data were analysed using weighted Cox regression. RESULTS: Data were available for 4741 incident cases of AF (2920 men and 1821 women). Participants in the highest vs. the lowest quintile of EPA experienced a 45% lower risk of AF (men HR 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.69); women HR 0.55 (0.41-0.72)). For DHA, no clear association was found in men, whereas in women, participants in the highest quintile of DHA in adipose tissue had a 30% lower risk of incident AF (HR 0.70 (0.54-0.91)) compared to participants in the lowest quintile. CONCLUSIONS: A monotonous inverse association was found for the content of EPA in adipose tissue and risk of AF in both men and women. The content of DHA was inversely associated with the risk of AF in women, whereas no clear association was found for men.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/fisiologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(1): 557-559, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963430

RESUMO

The role of the major plant-derived n-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), on the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (ASCVD) remains unclear, but most studies have reported no association. However, the association between intake of ALA and the risk of ASCVD may depend on the intake of marine n-3 PUFAs. We investigated this hypothesis among more than 53,909 middle-aged, Danish men and women followed for a median of 13.4 years. We found a statistically significant inverse association between ALA intake modelled as a restricted cubic spline and the rate of ASCVD in subjects with a low intake of marine n-3 PUFAs, while no association was observed among subjects with a higher intake of marine n-3 PUFAs. Our findings suggest that the intake of ALA may be associated with a lower risk of total ASCVD, but only among subjects with a low intake of marine n-3 PUFAs.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido alfa-Linolênico
18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 312, 2021 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool for identifying novel etiological pathways leading to cancer. In an earlier prospective study among pre- and postmenopausal women not using exogenous hormones, we observed a higher risk of breast cancer associated with higher blood concentrations of one metabolite (acetylcarnitine) and a lower risk associated with higher blood concentrations of seven others (arginine, asparagine, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) aa C36:3, ae C34:2, ae C36:2, ae C36:3, and ae C38:2). METHODS: To identify determinants of these breast cancer-related metabolites, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis to identify their lifestyle and anthropometric correlates in 2358 women, who were previously included as controls in case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and not using exogenous hormones at blood collection. Associations of each metabolite concentration with 42 variables were assessed using linear regression models in a discovery set of 1572 participants. Significant associations were evaluated in a validation set (n = 786). RESULTS: For the metabolites previously associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, concentrations of PCs ae C34:2, C36:2, C36:3, and C38:2 were negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with total and saturated fat intakes. PC ae C36:2 was also negatively associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with two scores reflecting adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Asparagine concentration was negatively associated with adiposity. Arginine and PC aa C36:3 concentrations were not associated to any of the factors examined. For the metabolite previously associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, acetylcarnitine, a positive association with age was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These associations may indicate possible mechanisms underlying associations between lifestyle and anthropometric factors, and risk of breast cancer. Further research is needed to identify potential non-lifestyle correlates of the metabolites investigated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(23): e019814, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796724

RESUMO

Background There is controversy about associations between total dietary fatty acids, their classes (saturated fatty acids [SFAs], monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids), and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Specifically, the relevance of food sources of SFAs to CHD associations is uncertain. Methods and Results We conducted a case-cohort study involving 10 529 incident CHD cases and a random subcohort of 16 730 adults selected from a cohort of 385 747 participants in 9 countries of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. We estimated multivariable adjusted country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs per 5% of energy intake from dietary fatty acids, with and without isocaloric macronutrient substitutions, using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and pooled results using random-effects meta-analysis. We found no evidence for associations of the consumption of total or fatty acid classes with CHD, regardless of macronutrient substitutions. In analyses considering food sources, CHD incidence was lower per 1% higher energy intake of SFAs from yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99]), cheese (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-1.00]), and fish (HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.75-1.00]), but higher for SFAs from red meat (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02-1.12]) and butter (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.00-1.04]). Conclusions This observational study found no strong associations of total fatty acids, SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, with incident CHD. By contrast, we found associations of SFAs with CHD in opposite directions dependent on the food source. These findings should be further confirmed, but support public health recommendations to consider food sources alongside the macronutrients they contain, and suggest the importance of the overall food matrix.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Nutrientes
20.
Br J Cancer ; 125(12): 1726-1733, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National dietary guidelines contribute to primary prevention of a wide range of diseases. Yet, the importance of adhering to the Danish dietary guidelines for colorectal cancer prevention is unclear. METHODS: We used the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (n = 55,744) to investigate adherence to the Danish dietary guidelines and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for colorectal cancer and subtypes across the Danish Dietary Guidelines Index score (ranging 0-6 points, 6 being the greatest adherence). Effect modification by BMI was explored on multiplicative and additive scales. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.9 years, 1030 men and 849 women developed colorectal cancer. Higher index scores were associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (HR 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53, 0.84, highest (≥5) versus lowest index score (<3 points) group). Similar inverse associations were observed between index scores and colon cancer. The risk difference was -0.8% (95% CI: -1.6, -0.1) among the overweight/obese group and 0.1% (95% CI: -0.7, 1.0) in the normal weight group for high compared to low adherence. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the Danish Dietary Guidelines was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, particularly among people with overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Política Nutricional/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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