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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077856

RESUMO

Genes encoding the mRNA targets of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) are enriched for genetic association with psychiatric disorders. However, many FMRP targets possess functions that are themselves genetically associated with psychiatric disorders, including synaptic transmission and plasticity, making it unclear whether the genetic risk is truly related to binding by FMRP or is alternatively mediated by the sampling of genes better characterised by another trait or functional annotation. Using published common variant, rare coding variant and copy number variant data, we examined the relationship between FMRP binding and genetic association with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. High-confidence targets of FMRP, derived from studies of multiple tissue types, were enriched for common schizophrenia risk alleles, as well as rare loss-of-function and de novo nonsynonymous variants in schizophrenia cases. Similarly, through common variation, FMRP targets were associated with major depressive disorder, and we present novel evidence of association with bipolar disorder. These relationships could not be explained by other functional annotations known to be associated with psychiatric disorders, including those related to synaptic structure and function. This study reinforces the evidence that targeting by FMRP captures a subpopulation of genes enriched for genetic association with a range of psychiatric disorders.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959868

RESUMO

Many medical treatments, from oncology to psychiatry, can lower white blood cell counts and thus access to these treatments can be restricted to individuals with normal levels of white blood cells, principally in order to minimise risk of serious infection. This adversely affects individuals of African or Middle Eastern ancestries who have on average a reduced number of circulating white blood cells, due to the Duffy-null (CC) genotype at rs2814778 in the ACKR1 gene. Here, we investigate whether the Duffy-null genotype is associated with the risk of infection using the UK Biobank sample and the iPSYCH Danish case-cohort study, two population-based samples from different countries and age ranges. We found that a high proportion of those with the Duffy-null genotype (21%) had a neutrophil count below the threshold often used as a cut-off for access to relevant treatments, compared to 1% of those with the TC/TT genotype. In addition we found that despite its strong association with lower average neutrophil counts, the Duffy-null genotype was not associated with an increased risk of infection, viral or bacterial. These results have widespread implications for the clinical treatment of individuals of African ancestry and indicate that that neutrophil thresholds to access treatments could be lowered in individuals with the Duffy-null genotype without an increased risk of infection.

3.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2000360, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935908

RESUMO

Many of the applications of the most familiar silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), are a consequence of its hydrophobic nature. The key quantities underlying this behavior are the water contact angle with water droplets, the surface tension of the polymer, and its interfacial tension with water. These quantities are reviewed for PDMS and the fluorsilicone polymethyltrifluoropropylsiloxane (PMTFPS) as well as some other less common, more highly fluorinated, fluorosilicones. As aliphatic fluorocarbons are usually introduced into polymers to lower surface tension, it is unexpected that the surface tension of PMTFPS is higher than PDMS. However, this observation is consistent with Zisman's early extensive studies. It is also somewhat surprising that there are no definitive values accepted for the water contact angle with PDMS and the interfacial tension at the PDMS/water interface. Some reasons for this are explored and relevant limitations considered. The variety of ways in which a PDMS surface can be presented must have a major effect on the range of water contact angles reported.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 324, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958742

RESUMO

Rare copy number variants associated with increased risk for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (referred to as ND-CNVs) are characterized by heterogeneous phenotypes thought to share a considerable degree of overlap. Altered neural integration has often been linked to psychopathology and is a candidate marker for potential convergent mechanisms through which ND-CNVs modify risk; however, the rarity of ND-CNVs means that few studies have assessed their neural correlates. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate resting-state oscillatory connectivity in a cohort of 42 adults with ND-CNVs, including deletions or duplications at 22q11.2, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 17q12, 1q21.1, 3q29, and 2p16.3, and 42 controls. We observed decreased connectivity between occipital, temporal, and parietal areas in participants with ND-CNVs. This pattern was common across genotypes and not exclusively characteristic of 22q11.2 deletions, which were present in a third of our cohort. Furthermore, a data-driven graph theory framework enabled us to successfully distinguish participants with ND-CNVs from unaffected controls using differences in node centrality and network segregation. Together, our results point to alterations in electrophysiological connectivity as a putative common mechanism through which genetic factors confer increased risk for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders.

5.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

6.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of genomic conditions caused by copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with a high risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (ND-CNVs). Although these patients also tend to have cognitive impairments, few studies have investigated the range of emotion and behaviour problems in young people with ND-CNVs using measures that are suitable for those with learning difficulties. METHODS: A total of 322 young people with 13 ND-CNVs across eight loci (mean age: 9.79 years, range: 6.02-17.91, 66.5% male) took part in the study. Primary carers completed the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC). RESULTS: Of the total, 69% of individuals with an ND-CNV screened positive for clinically significant difficulties. Young people from families with higher incomes (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.55-0.91, p = .008) were less likely to screen positive. The rate of difficulties differed depending on ND-CNV genotype (χ2 = 39.99, p < 0.001), with the lowest rate in young people with 22q11.2 deletion (45.7%) and the highest in those with 1q21.1 deletion (93.8%). Specific patterns of strengths and weaknesses were found for different ND-CNV genotypes. However, ND-CNV genotype explained no more than 9-16% of the variance, depending on DBC subdomain. CONCLUSIONS: Emotion and behaviour problems are common in young people with ND-CNVs. The ND-CNV specific patterns we find can provide a basis for more tailored support. More research is needed to better understand the variation in emotion and behaviour problems not accounted for by genotype.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not clear to what extent associations between schizophrenia, cannabis use and cigarette use are due to a shared genetic etiology. We, therefore, examined whether schizophrenia genetic risk associates with longitudinal patterns of cigarette and cannabis use in adolescence and mediating pathways for any association to inform potential reduction strategies. METHODS: Associations between schizophrenia polygenic scores and longitudinal latent classes of cigarette and cannabis use from ages 14 to 19 years were investigated in up to 3925 individuals in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mediation models were estimated to assess the potential mediating effects of a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes. RESULTS: The schizophrenia polygenic score, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms meeting a training-set p threshold of 0.05, was associated with late-onset cannabis use (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.08,1.41), but not with cigarette or early-onset cannabis use classes. This association was not mediated through lower IQ, victimization, emotional difficulties, antisocial behavior, impulsivity, or poorer social relationships during childhood. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for genetic liability to cannabis or cigarette use, using polygenic scores excluding the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster, or basing scores on a 0.5 training-set p threshold, provided results consistent with our main analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with patterns of cannabis use during adolescence. Investigation of pathways other than the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes examined here is required to identify modifiable targets to reduce the public health burden of cannabis use in the population.

8.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 360-369, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578352

RESUMO

Schizophrenia shows a genetic correlation with both anxiety disorder and neuroticism, a trait strongly associated with anxiety. However, genetic correlations do not discern causality from genetic confounding. We therefore aimed to investigate whether anxiety-related phenotypes lie on the causal pathway to schizophrenia using Mendelian randomization (MR). Four MR methods, each with different assumptions regarding instrument validity, were used to investigate casual associations of anxiety and neuroticism related phenotypes on schizophrenia, and vice versa: inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, weighted mode, and, when appropriate, MR Egger regression. MR provided evidence of a causal effect of neuroticism on schizophrenia (IVW odds ratio [OR]: 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.59), but only weak evidence of a causal effect of anxiety on schizophrenia (IVW OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19). There was also evidence of a causal association from schizophrenia liability to anxiety disorder (IVW OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.39) and worry (IVW beta: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.03-0.07), but effect estimates from schizophrenia to neuroticism were inconsistent in the main analysis. The evidence of neuroticism increasing schizophrenia risk provided by our results supports future efforts to evaluate neuroticism- or anxiety-based therapies to prevent onset of psychotic disorders.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 135, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398668

RESUMO

Recent case-control genetic studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have implicated common and rare genetic risk alleles, highlighting the polygenic and complex aetiology of this neurodevelopmental disorder. Studies of other neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Tourette disorder, developmental delay/intellectual disability and schizophrenia indicate that identification of specific risk alleles and additional insights into disorder biology can be gained by studying non-inherited de novo variation. In this study, we aimed to identify large de novo copy number variants (CNVs) in children with ADHD. Children with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD and their parents were genotyped and included in this sample. We used PennCNV to call large (>200 kb) CNVs and identified those calls that were present in the proband and absent in both biological parents. In 305 parent-offspring trios, we detected 14 de novo CNVs in 13 probands, giving a mutation rate of 4.6% and a per individual rate of 4.3%. This rate is higher than published reports in controls and similar to those observed for ASD, schizophrenia and Tourette disorder. We also identified de novo mutations at four genomic loci (15q13.1-13.2 duplication, 16p13.11 duplication, 16p12.2 deletion and 22q11.21 duplication) that have previously been implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders, two of which (16p13.11 and 22q11.21) have also been implicated in case-control ADHD studies. Our study complements ADHD case-control genomic analyses and demonstrates the need for larger parent-offspring trio genetic studies to gain further insights into the complex aetiology of ADHD.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398722

RESUMO

Substantial genetic liability is shared across psychiatric disorders but less is known about risk variants that are specific to a given disorder. We used multi-trait conditional and joint analysis (mtCOJO) to adjust GWAS summary statistics of one disorder for the effects of genetically correlated traits to identify putative disorder-specific SNP associations. We applied mtCOJO to summary statistics for five psychiatric disorders from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression (MD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism (AUT). Most genome-wide significant variants for these disorders had evidence of pleiotropy (i.e., impact on multiple psychiatric disorders) and hence have reduced mtCOJO conditional effect sizes. However, subsets of genome-wide significant variants had larger conditional effect sizes consistent with disorder-specific effects: 15 of 130 genome-wide significant variants for schizophrenia, 5 of 40 for major depression, 3 of 11 for ADHD and 1 of 2 for autism. We show that decreased expression of VPS29 in the brain may increase risk to SCZ only and increased expression of CSE1L is associated with SCZ and MD, but not with BIP. Likewise, decreased expression of PCDHA7 in the brain is linked to increased risk of MD but decreased risk of SCZ and BIP.

12.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 43, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349784

RESUMO

The primary aim of precision medicine is to tailor healthcare more closely to the needs of individual patients. This requires progress in two areas: the development of more precise treatments and the ability to identify patients or groups of patients in the clinic for whom such treatments are likely to be the most effective. There is widespread optimism that advances in genomics will facilitate both of these endeavors. It can be argued that of all medical specialties psychiatry has most to gain in these respects, given its current reliance on syndromic diagnoses, the minimal foundation of existing mechanistic knowledge, and the substantial heritability of psychiatric phenotypes. Here, we review recent advances in psychiatric genomics and assess the likely impact of these findings on attempts to develop precision psychiatry. Emerging findings indicate a high degree of polygenicity and that genetic risk maps poorly onto the diagnostic categories used in the clinic. The highly polygenic and pleiotropic nature of psychiatric genetics will impact attempts to use genomic data for prediction and risk stratification, and also poses substantial challenges for conventional approaches to gaining biological insights from genetic findings. While there are many challenges to overcome, genomics is building an empirical platform upon which psychiatry can now progress towards better understanding of disease mechanisms, better treatments, and better ways of targeting treatments to the patients most likely to benefit, thus paving the way for precision psychiatry.

13.
Schizophr Res ; 222: 389-396, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which the causal relations between risk genes and observed clinical symptoms are not well understood and the explanatory gap is too wide to be clarified without considering an intermediary level. Thus, we aimed to test the hypothesis of a pathway from molecular polygenic influence to clinical presentation occurring via deficits in reinforcement learning. METHODS: We administered a reinforcement learning task (Go/NoGo) that measures reinforcement learning and the effect of Pavlovian bias on decision making. We modelled the behavioural data with a hierarchical Bayesian approach (hBayesDM) to decompose task performance into its underlying learning mechanisms. Study 1 included controls (n = 29, F|M = 0.81), At Risk Mental State for psychosis (ARMS, n = 23, F|M = 0.35) and FEP (First-episode psychosis, n = 26, F|M = 0.18). Study 2 included healthy adolescents (n = 735, F|M = 1.06), 390 of whom had their polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (PRSs) calculated. RESULTS: Patients with FEP showed significant impairments in overriding Pavlovian conflict, a lower learning rate and a lower sensitivity to both reward and punishment. Less widespread deficits were observed in ARMS. PRSs did not significantly predict performance on the task in the general population, which only partially correlated with measures of psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Reinforcement learning deficits are observed in first episode psychosis and, to some extent, in those at clinical risk for psychosis, and were not predicted by molecular genetic risk for schizophrenia in healthy individuals. The study does not support the role of reinforcement learning as an intermediate phenotype in psychosis.

14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366953

RESUMO

The majority of common risk alleles identified for neuropsychiatric disorders reside in noncoding regions of the genome and are therefore likely to impact gene regulation. However, the genes that are primarily affected and the nature and developmental timing of these effects remain unclear. Given the hypothesized role for early neurodevelopmental processes in these conditions, we here define genetic predictors of gene expression in the human fetal brain with which we perform transcriptome-wide association studies (TWASs) of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. We identify prenatal cis-regulatory effects on 63 genes and 166 individual transcripts associated with genetic risk for these conditions. We observe pleiotropic effects of expression predictors for a number of genes and transcripts, including those of decreased DDHD2 expression in association with risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, increased expression of a ST3GAL3 transcript with risk for schizophrenia and ADHD, and increased expression of an XPNPEP3 transcript with risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. For the protocadherin alpha cluster genes PCDHA7 and PCDHA8, we find that predictors of low expression are associated with risk for major depressive disorder while those of higher expression are associated with risk for schizophrenia. Our findings support a role for altered gene regulation in the prenatal brain in susceptibility to various neuropsychiatric disorders and prioritize potential risk genes for further neurobiological investigation.

15.
Schizophr Res ; 220: 130-140, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249120

RESUMO

We investigated whether associations between area deprivation, urbanicity and elevated risk of severe mental illnesses (SMIs, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) is accounted for by social drift or social causation. We extracted primary and secondary care electronic health records from 2004 to 2015 from a population of 3.9 million. We identified prevalent and incident individuals with SMIs and their level of deprivation and urbanicity using the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD) and urban/rural indicator. The presence of social drift was determined by whether odds ratios (ORs) from logistic regression is greater than the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from Poisson regression. Additionally, we performed longitudinal analysis to measure the proportion of change in deprivation level and rural/urban residence 10 years after an incident diagnosis of SMI and compared it to the general population using standardised rate ratios (SRRs). Prevalence and incidence of SMIs were significantly associated with deprivation and urbanicity (all ORs and IRRs significantly >1). ORs and IRRs were similar across all conditions and cohorts (ranging from 1.1 to 1.4). Results from the longitudinal analysis showed individuals with SMIs are more likely to move compared to the general population. However, they did not preferentially move to more deprived or urban areas. There was little evidence of downward social drift over a 10-year period. These findings have implications for the allocation of resources, service configuration and access to services in deprived communities, as well as, for broader public health interventions addressing poverty, and social and environmental contexts.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 51, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066663

RESUMO

Motivated by observational studies that report associations between schizophrenia and traits, such as poor diet, increased body mass index and metabolic disease, we investigated the genetic contribution to dietary intake in a sample of 335,576 individuals from the UK Biobank study. A principal component analysis applied to diet question item responses generated two components: Diet Component 1 (DC1) represented a meat-related diet and Diet Component 2 (DC2) a fish and plant-related diet. Genome-wide association analysis identified 29 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with DC1 and 63 SNPs with DC2. Estimated from over 35,000 3rd-degree relative pairs that are unlikely to share close family environments, heritabilities for both DC1 and DC2 were 0.16 (standard error (s.e.) = 0.05). SNP-based heritability was 0.06 (s.e. = 0.003) for DC1 and 0.08 (s.e = 0.004) for DC2. We estimated significant genetic correlations between both DCs and schizophrenia, and several other traits. Mendelian randomisation analyses indicated a negative uni-directional relationship between liability to schizophrenia and tendency towards selecting a meat-based diet (which could be direct or via unidentified correlated variables), but a bi-directional relationship between liability to schizophrenia and tendency towards selecting a fish and plant-based diet consistent with genetic pleiotropy.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 53, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066691

RESUMO

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with high risk of psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment. It remains unclear to what extent key cognitive skills are associated with psychopathology, and whether cognition is stable over time in 22q11.2DS. 236 children, adolescents and adults with 22q11.2DS and 106 typically developing controls were recruited from three sites across Europe. Measures of IQ, processing speed, sustained attention, spatial working memory and psychiatric assessments were completed. Cognitive performance in individuals was calculated relative to controls in different age groups (children (6-9 years), adolescents (10-17 years), adults (18+ years)). Individuals with 22q11.2DS exhibited cognitive impairment and higher rates of psychiatric disorders compared to typically developing controls. Presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms was associated with greater deficits in processing speed, sustained attention and working memory in adolescents but not children. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents and psychotic disorder in adulthood was associated with sustained attention impairment. Processing speed and working memory were more impaired in children and adults with 22q11.2DS respectively, whereas the deficit in sustained attention was present from childhood and remained static over developmental stages. Psychopathology was associated with cognitive profile of individuals with 22q11.2DS in an age-specific and domain-specific manner. Furthermore, magnitude of cognitive impairment differed by developmental stage in 22q11.2DS and the pattern differed by domain.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015465

RESUMO

Schizophrenia occurs in about one in four individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). The aim of this International Brain and Behavior 22q11.2DS Consortium (IBBC) study was to identify genetic factors that contribute to schizophrenia, in addition to the ~20-fold increased risk conveyed by the 22q11.2 deletion. Using whole-genome sequencing data from 519 unrelated individuals with 22q11.2DS, we conducted genome-wide comparisons of common and rare variants between those with schizophrenia and those with no psychotic disorder at age ≥25 years. Available microarray data enabled direct comparison of polygenic risk for schizophrenia between 22q11.2DS and independent population samples with no 22q11.2 deletion, with and without schizophrenia (total n = 35,182). Polygenic risk for schizophrenia within 22q11.2DS was significantly greater for those with schizophrenia (padj = 6.73 × 10-6). Novel reciprocal case-control comparisons between the 22q11.2DS and population-based cohorts showed that polygenic risk score was significantly greater in individuals with psychotic illness, regardless of the presence of the 22q11.2 deletion. Within the 22q11.2DS cohort, results of gene-set analyses showed some support for rare variants affecting synaptic genes. No common or rare variants within the 22q11.2 deletion region were significantly associated with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that in addition to the deletion conferring a greatly increased risk to schizophrenia, the risk is higher when the 22q11.2 deletion and common polygenic risk factors that contribute to schizophrenia in the general population are both present.

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