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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019943

RESUMO

Importance: About 20% to 30% of people with schizophrenia have psychotic symptoms that do not respond adequately to first-line antipsychotic treatment. This clinical presentation, chronic and highly disabling, is known as treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). The causes of treatment resistance and their relationships with causes underlying schizophrenia are largely unknown. Adequately powered genetic studies of TRS are scarce because of the difficulty in collecting data from well-characterized TRS cohorts. Objective: To examine the genetic architecture of TRS through the reassessment of genetic data from schizophrenia studies and its validation in carefully ascertained clinical samples. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two case-control genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia were performed in which the case samples were defined as individuals with TRS (n = 10 501) and individuals with non-TRS (n = 20 325). The differences in effect sizes for allelic associations were then determined between both studies, the reasoning being such differences reflect treatment resistance instead of schizophrenia. Genotype data were retrieved from the CLOZUK and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) schizophrenia studies. The output was validated using polygenic risk score (PRS) profiling of 2 independent schizophrenia cohorts with TRS and non-TRS: a prevalence sample with 817 individuals (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia [CardiffCOGS]) and an incidence sample with 563 individuals (Genetics Workstream of the Schizophrenia Treatment Resistance and Therapeutic Advances [STRATA-G]). Main Outcomes and Measures: GWAS of treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The results of the GWAS were compared with complex polygenic traits through a genetic correlation approach and were used for PRS analysis on the independent validation cohorts using the same TRS definition. Results: The study included a total of 85 490 participants (48 635 [56.9%] male) in its GWAS stage and 1380 participants (859 [62.2%] male) in its PRS validation stage. Treatment resistance in schizophrenia emerged as a polygenic trait with detectable heritability (1% to 4%), and several traits related to intelligence and cognition were found to be genetically correlated with it (genetic correlation, 0.41-0.69). PRS analysis in the CardiffCOGS prevalence sample showed a positive association between TRS and a history of taking clozapine (r2 = 2.03%; P = .001), which was replicated in the STRATA-G incidence sample (r2 = 1.09%; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this GWAS, common genetic variants were differentially associated with TRS, and these associations may have been obscured through the amalgamation of large GWAS samples in previous studies of broadly defined schizophrenia. Findings of this study suggest the validity of meta-analytic approaches for studies on patient outcomes, including treatment resistance.

2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 99: 70-82, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543680

RESUMO

Complement is a key component of the immune system with roles in inflammation and host-defence. Here we reveal novel functions of complement pathways impacting on emotional reactivity of potential relevance to the emerging links between complement and risk for psychiatric disorder. We used mouse models to assess the effects of manipulating components of the complement system on emotionality. Mice lacking the complement C3a Receptor (C3aR-/-) demonstrated a selective increase in unconditioned (innate) anxiety whilst mice deficient in the central complement component C3 (C3-/-) showed a selective increase in conditioned (learned) fear. The dissociable behavioural phenotypes were linked to different signalling mechanisms. Effects on innate anxiety were independent of C3a, the canonical ligand for C3aR, consistent with the existence of an alternative ligand mediating innate anxiety, whereas effects on learned fear were due to loss of iC3b/CR3 signalling. Our findings show that specific elements of the complement system and associated signalling pathways contribute differentially to heightened states of anxiety and fear commonly seen in psychopathology.

3.
Biophys J ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798138

RESUMO

Gangliosides form an important class of receptor lipids containing a large oligosaccharide headgroup whose ability to self-organize within lipid membranes results in the formation of nanoscopic platforms. Despite their biological importance, the molecular basis for the nanoscopic segregation of gangliosides is not clear. In this work, we investigated the role of the ganglioside headgroup on the nanoscale organization of gangliosides. We studied the effect of the reduction in the number of sugar units of the ganglioside oligosaccharide chain on the ability of gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3 to spontaneously self-organize into lipid nanodomains. To reach nanoscopic resolution and to identify molecular forces that drive ganglioside segregation, we combined an experimental technique, Förster resonance energy transfer analyzed by Monte-Carlo simulations offering high lateral and trans-bilayer resolution with molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the ganglioside headgroup plays a key role in ganglioside self-assembly despite the negative charge of the sialic acid group. The nanodomains range from 7 to 120 nm in radius and are mostly composed of the surrounding bulk lipids, with gangliosides being a minor component of the nanodomains. The interactions between gangliosides are dominated by the hydrogen bonding network between the headgroups, which facilitates ganglioside clustering. The N-acetylgalactosamine sugar moiety of GM2, however, seems to impair the stability of these clusters by disrupting hydrogen bonding of neighboring sugars, which is in agreement with a broad size distribution of GM2 nanodomains. The simulations suggest that the formation of nanodomains is likely accompanied by several conformational changes in the gangliosides, which, however, have little impact on the solvent exposure of these receptor groups. Overall, this work identifies the key physicochemical factors that drive nanoscopic segregation of gangliosides.

4.
5.
Neuron ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619094

RESUMO

Psychiatric genomics is providing insights into the nature of psychiatric conditions that in time should identify new drug targets and improve patient care. Less attention has been paid to psychiatric pharmacogenomics research, despite its potential to deliver more rapid change in clinical practice and patient outcomes. The pharmacogenomics of treatment response encapsulates both pharmacokinetic ("what the body does to a drug") and pharmacodynamic ("what the drug does to the body") effects. Despite early optimism and substantial research in both these areas, they have to date made little impact on clinical management in psychiatry. A number of bottlenecks have hampered progress, including a lack of large-scale replication studies, inconsistencies in defining valid treatment outcomes across experiments, a failure to routinely incorporate adverse drug reactions and serum metabolite monitoring in study designs, and inadequate investment in the longitudinal data collections required to demonstrate clinical utility. Nonetheless, advances in genomics and health informatics present distinct opportunities for psychiatric pharmacogenomics to enter a new and productive phase of research discovery and translation.

6.
Open Biol ; 11(10): 210222, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610267

RESUMO

Our notions of protein function have long been determined by the protein structure-function paradigm. However, the idea that protein function is dictated by a prerequisite complementarity of shapes at the binding interface is becoming increasingly challenged. Interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) have indicated a significant degree of disorder present in the bound state, ranging from static disorder to complete disorder, termed 'random fuzziness'. This review assesses the anatomy of an IDP and relates how its intrinsic properties permit promiscuity and allow for the various modes of interaction. Furthermore, a mechanistic overview of the types of disordered domains is detailed, while also relating to a recent example and the kinetic and thermodynamic principles governing its formation.

7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(12): 1045-1052, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For more than 150 years, controversy over the status of post-partum psychosis has hindered research and caused considerable confusion for clinicians and women, with potentially negative consequences. We aimed to explore the hypothesis that genetic vulnerability differs between women with first-onset post-partum psychosis and those with bipolar disorder more generally. METHODS: In this case-control study on first-onset post-partum psychosis and bipolar disorder in the UK, we included 203 women with first-onset post-partum psychosis (defined as a manic, mixed, or psychotic depression episode within 6 weeks of delivery without a psychiatric history) and 1225 parous women with a history of bipolar disorder. Information on women with bipolar disorder was obtained from the Bipolar Disorder Research Network database, and participants were recruited through screening community mental health teams across the UK and via the media and patient support organisations. All were assessed using a semistructured face-to-face psychiatric interview and psychiatric case note review. 2809 women from the general population were recruited via the national UK Blood Services and the 1958 Birth Cohort (UK National Child Development Study) as controls and matched to cases according to genetic ancestry. All self-reported their ethnicity as White and were recruited from across the UK. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were generated from discovery genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Logistic regression was used to model the effect of each PRS on diagnosis, and the RRs and ORs presented were adjusted for ten principal components of genetic variation to account for population stratification. FINDINGS: 203 women with first-onset post-partum psychosis (median age at interview: 46 years [IQR 37-55]) and 1225 women with bipolar disorder (49 years [41-58]) were recruited between September, 1991, and May, 2013, as well as 2809 controls. Women with first-onset post-partum psychosis had similar bipolar disorder and schizophrenia PRSs to women with bipolar disorder, which were significantly higher than those of controls. When compared with controls, women with first-onset post-partum psychosis had an adjusted relative risk ratio (RR) for bipolar disorder PRSs of 1·71 (95% CI 1·56-1·86, p<0·0001) and for schizophrenia PRSs of 1·82 (1·66-1·97, p<0·0001). The effect sizes were similar when comparing women with bipolar disorder to controls (adjusted RR 1·77 [1·69-1·84], p<0·0001 for bipolar disorder PRSs; 2·00 (1·92-2·08), p<0·0001 for schizophrenia PRSs). Although women with bipolar disorder also had higher major depression PRSs than did controls (1·24 [1·17-1·31], p<0·0001), women with first-onset post-partum psychosis did not differ from controls in their polygenic liability to major depression (0·97 (0·82-1·11), p=0·63). INTERPRETATION: Our study supports the recognition of first-onset post-partum psychosis as a separate nosological entity within the bipolar disorder spectrum both in research and clinical settings. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Puerperais/genética , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Reino Unido
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5353, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504065

RESUMO

People with schizophrenia are enriched for rare coding variants in genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. However, it is unclear if the same changes to gene function that increase risk to neurodevelopmental disorders also do so for schizophrenia. Using data from 3444 schizophrenia trios and 37,488 neurodevelopmental disorder trios, we show that within shared risk genes, de novo variants in schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental disorders are generally of the same functional category, and that specific de novo variants observed in neurodevelopmental disorders are enriched in schizophrenia (P = 5.0 × 10-6). The latter includes variants known to be pathogenic for syndromic disorders, suggesting that schizophrenia be included as a characteristic of those syndromes. Our findings imply that, in part, neurodevelopmental disorders and schizophrenia have shared molecular aetiology, and therefore likely overlapping pathophysiology, and support the hypothesis that at least some forms of schizophrenia lie on a continuum of neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Linhagem
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544868

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that the neuronal cell membrane is the main site of oligomer-mediated neuronal toxicity of amyloid-ß peptides in Alzheimer's disease. To gain a detailed understanding of the mutual interference of amyloid-ß oligomers and the neuronal membrane, we carried out microseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the dimerization of amyloid-ß (Aß)42 in the aqueous phase and in the presence of a lipid bilayer mimicking the in vivo composition of neuronal membranes. The dimerization in solution is characterized by a random coil to ß-sheet transition that seems on pathway to amyloid aggregation, while the interactions with the neuronal membrane decrease the order of the Aß42 dimer by attenuating its propensity to form a ß-sheet structure. The main lipid interaction partners of Aß42 are the surface-exposed sugar groups of the gangliosides GM1. As the neurotoxic activity of amyloid oligomers increases with oligomer order, these results suggest that GM1 is neuroprotective against Aß-mediated toxicity.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Amiloide/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Gangliosídeo G(M1)/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Humanos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
10.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(10): 1143-1151, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347035

RESUMO

Importance: Schizophrenia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. It is currently unclear how variability in symptom dimensions and cognitive ability is associated with genetic liability for schizophrenia. Objective: To determine whether phenotypic dimensions within schizophrenia are associated with genetic liability to schizophrenia, other neuropsychiatric disorders, and intelligence. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a genetic association study, 3 cross-sectional samples of 1220 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited from community, inpatient, and voluntary sector mental health services across the UK. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to create phenotypic dimensions from lifetime ratings of the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Analyses of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were used to assess whether genetic liability to schizophrenia, other neuropsychiatric disorders, and intelligence were associated with these phenotypic dimensions. Data collection for the cross-sectional studies occurred between 1993 and 2016. Data analysis for this study occurred between January 2019 and March 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcome measures included phenotypic dimensions defined from confirmatory factor analysis relating to positive symptoms, negative symptoms of diminished expressivity, negative symptoms of motivation and pleasure, disorganized symptoms, and current cognitive ability. Exposure measures included PRSs for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and intelligence. Results: Of the 1220 study participants, 817 were men (67.0%). Participants' mean (SD) age at interview was 43.10 (12.74) years. Schizophrenia PRS was associated with increased disorganized symptom dimension scores in both a 5-factor model (ß = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.07-0.22; P = 2.80 × 10-4) and a 3-factor model across all samples (ß = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05-0.15; P = 2.80 × 10-4). Current cognitive ability was associated with genetic liability to schizophrenia (ß = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.04; P = 1.63 × 10-3) and intelligence (ß = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.16-0.30; P = 1.52 × 10-10). After controlling for estimated premorbid IQ, current cognitive performance was associated with schizophrenia PRS (ß = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.14 to -0.02; P = 8.50 × 10-3) but not intelligence PRS. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that genetic liability for schizophrenia is associated with higher disorganized dimension scores but not other symptom dimensions. Cognitive performance in schizophrenia appears to reflect distinct contributions from genetic liabilities to both intelligence and schizophrenia.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 399, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285187

RESUMO

Many copy number variants (CNVs) confer risk for the same range of neurodevelopmental symptoms and psychiatric conditions including autism and schizophrenia. Yet, to date neuroimaging studies have typically been carried out one mutation at a time, showing that CNVs have large effects on brain anatomy. Here, we aimed to characterize and quantify the distinct brain morphometry effects and latent dimensions across 8 neuropsychiatric CNVs. We analyzed T1-weighted MRI data from clinically and non-clinically ascertained CNV carriers (deletion/duplication) at the 1q21.1 (n = 39/28), 16p11.2 (n = 87/78), 22q11.2 (n = 75/30), and 15q11.2 (n = 72/76) loci as well as 1296 non-carriers (controls). Case-control contrasts of all examined genomic loci demonstrated effects on brain anatomy, with deletions and duplications showing mirror effects at the global and regional levels. Although CNVs mainly showed distinct brain patterns, principal component analysis (PCA) loaded subsets of CNVs on two latent brain dimensions, which explained 32 and 29% of the variance of the 8 Cohen's d maps. The cingulate gyrus, insula, supplementary motor cortex, and cerebellum were identified by PCA and multi-view pattern learning as top regions contributing to latent dimension shared across subsets of CNVs. The large proportion of distinct CNV effects on brain morphology may explain the small neuroimaging effect sizes reported in polygenic psychiatric conditions. Nevertheless, latent gene brain morphology dimensions will help subgroup the rapidly expanding landscape of neuropsychiatric variants and dissect the heterogeneity of idiopathic conditions.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/genética
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112971

RESUMO

Copy Number Variation (CNV) at the 1q21.1 locus is associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in humans, including abnormalities in head size and motor deficits. Yet, the functional consequences of these CNVs (both deletion and duplication) on neuronal development remain unknown. To determine the impact of CNV at the 1q21.1 locus on neuronal development, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells from individuals harbouring 1q21.1 deletion or duplication and differentiated them into functional cortical neurons. We show that neurons with 1q21.1 deletion or duplication display reciprocal phenotype with respect to proliferation, differentiation potential, neuronal maturation, synaptic density and functional activity. Deletion of the 1q21.1 locus was also associated with an increased expression of lower cortical layer markers. This difference was conserved in the mouse model of 1q21.1 deletion, which displayed altered corticogenesis. Importantly, we show that neurons with 1q21.1 deletion and duplication are associated with differential expression of calcium channels and demonstrate that physiological deficits in neurons with 1q21.1 deletion or duplication can be pharmacologically modulated by targeting Ca2+ channel activity. These findings provide biological insight into the neuropathological mechanism underlying 1q21.1 associated brain disorder and indicate a potential target for therapeutic interventions.

15.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 658734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959025

RESUMO

Up to one-third of those with schizophrenia fail to respond to standard antipsychotics and are considered to have treatment-resistant schizophrenia, a condition for which clozapine is the only evidence-based medication. While up to 60% of treated individuals obtain therapeutic benefits from clozapine, it is currently underprescribed worldwide, partly because of concerns related to its broad adverse effect profile. In particular, the potential effects of clozapine on the immune system have gained relevance after a recent study showed that drug plasma concentrations were inversely correlated with neutrophil counts in individuals routinely undergoing treatment. Seeking to investigate this relationship in more detail, we extracted metabolic, immune, and genetic data from a UK cohort of long-term clozapine users linked to a clozapine monitoring service, CLOZUK2 (N = 208). Whilst a correlation analysis was compatible with the original results, a multiple linear regression accounting for dose and other confounding factors additionally allowed us to estimate the decrease in absolute neutrophil counts to approximately 141 cells/mm3 for every 0.1 mg/L increase in clozapine concentration. However, this association was attenuated after controlling for the metabolic ratio between clozapine and its main metabolite, norclozapine, which was itself negatively associated with neutrophil concentrations. Further analyses revealed that these relationships are likely moderated by genetic factors, as three pharmacogenomic SNPs previously associated to norclozapine plasma concentrations and the metabolic ratio (rs61750900, rs2011425 and rs1126545) were shown to be independently associated with a variation in neutrophil counts of about 400 cells/mm3 per effect allele. Such results are compatible with an effect of norclozapine, but not necessarily clozapine, on immune cell counts, and highlight the need for further investigations into the potential role of genetic determinants of clozapine pharmacokinetics in the occurrence of adverse effects during treatment.

16.
Biol Psychiatry ; 90(6): 399-408, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent breakthroughs in psychiatric genetics have implicated biological pathways onto which genetic risk for psychiatric disorders converges. However, these studies do not reveal the developmental time point(s) at which these pathways are relevant. METHODS: We aimed to determine the relationship between psychiatric risk and developmental gene expression relating to discrete biological pathways. We used postmortem RNA sequencing data (BrainSeq and BrainSpan) from brain tissue at multiple prenatal and postnatal time points, with summary statistics from recent genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. We prioritized gene sets for overall enrichment of association with each disorder and then tested the relationship between the association of their constituent genes with their relative expression at each developmental stage. RESULTS: We observed relationships between the expression of genes involved in voltage-gated cation channel activity during early midfetal, adolescence, and early adulthood time points and association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, such that genes more strongly associated with these disorders had relatively low expression during early midfetal development and higher expression during adolescence and early adulthood. The relationship with schizophrenia was strongest for the subset of genes related to calcium channel activity, while for bipolar disorder, the relationship was distributed between calcium and potassium channel activity genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate periods during development when biological pathways related to the activity of calcium and potassium channels may be most vulnerable to the effects of genetic variants conferring risk for psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, they indicate key time points and potential targets for disorder-specific therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Cátions , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética
17.
J Ment Health ; : 1, 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966571
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981004

RESUMO

Dopaminergic dysregulation is one of the leading hypotheses for the pathoetiology underlying psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Molecular imaging studies have shown increased striatal dopamine synthesis capacity (DSC) in schizophrenia and people in the prodrome of psychosis. However, it is unclear if genetic risk for psychosis is associated with altered DSC. To investigate this, we recruited healthy controls and two antipsychotic naive groups of individuals with copy number variants, one with a genetic deletion at chromosome 22q11.2, and the other with a duplication at the same locus, who are at increased and decreased risk for psychosis, respectively. Fifty-nine individuals (21 with 22q11.2 deletion, 12 with the reciprocal duplication and 26 healthy controls) received clinical measures and [18F]-DOPA PET imaging to index striatal Kicer. There was an inverse linear effect of copy number variant number on striatal Kicer value (B = -1.2 × 10-3, SE = 2 × 10-4, p < 0.001), with controls showing levels intermediate between the two variant groups. Striatal Kicer was significantly higher in the 22q11.2 deletion group compared to the healthy control (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.44) and 22q11.2 duplication (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 2) groups. Moreover, Kicer was positively correlated with the severity of psychosis-risk symptoms (B = 730.5, SE = 310.2, p < 0.05) and increased over time in the subject who went on to develop psychosis, but was not associated with anxiety or depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that genetic risk for psychosis is associated with dopaminergic dysfunction and identify dopamine synthesis as a potential target for treatment or prevention of psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion carriers.

19.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987677

RESUMO

Ursini et al reported recently that the liability of schizophrenia explained by a polygenic risk score (PRS) derived from the variants most associated with schizophrenia was increased 5-fold in individuals who experienced complications during pregnancy or birth. Follow-up gene expression analysis showed that the genes mapping to the most associated genetic variants are highly expressed in placental tissues. If confirmed, these findings will have major implications in our understanding of the joint effect of genes and environment in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We examined the interplay between PRS and obstetric complications (OCs) in 5 independent samples (effective N = 2110). OCs were assessed with the full or modified Lewis-Murray scale, or with birth weight < 2.5 kg as a proxy. In a large cohort we tested whether the pathways from placenta-relevant variants in the original report were associated with case-control status. Unlike in the original study, we did not find significant effect of PRS on the presence of OCs in cases, nor a substantial difference in the association of PRS with case-control status in samples stratified by the presence of OCs. Furthermore, none of the PRS by OCs interactions were significant, nor were any of the biological pathways, examined in the Swedish cohort. Our study could not support the hypothesis of a mediating effect of placenta biology in the pathway from genes to schizophrenia. Methodology differences, in particular the different scales measuring OCs, as well as power constraints for interaction analyses in both studies, may explain this discrepancy.

20.
World Psychiatry ; 20(2): 294-295, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002520
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