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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(8): 899-908, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896884

RESUMO

Background: Quality of life is defined as the subjective perception of one's own well-being within a sociocultural context. SF-36 is commonly used to check the health status of the general population in many countries. Aims: To validate the Persian (Dari) version of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in Herat. Methods: The Persian (Dari) version of SF-36 was culturally adapted. A total of 1259 healthy individuals aged ≥ 18 years participated in the study between November 2016 and April 2017. Construct validity of SF-36 was evaluated through exploratory factor analysis. The extraction was performed by principal component analysis from the polychoric correlation matrix estimated by a 2-step method with varimax rotation. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed by Cronbach's α SPSS version 23.0 and R version 3.1.3 were used in the analysis. Results: The last version of SF-36 including 27 items in 8 factors explained 86.48% of the variance. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was 0.391 and Bartlett's test showed statistical significance (P < 0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model demonstrated good fit statistics (P < 0.001), root mean square error of approximation=0.056, goodness-of-fit index=0.963, and adjusted goodness-of-fit index=0.953). Cronbach's α for the 8 subscales was 0.753-0.933. All subscales of SF-36 had good internal consistency reliability and good test-retest reliability. Conclusions: We showed that our Dari version of SF-36 is suitable to evaluate quality of life in adults in Herat City. This scale will be useful for health researchers in the future.

2.
Child Care Health Dev ; 46(5): 637-643, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468611

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to provide current information on the eating disorders, needs and confronted problems of children with disabilities during their school hours at primary schools. BACKGROUND: Eating disorders and needs of disabled children are important in their participation in school life, cognition, and academic achievement. RESULTS: In this study, It was aimed to reach all children with disabilities attending at 72 primary schools located in low, medium and high socio-economic districts in Ankara, capital of Turkey; 404 parents voluntarly accepted to participate in the study. This study has revealed that students with disabilities experienced eating disorders such as forget to eat foods at feeding time, cannot go to canteen to buy food, have sucking and/or chewing problems, lack of self-care skills and need support while eating at schools. The percentage of children who had breakfast at school was 18.1%. The percentage of those who indicated that their child had lunch at school was 59.0%. The children from low socio-economic district had the highest percentage of adequate nutrition at schools in the last week. Families whose children having lack of self-care skills (50.0%), were picky eaters (38.5%), having lack of appetite (42.1%), experienced from constipation frequently (50.0%), have reflux problem (29.0%) considered that their children needed feeding supports at school. CONCLUSION: Families whose children having eating disorders at schools considered that their children needed feeding supports. Fulfilling the needs of children with disability and providing them support as positive discrimination would ensure healthy development and participation in school life and generate positive effects on their academic achievement. The school health policies have to encompass nutritional needs of vulnerable children to benefit from right to education in an adequate and effective manner.

3.
Gesundheitswesen ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Due to strong transnational ties, the use of and demand for antibiotics among Turkish migrants in Germany may be influenced by cultural aspects of antibiotic use in Turkey. Research on the use of antibiotics among Turkish migrants in Germany, however, is scarce. The aim of this study was to find out how Turkish migrants in Germany use antibiotics, whether and how knowledge, underlying motives and attitudes influence demand and how Turkish migrants interact with medical professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a qualitative approach, behavioural patterns and logic of action of adult Turkish migrants were identified. We carried out semi-structured focus group interviews with adults of Turkish origin residing in Germany and expert interviews with family physicians and pharmacists. The interviews were analysed by means of content analysis. RESULTS: While younger migrants had a generally positive, but cautious attitude towards the use of antibiotics, older migrants often showed exaggerated, unrealistic expectations resulting from a lack of factual knowledge. Overall, participants adopted a passive role in the patient-provider relationship. This led to a perpetuation of significant knowledge gaps. CONCLUSIONS: Older Turkish migrants who have less factual knowledge show exaggerated expectations concerning the effectiveness of antibiotics. In conjunction with a passive patient role, resulting in information needs not being satisfied, this can affect the patient-provider relationship. A more active communication by physicians and information materials sensitive to the needs of migrants can positively influence the interaction between migrant patients and medical professionals.

4.
J Intellect Disabil ; : 1744629518818657, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621499

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to provide current information about the health profile and needs of mainstreamed primary school children with disabilities and special educational needs during their school hours. The Study population is composed of students with special educational needs and disabilities attending mainstream primary schools located in three selected Turkish districts with low, moderate, and high socioeconomic status and literacy rates separately. Parents of 404 students from 72 primary schools constituted the research sample. The study showed that 13.4% of the students with disabilities had chronic illnesses and 8.9% had health problems requiring access to emergency medical care when the condition recurs (such as epileptic seizures, fainting, or falling). Of the students with disabilities, 39.9% usually or sometimes needed medical care during school hours in the previous week. Health needs of nearly half of the students with disabilities were met at school. Special health needs and risks of children with disabilities also continue at school along with other possible health concerns.

5.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 44: e20-e27, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to inform public policy opportunities to reduce childhood obesity by identifying parents' perceptions of factors contributing to childhood obesity, attribution of responsibility, and the extent of their support for public prevention policies with attention to socio-economic status. DESIGN AND METHODS: In 2015, 2066 parent-child dyads across socio-economic strata from 43 randomly selected schools in Ankara completed surveys and measurements to examine perceptions, attribution, and prevention policies related to childhood obesity. RESULTS: Parents across the socio-demographic spectrum recognized obesity as a serious problem. Unhealthy food availability was identified as the leading cause of while industry and media were credited with having the greatest responsibility for childhood obesity. There was strong public support for policy strategies targeting schools, marketing, and the built environment, though support tempered as socio-economic status and parental education decreased. CONCLUSIONS: This survey provided insight into parents' knowledge and beliefs surrounding childhood obesity as well as their endorsement of related prevention strategies. Educational messages that address variations in SES to describe the causes of childhood obesity and connect those causes to actionable community prevention strategies may improve community support for enhanced policy actions within and beyond school settings.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia , População Urbana
6.
Eur J Public Health ; 28(suppl_2): 17-21, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371833

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco use is a leading but preventable cause of non-communicable diseases and premature death. The legislature has a key role in setting tobacco control policies. Smoking trends are decreasing thanks to the introduction of effective tobacco control policies in Turkey and these policies may have been shaped by how politicians' interpreted social problems that were prominent during the development and implementation of tobacco regulations. Aim: This paper explores the long-term national relationship between tobacco consumption, tobacco control policies and the associated political discourse in Turkey, considering the varying influences through national leadership on this important public health agenda. This relationship is studied by comparing a time series analysis of tobacco consumption trends with a policy analysis of the minutes of deliberations at the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT). Methods: This study uses Bayesian time series analysis in order investigate whether the tobacco control policies and related activities influenced the annual per adult cigarette consumption in Turkey. We used a novel method to identify change points in tobacco trends and whether they correspond with key policy changes intended to alter usage after adjusting for the effect of other non-policy related covariates, such as the purchasing power. The policy analysis included an examination of the minutes of deliberations at the GNAT-which is the Turkish parliament and unicameral Turkish legislature-1 year before and 1 year after the break years associated with an increase or decrease in tobacco consumption. Results and recommendations: Tobacco consumption increased with the encouragement of tobacco production and the entrance of multinational companies in the country in 1976 and 1993, respectively. The National Tobacco Law of 1996 and comprehensive amendments in 2008, including smoke-free public places and tax increases, appear to have helped reduce tobacco consumption in Turkey. The focus of Parliamentary discussions throughout this period changed, becoming less supportive of tobacco over time. However, throughout the period there remained discussions focussing on concerns around the implications for the economy and the privatization agenda, national agriculture and the welfare of farmers. Effective control appears to require certain political ingredients to be implemented: politicians who are well informed on tobacco control measures and understand the range of issues surrounding the policies (not only those directly health-related); and supportive public health information in the community. Evidence-based public health policy should be introduced to the politicians.


Assuntos
Política , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Tabaco , Humanos , Turquia
7.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197920, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity rates have been rising rapidly in developing countries. A better understanding of the risk factors and social context is necessary to inform public health interventions and policies. This paper describes the validation of several measurement scales for use in Turkey, which relate to child and parent perceptions of physical activity (PA) and enablers and barriers of physical activity in the home environment. METHOD: The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of several measurement scales in Turkey using a population sample across three socio-economic strata in the Turkish capital, Ankara. Surveys were conducted in Grade 4 children (mean age = 9.7 years for boys; 9.9 years for girls), and their parents, across 6 randomly selected schools, stratified by SES (n = 641 students, 483 parents). Construct validity of the scales was evaluated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of scales and test-retest reliability were assessed by Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation. RESULTS: The scales as a whole were found to have acceptable-to-good model fit statistics (PA Barriers: RMSEA = 0.076, SRMR = 0.0577, AGFI = 0.901; PA Outcome Expectancies: RMSEA = 0.054, SRMR = 0.0545, AGFI = 0.916, and PA Home Environment: RMSEA = 0.038, SRMR = 0.0233, AGFI = 0.976). The PA Barriers subscales showed good internal consistency and poor to fair test-retest reliability (personal α = 0.79, ICC = 0.29, environmental α = 0.73, ICC = 0.59). The PA Outcome Expectancies subscales showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability (negative α = 0.77, ICC = 0.56; positive α = 0.74, ICC = 0.49). Only the PA Home Environment subscale on support for PA was validated in the final confirmatory model; it showed moderate internal consistency and test-retest reliability (α = 0.61, ICC = 0.48). DISCUSSION: This study is the first to validate measures of perceptions of physical activity and the physical activity home environment in Turkey. Our results support the originally hypothesized two-factor structures for Physical Activity Barriers and Physical Activity Outcome Expectancies. However, we found the one-factor rather than two-factor structure for Physical Activity Home Environment had the best model fit. This study provides general support for the use of these scales in Turkey in terms of validity, but test-retest reliability warrants further research.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Turk J Pediatr ; 60(4): 353-360, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859758

RESUMO

Berde AS, Yalçin SS, Özcebe H, Üner S, Karadag-Caman Ö. Determinants of childhood diarrhea among under-five year old children in Nigeria: A population-based study using the 2013 demographic and health survey data. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 353-360. The study aims to identify socioeconomic, demographic, environmental and child baseline factors associated with Childhood Diarrhea (CD) among under-five year old children in Nigeria. We utilized cross-sectional data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The study covered 18,047 mother-baby pairs. The key outcome variable was CD. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to test for association between CD and related factors. The prevalence of CD was 12.6%. In the multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with increased risk of CD; younger mother`s age, household size of seven and above, unsafe disposal of child`s last fecal matter and younger child`s age. Also, children living in all geopolitical zones as compared to the South South geopolitical zone had significantly higher risk of CD. Interventions such as information, education and communication programs on hygiene and sanitation aimed at reducing CD in Nigeria should focus more on groups at risk for CD highlighted in our study.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/etiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Análise Multivariada , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Afr Health Sci ; 17(3): 690-699, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prelacteal feeding (PLF) is a barrier to exclusive breast feeding. OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with PLF in rural and urban Nigeria. METHODS: We utilized data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to test for association between PLF and related factors. RESULTS: Prevalence of PLF in urban Nigeria was 49.8%, while in rural Nigeria it was 66.4%. Sugar or glucose water was given more in urban Nigeria (9.7% vs 2.9%), plain water was given more in rural Nigeria (59.9% vs 40.8%). The multivariate analysis revealed that urban and rural Nigeria shared similarities with respect to factors like mother's education, place of delivery, and size of child at birth being significant predictors of PLF. Mode of delivery and type of birth were significant predictors of PLF only in urban Nigeria, whereas, mother's age at birth was a significant predictor of PLF only in rural Nigeria. Zones also showed variations in the odds of PLF according to place of residence. CONCLUSION: Interventions aimed at decreasing PLF rate should be through a tailored approach, and should target at risk sub-groups based on place of residence.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Fórmulas Infantis , Vigilância da População/métodos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Mães , Análise Multivariada , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Public Health Nutr ; 20(11): 1953-1962, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk factors of prelacteal feeding (PLF) among mothers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). DESIGN: We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys in twenty-two SSA countries. The key outcome variable was PLF. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with PLF. SETTING: Demographic and Health Surveys in twenty-two SSA countries. SUBJECTS: Mother-baby pairs (n 95348). RESULTS: Prevalence of PLF in SSA was 32·2 %. Plain water (22·1 %), milk other than breast milk (5·0 %) and sugar or glucose water (4·1 %) were the predominant prelacteal feeds. In the multivariable analysis, mothers who had caesarean section delivery had 2·25 times the odds of giving prelacteal feeds compared with mothers who had spontaneous vaginal delivery (adjusted OR=2·25; 95 % CI 2·06, 2·46). Other factors that were significantly associated with increased likelihood of PLF were mother's lower educational status, first birth rank, fourth or above birth rank with preceding birth interval less than or equal to 24 months, lower number of antenatal care visits, home delivery, multiple birth, male infant, as well as having an average or small sized baby at birth. Mothers aged 20-34 years were less likely to give prelacteal feeds compared with mothers aged ≤19 years. Belonging to the second, middle or fourth wealth quintile was associated with lower likelihood of PLF compared with the highest quintile. CONCLUSIONS: To achieve optimal breast-feeding, there is a need to discourage breast-feeding practices such as PLF. Breast-feeding promotion programmes should target the at-risk sub-population groups discovered in our study.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Cesárea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Leite Humano , Mães , Análise Multinível , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Glob Health Promot ; 23(2 Suppl): 58-67, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24042972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2008, Turkey became one of 26 countries with a complete ban on all forms of direct and indirect tobacco marketing. We assessed the level of exposure to anti- and pro-cigarette advertising and to cigarette promotions and sponsorships among various demographic groups in Turkey. METHODS: We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in November 2008 in Turkey. The data consist of answers to GATS questions by 9030 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults 15 years of age or older. To find differences in exposure to the advertising by sex, age, education level and smoking status, we analyzed responses to GATS questions about cigarette advertisements and anti-cigarette smoking information in various forms and through various advertising channels, during the 30 days before the survey, using bivariate analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 13.3% of respondents aged 15 years or older noticed some type of cigarette marketing during the 30 days before the survey: 7.1% saw advertisements, 5.3% saw promotions and 3.3% saw sports sponsorships. Men were more likely than women to have seen cigarette promotions (7.8% versus 3.0%) and sports sponsorships (5.3% versus 1.4%). Respondents aged 15-24 years were more likely than those aged 25 years or older to have seen cigarette advertisements (10.2% versus 6.2%), promotions (8.7% versus 4.4%) and sponsorships (6.6% versus 2.3%), respectively. Respondents were most likely to have seen cigarette advertisements on television (3.4%) or in shops (2.7%). In addition, 2.8% of respondents reported seeing a clothing item with a brand name or logo, 2.5% reported that they received free samples of cigarettes and 0.3% received gifts along with the purchase of cigarettes. Almost 9 of 10 survey respondents (88.8%) reported having noticed some anti-cigarette information during the 30 days before the survey. Most anti-cigarette information was seen on television (85.5%). The anti-cigarette information was seen by slightly more cigarette smokers (91.6%) than nonsmokers (87.6%). Persons with less than a primary education were less likely to notice anti-cigarette information than those with a higher level of education, in all examined media channels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed a low prevalence of noticing cigarette marketing, which indicates high compliance with the Turkish law banning such marketing. GATS data provide an in-depth understanding of the level of exposure to pro- and anti-cigarette information in 2008 and they are of practical assistance to those who implement policies to reduce the demand for tobacco. The challenge now is to maintain rigorous enforcement. To do so requires ongoing surveillance to produce data on the effectiveness of the enforcement efforts.


Assuntos
Publicidade/classificação , Marketing/classificação , Fumar/epidemiologia , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(21): 457-61, 2014 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24871250

RESUMO

Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 24(1): 35-43, 2013.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23446538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether number of self-reported impulsivity symptoms was associated with conduct problems, substance use, academic problems, relational problems and exposure to physical violence in adolescents. METHOD: A survey was developed to be used in a nationally representative general community sample. A 2-staged, stratified and clustered sampling was used. For the first stage (school selection) an equal probability, systematic random sampling and for the second stage (class selection) a simple random selection was used. The statistical analysis included the full and usable surveys obtained from 26009 students (97.5% of the invited sample). RESULTS: After parental education, parental employment, economic status and age; presence of antisocial behaviors; substance abuse; and exposure to physical violence were controlled, presence of even one self-reported impulsivity symptom was associated with physical violence, frequent smoking, frequent alcohol use, substance use, self injurious behaviors, carrying weapons, gang membership, poor relations with others, academic failure and poor mental health. ORs increased with the number of self-reported impulsivity symptoms for several behaviors. Several other associations among conduct problems, substance use, academic failure and relational problems are also reported. CONCLUSION: Even one definite impulsivity symptom must be addressed since it is associated with serious behavioral and relational problems. There may be dose-response interaction between the number of definite impulsivity symptoms and behavioral and relational problems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 15(8): 1446-52, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23325913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. METHODS: This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. RESULTS: Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p < .001), as well as breath CO (p < .001) and urinary cotinine levels (p < .001) decreased significantly 3 months after implementation of the law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Cotinina/urina , Restaurantes , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Tuberk Toraks ; 61(4): 312-9, 2013.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24506747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This research was conducted to determine the views and information of the society about smoking cessation services and to find out the smoking status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted at Hacettepe University Adult Hospital. The questionnaire was conducted to the participants with face to face interview techniques between the dates 3-8 August 2011 and asked about socio-demographic characteristics, smoking status and the views on smoking cessation methods and services. In the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square and Fisher's exact chi-square test was used where necessary. p< 0.05 was accepted for statistical significance. RESULTS: The average age of 599 individuals participated to the research was 36.95 ± 12.80 years and 56.6% were male. The participants declared their smoking status that 48.9% do not smoke, 15.9% quit smoking, 35.2% stated as still smoking. Among current smokers 60.2% thought to quit smoking in the last 12 months. Of the participants 42.1% have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months. 46% percent of smokers and 56.3% non-smokers stated that they are aware of smoking cessation outpatient clinics (p= 0.033). The percentage of awareness of smoking cessation line was 67.8%, and 46.9% are aware of AMATEMs. Same percentages are as 49.5% and 28.4% for the ones who quit smoking. 59.7% of smokers think that nicotine-free preparates and 17.4% think that nicotine preparates is successful; these percentages are 89.7% and 36.7% for non-smokers. CONCLUSION: Tendency to cessation among tobacco users and have awareness about the services that support cessation and believe that the law reduces the harms of tobacco use. However, more interventions are needed to reach those who are at low-income level. Also being a role model to the children in the society and to use attitudes and behaviors in smoking cessation campaigns are thought to be effective.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Tuberk Toraks ; 60(1): 41-6, 2012.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22554365

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims at evaluation of the effect of smoke-free policy at hospitality workplaces on indoor air quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study includes 151 hospitality venues (restaurants, cafes, bars and tea-houses) at eight provinces of Turkey. PM2.5 measurements were done at each of the venues three months prior to, and 4-5 months after the implementation of smoking ban at the same venues. Measurements were done using SidePak 2.5 by two engineers. During the 30 minutes of measurement, the device takes multiple samples, measures PM2.5 particles, and calculates the average value and standard deviation of the measurements. RESULTS: Using the measurement results two kinds of evaluation were done: in each province, increase/decrease after implementation for each of the venues included in the study was evaluated, and average PM2.5 values were calculated for provinces using the PM2.5 values of the venues in the province. The average PM2.5 values before the implementation were higher than the post implementation values in general. Nevertheless, in some provinces higher values were found during the second measurements, particularly at the restaurants. CONCLUSION: Therefore, there is need to enforce the smoking ban at the hospitality workplaces.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Logradouros Públicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública , Restaurantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 22(2): 93-103, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21638231

RESUMO

AIM: Adolescents living in orphanages are at a disadvantage with respect to mental health. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of psychological symptoms and their association with the level of physical activity (PA) in adolescents living in orphanages. METHOD: The study group consisted of 13-16-year-old adolescents (N=166) living in orphanages in Ankara, Turkey. Data were collected cross-sectionally in 2008 via questionnaires, including the Brief Symptom Inventory and Kiddo-KINDL Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and t tests were used to compare groups. RESULTS: Median age of the participants was 16.0 years and 65.7% were male. Female gender, not going to school or work, dissatisfaction with school, contact with the family, chronic disease, chronic medication use, sleep problems, regular tobacco use, chronic disease in the family, and low quality of life score were associated with increased risk (GSI-Global Symptom Index>1 SD) for mental disorders. Physically active adolescents' use of tobacco, alcohol, other substances, and medications, as well as GSI and depression scores were lower and their quality of life scores were higher than those of their less active counterparts. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of psychological symptoms in adolescents living in orphanages were higher than in the general adolescent population. Physically active adolescents' mental health indices and abstinence behaviors with regard to tobacco, alcohol, and substances were more favorable. Encouraging adolescents to participate in sports and improving sports facilities in orphanages are interventions that can promote mental health.


Assuntos
Crianças Órfãs/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Atividade Motora , Orfanatos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Esportes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
18.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 30(4): 319-26, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19668093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a national training program in Turkey in improving primary health providers' knowledge and perceived competence about the promotion of early childhood development and prevention, early identification and management of developmental problems; and barriers to implementation and sustainability of skills gained. METHODS: A pre-post intervention design was used. Tools measuring perceived competence and knowledge about childhood development were administered to primary health providers before and after training. Immediate skills were observed, and implementation and sustainability of skills were determined using individual surveys and focus group discussions 1 year after training. RESULTS: The training was provided in 5 provinces. Of the 148 primary health providers trained, 90% had >5 years experience in providing primary care. Median knowledge test scores were 13 pretraining and increased to 22 posttraining (p < 0.001). Median perceived competence scores increased from 159 to 222 (p < 0.001). A year after the training, the program and materials were reported to be valued and remembered but used limitedly. Patient load, insufficient time allocated to primary care, lack of reimbursement, and ineffective referrals to pediatricians who had knowledge gaps regarding child development were identified as important barriers to implementation and sustainability of skills gained. CONCLUSIONS: In Turkey and potentially other countries with similar health systems, short-term inservice training on child development can improve primary health providers' knowledge, perceived competence and skills related to child development. To decrease the disparities between high- and low- and middle-income countries in addressing child development, significant barriers within health systems need to be identified and addressed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Educação Médica Continuada , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/educação , Médicos de Família/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Turquia
19.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 46(1): 79-88, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17482688

RESUMO

Although the physical activity is a very basic lifestyle activity, the physical inactivity has been estimated to cause 1.9 million deaths worldwide annually, according to the 2002 World Health Organization (WHO) Report. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the frequency of and factors influencing regular exercise among elders living in the catchment area (CA) of a primary health care unit (PHCU) of a district in Ankara. The district has 7 subregions and 50 people were interviewed from each region. From the total number of elderly in the region, these 350 were selected for the study sample. Five of the authors collected data by a self-administered questionnaire. The dependent variable of the study was "doing physical activity", and there were various independent variables including sociodemographic characteristics and risky health behaviors, etc. Significantly positive associations were determined between "not doing regular exercise" and age of 65 years of older (odds ratio (OR)=1.059, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.010-1.110; p=0.018), female gender (OR=1.992, 95% CI=1.245-3.185; p=0.004), presence of a chronic disease (OR=2.704, 95% CI=1.444-5.066; p=0.002), and lower/higher body mass index (BMI) (OR=2.568, 95% CI=1.573-4.192; p<0.001).


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Atividade Motora , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais , Turquia/epidemiologia
20.
Turk J Pediatr ; 46(1): 54-9, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15074375

RESUMO

Adolescence is a transition period between childhood and adulthood in which physical, sexual and psychosocial changes occur. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) are the most common reproductive health problems adolescents face. Peer education is a very useful method in adolescents' education, especially on risk factors and risk taking behaviors. This peer education intervention study, including two base line studies (one before and one after the intervention), was conducted in four classes of an Anatolian high school in Ankara in 2000. The aim of the study was to evaluate the success of the peer education model. There was a significant difference in the general scores of the students before (29.52; SD = 4.38) and after (31.89; SD = 4.96) education by peer educators (p = 0.000). This study might have assisted the study population in establishing safe sex practices for a healthy sexual future.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
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