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1.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678169

RESUMO

The high global demand of wheat and its subsequent consumption arise from the physicochemical properties of bread dough and its contribution to the protein intake in the human diet. Gluten is the main structural complex of wheat proteins and subjects affected by celiac disease (CD) cannot tolerate gluten protein. Within gluten proteins, α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic fraction since they contain the main T-cell stimulating epitopes (DQ2.5-glia-α1, DQ2.5-glia-α2, and DQ2.5-glia-α3). In this work, the celiac immunotoxic potential of α-gliadins was studied within Triticeae: diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species. The abundance and immunostimulatory capacity of CD canonical epitopes and variants (with one or two mismatches) in all α-gliadin sequences were determined. The results showed that the canonical epitopes DQ2.5-glia-α1 and DQ2.5-glia-α3 were more frequent than DQ2.5-glia-α2. A higher abundance of canonical DQ2.5-glia-α1 epitope was found to be associated with genomes of the BBAADD, AA, and DD types; however, the abundance of DQ2.5-glia-α3 epitope variants was very high in BBAADD and BBAA wheat despite their low abundance in the canonical epitope. The most abundant substitution was that of proline to serine, which was disposed mainly on the three canonical DQ2.5 domains on position 8. Interestingly, our results demonstrated that the natural introduction of Q to H at any position eliminates the toxicity of the three T-cell epitopes in the α-gliadins. The results provided a rational approach for the introduction of natural amino acid substitutions to eliminate the toxicity of three T-cell epitopes, while maintaining the technological properties of commercial wheats.


Assuntos
Aegilops/química , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Variação Genética , Gliadina/imunologia , Triticum/química , Aegilops/genética , Aegilops/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Gliadina/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Ploidias , Linfócitos T , Triticum/genética , Triticum/imunologia
2.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545051

RESUMO

The study evaluated the symptoms, acceptance, and digestibility of bread made from transgenic low-gliadin wheat, in comparison with gluten free bread, in Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) patients, considering clinical/sensory parameters and gut microbiota composition. This study was performed in two phases of seven days each, comprising a basal phase with gluten free bread and an E82 phase with low-gliadin bread. Gastrointestinal clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaire, and stool samples were collected for gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) determination and the extraction of gut microbial DNA. For the basal and E82 phases, seven and five patients, respectively, showed undetectable GIPs content. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 hypervariable regions were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform and downstream analysis was done using a Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline. No significant differences in the GSRS questionnaires were observed between the two phases. However, we observed a significantly lower abundance of some gut genera Oscillospira, Dorea, Blautia, Bacteroides, Coprococcus, and Collinsella, and a significantly higher abundance of Roseburia and Faecalibacterium genera during the E82 phase compared with the basal phase. The consumption of low-gliadin bread E82 by NCGS subjects induced potentially positive changes in the gut microbiota composition, increasing the butyrate-producing bacteria and favoring a microbial profile that is suggested to have a key role in the maintenance or improvement of gut permeability.


Assuntos
Dieta Livre de Glúten/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Gliadina/efeitos adversos , Gliadina/análise , Síndromes de Malabsorção/dietoterapia , Adulto , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Triticum/genética
3.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 16(4): 902-910, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28921815

RESUMO

Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered in genetically predisposed individuals by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, barley and rye. The α-gliadin gene family of wheat contains four highly stimulatory peptides, of which the 33-mer is the main immunodominant peptide in patients with coeliac. We designed two sgRNAs to target a conserved region adjacent to the coding sequence for the 33-mer in the α-gliadin genes. Twenty-one mutant lines were generated, all showing strong reduction in α-gliadins. Up to 35 different genes were mutated in one of the lines of the 45 different genes identified in the wild type, while immunoreactivity was reduced by 85%. Transgene-free lines were identified, and no off-target mutations have been detected in any of the potential targets. The low-gluten, transgene-free wheat lines described here could be used to produce low-gluten foodstuff and serve as source material to introgress this trait into elite wheat varieties.

4.
Plant J ; 89(6): 1251-1262, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943461

RESUMO

The ability to edit plant genomes through gene targeting (GT) requires efficient methods to deliver both sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) and repair templates to plant cells. This is typically achieved using Agrobacterium T-DNA, biolistics or by stably integrating nuclease-encoding cassettes and repair templates into the plant genome. In dicotyledonous plants, such as Nicotinana tabacum (tobacco) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), greater than 10-fold enhancements in GT frequencies have been achieved using DNA virus-based replicons. These replicons transiently amplify to high copy numbers in plant cells to deliver abundant SSNs and repair templates to achieve targeted gene modification. In the present work, we developed a replicon-based system for genome engineering of cereal crops using a deconstructed version of the wheat dwarf virus (WDV). In wheat cells, the replicons achieve a 110-fold increase in expression of a reporter gene relative to non-replicating controls. Furthermore, replicons carrying CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases and repair templates achieved GT at an endogenous ubiquitin locus at frequencies 12-fold greater than non-viral delivery methods. The use of a strong promoter to express Cas9 was critical to attain these high GT frequencies. We also demonstrate gene-targeted integration by homologous recombination (HR) in all three of the homoeoalleles (A, B and D) of the hexaploid wheat genome, and we show that with the WDV replicons, multiplexed GT within the same wheat cell can be achieved at frequencies of ~1%. In conclusion, high frequencies of GT using WDV-based DNA replicons will make it possible to edit complex cereal genomes without the need to integrate GT reagents into the genome.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/fisiologia , Marcação de Genes/métodos , Replicon/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Agrobacterium/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Edição de Genes , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1492, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27752259

RESUMO

In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser), and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser) mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world.

6.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 14(3): 986-96, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26300126

RESUMO

Gluten proteins are responsible for the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour but also for triggering pathologies in susceptible individuals, of which coeliac disease (CD) and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity may affect up to 8% of the population. The only effective treatment for affected persons is a strict gluten-free diet. Here, we report the effectiveness of seven plasmid combinations, encompassing RNAi fragments from α-, γ-, ω-gliadins, and LMW glutenin subunits, for silencing the expression of different prolamin fractions. Silencing patterns of transgenic lines were analysed by gel electrophoresis, RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), whereas gluten immunogenicity was assayed by an anti-gliadin 33-mer monoclonal antibody (moAb). Plasmid combinations 1 and 2 downregulated only γ- and α-gliadins, respectively. Four plasmid combinations were highly effective in the silencing of ω-gliadins and γ-gliadins, and three of these also silenced α-gliadins. HMW glutenins were upregulated in all but one plasmid combination, while LMW glutenins were downregulated in three plasmid combinations. Total protein and starch contents were unaffected regardless of the plasmid combination used. Six plasmid combinations provided strong reduction in the gluten content as measured by moAb and for two combinations, this reduction was higher than 90% in comparison with the wild type. CD epitope analysis in peptides identified in LC-MS/MS showed that lines from three plasmid combinations were totally devoid of CD epitopes from the highly immunogenic α- and ω-gliadins. Our findings raise the prospect of breeding wheat species with low levels of harmful gluten, and of achieving the important goal of developing nontoxic wheat cultivars.


Assuntos
Pão , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Gliadina/imunologia , Prolaminas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Triticum/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Epitopos/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Plant J ; 82(5): 794-805, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25864460

RESUMO

The gluten proteins from wheat, barley and rye are responsible both for celiac disease (CD) and for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, two pathologies affecting up to 6-8% of the human population worldwide. The wheat α-gliadin proteins contain three major CD immunogenic peptides: p31-43, which induces the innate immune response; the 33-mer, formed by six overlapping copies of three highly stimulatory epitopes; and an additional DQ2.5-glia-α3 epitope which partially overlaps with the 33-mer. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing of α-gliadin genes from diploid and polyploid wheat provided six types of α-gliadins (named 1-6) with strong differences in their frequencies in diploid and polyploid wheat, and in the presence and abundance of these CD immunogenic peptides. Immunogenic variants of the p31-43 peptide were found in most of the α-gliadins. Variants of the DQ2.5-glia-α3 epitope were associated with specific types of α-gliadins. Remarkably, only type 1 α-gliadins contained 33-mer epitopes. Moreover, the full immunodominant 33-mer fragment was only present in hexaploid wheat at low abundance, probably as the result of allohexaploidization events from subtype 1.2 α-gliadins found only in Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat. Type 3 α-gliadins seem to be the ancestral type as they are found in most of the α-gliadin-expressing Triticeae species. These findings are important for reducing the incidence of CD by the breeding/selection of wheat varieties with low stimulatory capacity of T cells. Moreover, advanced genome-editing techniques (TALENs, CRISPR) will be easier to implement on the small group of α-gliadins containing only immunogenic peptides.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Gliadina/imunologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/imunologia , Clonagem Molecular , Epitopos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Gliadina/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Pseudogenes
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