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1.
Intensive Care Med ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965263

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The penultimate row of Table 4 shows INR > 1.5 which is incorrect. The correct figure is INR < 1.5. The authors apologize for the mistake. The correct table is given below.

2.
Chest ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease defined by thrombotic events that can require ICU admission because of organ dysfunction related to macrovascular and/or microvascular thrombosis. Critically ill patients with thrombosis and APS were studied to gain insight into their prognoses and in-hospital mortality-associated factors. METHODS: This French national, multicenter, retrospective study included all patients with APS and any new thrombotic manifestations admitted to 24 ICUs (January 2000-September 2018). RESULTS: During the study period, 134 patients (male/female ratio, 0.4) with 152 APS episodes were admitted to the ICU (mean age at admission, 46.0 ± 15.1 years). In-hospital mortality of their 134 last episodes was 35 of 134 (26.1%). The Cox multivariable model retained certain factors (hazard ratio [95% CI]: age ≥ 40 years, 11.4 [3.1-41.5], P < .0001; mechanical ventilation, 11.0 [3.3-37], P < .0001; renal replacement therapy, 2.9 [1.3-6.3], P = .007; and in-ICU anticoagulation, 0.1 [0.03-0.3], P < .0001) as independently associated with in-hospital mortality. For the subgroup of definite/probable catastrophic APS, the Cox bivariable model (including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score) retained double therapy (corticosteroids + anticoagulant, 0.2 [0.07-0.6]; P = .005) but not triple therapy (corticosteroids + anticoagulant + IV immunoglobulins or plasmapheresis: hazard ratio, 0.3 [0.1-1.1]; P = .07) as independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In-ICU anticoagulation was the only APS-specific treatment independently associated with survival for all patients. Double therapy was independently associated with better survival of patients with definite/probable catastrophic APS. In these patients, further studies are needed to determine the role of triple therapy.

3.
Transfusion ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion is aimed at increasing platelet counts to prevent or treat bleeding. Critically ill cancer patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia are high consumers of blood products. We herein described their post-transfusion platelet responses in the intensive care unit (ICU) and analyzed the determinants of poor post-transfusion increments. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a single-center 9-year (2009-2017) retrospective observational study. Patients with malignancies and presumed or proven hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia who had received at least one platelet transfusion in the ICU were included. Poor post-transfusion platelet increments were defined as body surface-adjusted corrected count increment (CCI) <7, or alternatively as weight-adjusted platelet transfusion recovery (PTR) <0.2. Patients were deemed refractory to platelet transfusions when two consecutive ABO-compatible transfusions resulted in poor platelet increments. RESULTS: A total of 1470 platelet transfusions received by 326 patients were analyzed. Indications for platelet transfusions were distributed into prophylactic (44.5%), peri-procedural (18.1%) and therapeutic (37.4%). Regardless of indications, 54.6% and 55.4% of transfusion episodes were associated with a CCI <7 or a PTR <0.2. Factors independently associated with poor post-transfusion increments were lower body mass index, spleen enlargement, concurrent severity of clinical condition, fever ≥39°C, antibiotic therapy and increased storage duration of platelet concentrates. Eventually, 48 patients developed refractoriness to platelet transfusion, which was associated increased incidence of bleeding events. CONCLUSION: Platelet transfusions are often associated with poor increments in critically ill cancer patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. The findings suggest amenable interventions to improve the platelet transfusion practices in this setting.

4.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(11): e1641391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646090

RESUMO

Sepsis-induced immune dysfunctions are likely to impact on malignant tumor growth. Sequential sepsis-then-cancer models of tumor transplantation in mice recovering from sepsis have shown that the post-septic immunosuppressive environment was able to promote tumor growth. We herein addressed the impact of sepsis on pre-established malignancy in a reverse cancer-then sepsis experimental model. Mice previously inoculated with MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells were subjected to septic challenges by polymicrobial peritonitis induced by cecal ligation and puncture or endotoxinic shock. The anti-tumoral immune response was assessed through the distribution of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, as well as the functions of cytotoxic cells. As compared to sham surgery, polymicrobial sepsis dampened malignant tumor growth in wild-type (WT) mice, but neither in Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4)-/- nor in Myd88-/- mice. Similar tumor growth inhibition was observed following a LPS challenge in WT mice, suggesting a regulatory role of Tlr4 in this setting. The low expression of MHC class 1 onto MCA205 cells suggested the involvement of Natural Killer (NK) cells in sepsis-induced tumor inhibition. Septic insults applied to mice with cancer promoted the main anti-tumoral NK functions of IFNγ production and degranulation. The anti-tumoral properties of NK cells obtained from septic mice were exacerbated when cultured with MHC1low MCA205 or YAC-1 cells. These results suggest that sepsis may harbor dual effects on tumor growth depending on the sequential experimental model. When applied in mice with cancer, sepsis prevents tumor growth in a Tlr4-dependent manner by enhancing the anti-tumoral functions of NK cells.

5.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(11): 1518-1539, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588978

RESUMO

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is fatal in 90% of patients if left untreated and must be diagnosed early to optimize patient outcomes. However, the very low incidence of TTP is an obstacle to the development of evidence-based clinical practice recommendations, and the very wide variability in survival rates across centers may be partly ascribable to differences in management strategies due to insufficient guidance. We therefore developed an expert statement to provide trustworthy guidance about the management of critically ill patients with TTP. As strong evidence was difficult to find in the literature, consensus building among experts could not be reported for most of the items. This expert statement is timely given the recent advances in the treatment of TTP, such as the use of rituximab and of the recently licensed drug caplacizumab, whose benefits will be maximized if the other components of the management strategy follow a standardized pattern. Finally, unanswered questions are identified as topics of future research on TTP.

6.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 110, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of direct ICU admission from the emergency department (ED) compared to admission from wards, in patients with hematological malignancies requiring critical care. METHODS: Post hoc analysis derived from a prospective, multicenter cohort study of 1011 critically ill adult patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to 17 ICU in Belgium and France from January 2010 to May 2011. The variable of interest was a direct ICU admission from the ED and the outcome was in-hospital mortality. The association between the variable of interest and the outcome was assessed by multivariable logistic regression after multiple imputation of missing data. Several sensitivity analyses were performed: complete case analysis, propensity score matching and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards analysis of 90-day survival. RESULTS: Direct ICU admission from the ED occurred in 266 (26.4%) cases, 84 of whom (31.6%) died in the hospital versus 311/742 (41.9%) in those who did not. After adjustment, direct ICU admission from the ED was associated with a decreased in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR: 0.63; 95% CI 0.45-0.88). This was confirmed in the complete cases analysis (adjusted OR: 0.64; 95% CI 0.45-0.92) as well as in terms of hazard of death within the 90 days after admission (adjusted HR: 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.99). By contrast, in the propensity score-matched sample of 402 patients, direct admission was not associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.84-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, patients with hematological malignancies admitted to the ICU were more likely to be alive at hospital discharge if they were directly admitted from the ED rather than from the wards. Assessment of early predictors of poor outcome in cancer patients admitted to the ED is crucial so as to allow early referral to the ICU and avoid delays in treatment initiation and mis-orientation.

7.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 306, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure is the leading reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in immunocompromised patients, and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation has become a major clinical endpoint in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, data are lacking on whether intubation is an objective criteria that is used unbiasedly across centers. This study explores how this outcome varies across ICUs. METHODS: Hierarchical models and permutation procedures for testing multiple random effects were applied on both data from an observational cohort (the TRIAL-OH study: 703 patients, 17 ICUs) and a randomized controlled trial (the HIGH trial: 776 patients, 31 ICUs) to characterize ICU variation in intubation risk across centers. RESULTS: The crude intubation rate varied across ICUs from 29 to 80% in the observational cohort and from 0 to 86% in the RCT. This center effect on the mean ICU intubation rate was statistically significant, even after adjustment on individual patient characteristics (observational cohort: p value = 0.013, median OR 1.48 [1.30-1.72]; RCT: p value 0.004, median OR 1.51 [1.36-1.68]). Two ICU-level characteristics were associated with intubation risk (the annual rate of intubation procedure per center and the time from respiratory symptoms to ICU admission) and could partly explain this center effect. In the RCT that controlled for the use of high-flow oxygen therapy, we did not find significant variation in the effect of oxygenation strategy on intubation risk across centers, despite a significant variation in the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Intubation rates varied considerably among ICUs, even after adjustment on individual characteristics.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e029798, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended as first-line therapy in respiratory failure of critically ill immunocompromised patients as it can decrease intubation and mortality rates as compared with standard oxygen. However, its recommendation is only conditional. Indeed, the use of NIV in this setting has been challenged recently based on results of trials finding similar outcomes with or without NIV or even deleterious effects of NIV. To date, NIV has been compared with standard oxygen but not to high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFOT) in immunocompromised patients. Several studies have found lower mortality rates using HFOT alone than when using HFOT with NIV sessions in patients with de novo respiratory failure, and even in immunocompromised patients. We are hypothesising that HFOT alone is more effective than HFOT with NIV sessions and reduces mortality of immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is an investigator-initiated, multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing HFOT alone or with NIV in immunocompromised patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Around 280 patients will be randomised with a 1:1 ratio in two groups. The primary outcome is the mortality rate at day 28 after inclusion. Secondary outcomes include the rate of intubation in each group, length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality up to day 180. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the ethics committee and patients will be included after informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02978300.

9.
Resuscitation ; 141: 144-150, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271728

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: In survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with numerous factors of definitive renal injury. We made the hypothesis that AKI after OHCA was a strong risk factor of long-term chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to evaluate long-term renal outcome of OHCA survivors according the occurrence of AKI in ICU. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from consecutive OHCA patients admitted between 2007 and 2012 in a tertiary medical ICU. AKI was defined by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Long-term creatinine level was the last blood creatinine assessment we were able to retrieve. The main outcome was the occurrence of CKD, defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) lower than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 according to the MDRD equation. Long-term mortality was evaluated as well. Factors associated with CKD occurrence were evaluated by competing risk survival analysis (Fine Gray and Cox cause specific models). RESULTS: Among the 246 OHCA patients who were discharged alive, outcome of 133 patients was available (median age 55 [iqr 46, 68], 75.2% of male). During a median follow-up time of 1.8 [0.8-2.5] years, CKD occurred in 17 (12.7%) patients and 24 (18%) patients died. A previous history of arterial hypertension (sHR = 3.28[1.15;9.39], p = 0.027; CSH = 4.83 [1.57;14.9], p = 0.006), AKI during ICU stay (sHR = 3.72[1.40;9.84], p = 0.008; CSH = 5.41[1.79;16.3], p = 0.003) and an age higher than 55 (sHR = 6.13[1.55;24.3], p = 0.009; CSH = 2.16[1.72;43.8], p = 0.006) were independently associated with CKD occurrence. AKI was not associated with long-term mortality (sHR = 0.73 [0.27;1.99], p = 0.55; CSH = 0.75 [0.28;2.01], p = 0.57). CONCLUSION: In OHCA survivors, CKD was a frequent long-term complication. AKI during ICU stay was a strong determinant of long-term CKD occurrence.

10.
J Autoimmun ; 103: 102292, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), the most severe manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), is characterised by simultaneous thromboses in multiple organs. Diagnosing CAPS can be challenging but its early recognition and management is crucial for a favourable outcome. This study was undertaken to evaluate the frequencies, distributions and ability to predict mortality of "definite/probable" or "no-CAPS" categories of thrombotic APS patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This French national multicentre retrospective study, conducted from January 2000 to September 2018, included all APS patients with any new thrombotic manifestation(s) admitted to 24 ICUs. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients (male/female ratio: 0.4; mean age at admission: 45.4 ±â€¯15.0 years), who experienced 152 CAPS episodes, required ICU admission. The numbers of definite, probable or no-CAPS episodes, respectively, were: 11 (7.2%), 60 (39.5%) and 81 (53.3%). No histopathological proof of microvascular thrombosis was the most frequent reason for not being classified as definite CAPS. Overall, 35/152 (23.0%) episodes were fatal, with comparable rates for definite/probable CAPS and no CAPS (23% vs. 28.8% respectively, p = 0.4). The Kaplan-Meier curve of estimated probability of survival showed no between-group survival difference (log-rank test p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, CAPS criteria were not associated with mortality of thrombotic APS patients requiring ICU admission. Further studies are need evaluate the adequacy of CAPS criteria for critically-ill APS patients.

11.
Resuscitation ; 141: 81-87, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: After out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), the risk of recurrence during the early period is unclear and the indication for anti-arrhythmic treatment is debated. We assessed the incidence and predisposing factors for severe cardiac arrhythmias in this population. DESIGN: Retrospective study in a cardiac arrest center. SETTINGS: The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major cardiac arrhythmias from hospital admission to intensive care unit (ICU) discharge in patients admitted after an OHCA associated with obstructive CAD. A major arrhythmia was defined as any arrhythmic event (auricular or ventricular) associated with cardiac arrest recurrence and/or severe arterial hypotension. Secondary outcomes were time from ICU admission to arrhythmia occurrence and all-cause in-ICU mortality. Risk factors for recurrence of a major arrhythmia were assessed using multivariate analysis. PATIENTS: We included all consecutive OHCA patients resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) as initial rhythm associated with obstructive CAD, and who had a successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 256 patients, a major arrhythmia occurred in 29 (11.3%), within the first 24 h in 79.3% of cases and were mostly VF (44.8%). Mortality rate was significantly increased in patients with major arrhythmia recurrence (69% vs 41%; p = 0.006). Factor significantly associated with recurrence of severe arrhythmia was male gender (OR 0.32 [0.12-0.92]; p = 0.034). Treatment with prophylactic anti-arrhythmic in the ICU was not associated with a change in the risk of recurrence (OR 0.85 [0.21-3.65], p = 0.82). CONCLUSION: An early recurrence of major arrhythmia was observed in more than 10% of post-cardiac arrest patients. These events happened mostly within the first 24 h. The interest of prophylactic anti-arrhythmic treatment remains to be evaluated in this population.

12.
Resuscitation ; 142: 168-174, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211949

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictive value of EEG reactivity assessment and confounders for neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted in a tertiary cardiac arrest center between 2007 and 2016 still alive 48 h after admission with at least one EEG recorded during coma. EEG reactivity was defined as a reproducible waveform change in amplitude or frequency following standardized stimulation. Each EEG was classified based on American Clinical Neurophysiology Society nomenclatures and classified in highly malignant (including status epilepticus), malignant, or benign EEG. We assessed the predictive values of EEG reactivity and sedation effect for neurologic outcome at ICU discharge using the Cerebral Performance Category scale (with CPC 1-2 assumed as favorable outcome and CPC 3-4-5 considered as poor outcome). RESULTS: Among 428 patients, a poor outcome was observed in 80% patients. The median time to EEG recording was 3 (1-4) days and 51% patients had a non-reactive EEG. The positive predictive value (PPV) of a non-reactive EEG to predict an unfavorable outcome was 97.1% (IC95% 93.6-98.9), increasing to 98.3% (IC95 94.1-99.8) when the EEG had been performed without sedation. In multivariate analysis, a non-reactive EEG was associated with poor outcome (OR 12.6 IC95% 4.7-33.6; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, concomitant sedation was not statistically associated with EEG non-reactivity. The PPV of a benign EEG to predict favorable outcome was 49.7% (IC95% 41.5-57.9), increasing to 66.2% (IC95% 54.3-76.8) when EEG was recorded earlier, with ongoing sedation. CONCLUSIONS: After cardiac arrest, absence of EEG reactivity was predictive of unfavorable outcome. By contrast, a benign EEG was slightly predictive of a favorable outcome. Reactivity assessment may have important implications in the neuroprognostication process after cardiac arrest and could be influenced by sedation.

13.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 152, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether influenza infection and associated co-infection are associated with patient-important outcomes in critically ill immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Preplanned secondary analysis of EFRAIM, a prospective cohort study of 68 hospitals in 16 countries. We included 1611 patients aged 18 years or older with non-AIDS-related immunocompromise, who were admitted to the ICU with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The main exposure of interest was influenza infection status. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes ICU length of stay (LOS) and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Influenza infection status was categorized into four groups: patients with influenza alone (n = 95, 5.8%), patients with influenza plus pulmonary co-infection (n = 58, 3.6%), patients with non-influenza pulmonary infection (n = 820, 50.9%), and patients without pulmonary infection (n = 638, 39.6%). Influenza infection status was associated with a requirement for intubation and with LOS in ICU (P < 0.001). Patients with influenza plus co-infection had the highest rates of intubation and longest ICU LOS. On crude analysis, influenza infection status was associated with ICU mortality (P < 0.001) but not hospital mortality (P = 0.09). Patients with influenza plus co-infection and patients with non-influenza infection alone had similar ICU mortality (41% and 37% respectively) that was higher than patients with influenza alone or those without infection (33% and 26% respectively). A propensity score-matched analysis did not show a difference in hospital mortality attributable to influenza infection (OR = 1.01, 95%CI 0.90-1.13, P = 0.85). Age, severity scores, ARDS, and performance status were all associated with ICU, hospital, and 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Category of infectious etiology of respiratory failure (influenza, non-influenza, influenza plus co-infection, and non-infectious) was associated with ICU but not hospital mortality. In a propensity score-matched analysis, influenza infection was not associated with the primary outcome of hospital mortality. Overall, influenza infection alone may not be an independent risk factor for hospital mortality in immunosuppressed patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/mortalidade , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Resuscitation ; 140: 170-177, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After resuscitation of cardiac arrest (CA), an acute circulatory failure occurs in about 50% of cases, which shares many characteristics with septic shock. Most frequently, supportive treatments are poorly efficient to prevent multiple organ failure and death. We evaluated whether an early plasma removal of inflammatory mediators using high cut-off continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (HCO-CVVHD) could improve hemodynamic status and outcome of these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a randomized open-label trial. Patients with post-cardiac arrest shock (defined as requirement of norepinephrine or epinephrine infusion > 1 mg/h) were included. The experimental group received 2 distinct sessions of HCO-CVVHD during the first 48 h following ICU admission. The control group received continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with standard membranes if needed. The primary endpoint was the delay to shock resolution asssessed by the length of catecholamine infusion. Number of vasopressors-free days at day 28, arterial blood pressure measures every 6-hours, daily fluid balance and mortality (ICU and day-28) were evaluated as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: 35 patients were included: 17 (median age 68.4, 59% male) in the HCO-CVVHD group and 18 (median age 66.3, 83% male) in the control group. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Day-28 mortality rate was 64.7% and 72.2% in the HCO-CVVHD and control group, respectively (p = 0.72). Probability of vasopressors discontinuation over time was similar in the two groups (p for logrank test = 0.67). Number of day-28 catecholamine-free days was 25.1 [0, 26.5] and 24.5 [0, 26.2] in the HCO-CVVHD and control group, respectively (p = 0.65). No difference was observed regarding the daily-dose of vasopressors, arterial pressure profile and fluid balance. CONCLUSION: In cardiac arrest patients, HCO-CVVHD did not decrease the lenght of post-resuscitation shock and had no significant effect on hemodynamic profile. REGISTRATION: NCT00780299.

15.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(5): 573-591, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911807

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prognosis of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients has improved, mainly because of better prevention of rejection by immunosuppressive therapies. However, SOT recipients are highly susceptible to conventional and opportunistic infections, which represent a major cause of morbidity, graft dysfunction and mortality. METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: We cover the current epidemiology and main aspects of infections in SOT recipients including risk factors such as postoperative risks and specific risks for different transplant recipients, key points on anti-infective prophylaxis as well as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We provide an up-to-date guide for management of the main syndromes that can be encountered in SOT recipients including acute respiratory failure, sepsis or septic shock, and central nervous system infections as well as bacterial infections with multidrug-resistant strains, invasive fungal diseases, viral infections and less common pathogens that may impact this patient population. CONCLUSION: We provide state-of the art review of available knowledge of critically ill SOT patients with infections.

16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 39, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877607

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the determinants and the prognosis of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia in patients with septic shock. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study was conducted in a medical ICU in a tertiary care center from January 2008 to December 2016. All consecutive patients diagnosed for septic shock within the first 48 h of ICU admission were included. Patients were classified in three groups: no ICU-acquired infections (no ICU-AI), ICU-acquired pneumonia and non-pulmonary ICU-AI. The determinants of ICU-acquired pneumonia and death were investigated by multivariate competitive risk analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1021 patients were admitted for septic shock, and 797 patients were alive in the ICU after 48 h of management. The incidence of a first episode of ICU-AI was 31%, distributed into pulmonary (17%) and non-pulmonary ICU-AI (14%). Patients with septic shock caused by pneumonia were at increased risk of further pulmonary ICU-AI with a cumulated incidence of 34.4%. A pulmonary source of the initial septic shock was an independent risk factor for subsequent ICU-acquired pneumonia (cause-specific hazard 2.33, 95% confidence interval [1.55-3.52], p < 0.001). ICU-AI were not associated with a higher risk of ICU mortality after adjustment in a multivariate-adjusted cause-specific proportional hazard model. CONCLUSION: Septic shock of pulmonary origin may represent a risk factor for subsequent ICU-acquired pneumonia without affecting mortality.

17.
Crit Care Med ; 47(5): 668-676, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neutropenic enterocolitis occurs in about 5.3% of patients hospitalized for hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy. Data from critically ill patients with neutropenic enterocolitis are scarce. Our objectives were to describe the population of patients with neutropenic enterocolitis admitted to an ICU and to investigate the risk factors of invasive fungal disease. DESIGN: A multicentric retrospective cohort study between January 2010 and August 2017. SETTING: Six French ICUs members of the Groupe de Recherche Respiratoire en Onco-Hématologie research network. PATIENTS: Adult neutropenic patients hospitalized in the ICU with a diagnosis of enteritis and/or colitis. Patients with differential diagnosis (Clostridium difficile colitis, viral colitis, inflammatory enterocolitis, mesenteric ischemia, radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity, and Graft vs Host Disease) were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: We included 134 patients (median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment 10 [8-12]), with 38.8% hospital mortality and 32.1% ICU mortality rates. The main underlying malignancies were acute leukemia (n = 65, 48.5%), lymphoma (n = 49, 36.6%), solid tumor (n = 14, 10.4%), and myeloma (n = 4, 3.0%). Patients were neutropenic during a median of 14 days (9-22 d). Infection was documented in 81 patients (60.4%), including an isolated bacterial infection in 64 patients (47.8%), an isolated fungal infection in nine patients (6.7%), and a coinfection with both pathogens in eight patients (5.0%). Radiologically assessed enteritis (odds ratio, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.32-7.56; p = 0.015) and HIV infection (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.21-3.31; p = 0.016) were independently associated with invasive fungal disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of invasive fungal disease reaches 20% in patients with neutropenic enterocolitis when enteritis is considered. To avoid treatment delay, antifungal therapy might be systematically discussed in ICU patients admitted for neutropenic enterocolitis with radiologically assessed enteritis.

20.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 2, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although outcomes of critically ill patients with haematological malignancies (HMs) have been fully investigated in terms of organ failure and mortality, data are scarce on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in this population. We aim to assess post-intensive care unit (ICU) burden and HRQOL of critically ill patients with HMs and to identify risk factors for quality-of-life (QOL) impairment. RESULTS: In total, 1011 patients with HMs who required ICU admission in 17 ICUs in France and Belgium were included in the study; 278 and 117 patients were evaluated for QOL at 3 months and 1 year, respectively, after ICU discharge. HRQOL was determined by applying the interview form of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Psychological distress symptoms were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Score (HADS) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). In-hospital mortality rates at 3 months and 1 year were, respectively, 39.1, 50.7 and 57.2%, respectively. At 3 months, median [IQR] physical and mental component summary scores (PCS and MCS) (SF-36) were 37 [28-46] and 51 [45-58], respectively. PCS was lower in ICU patients with HMs when compared to general ICU septic patients (52 [5-13], p = 0.00001). The median combined HAD score was 8 [5-13], and the median IES score was 8 [3-16]. However, recovery during the first year after ICU discharge was not consistent in all dimensions of HRQOL. Three months after ICU discharge, the maximum daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and status of the underlying malignancy at ICU admission were significantly associated with MCS impairment (- 0.54 points [95% CI - 0.99; - 0.1], p = 0.018 and - 4.83 points [95% CI - 8.44; - 1.22], p = 0.009, respectively). CONCLUSION: HRQOL is strongly impaired in critically ill patients with HMs at 3 months and 1 year after ICU discharge. Organ failure and disease status are strongly associated with QOL. The kinetic evaluation of QOL at 3 months and 1 year offers the opportunity to focus on QOL aspects that may be improved by therapeutic interventions during the first year after ICU discharge.

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