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1.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51937

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Mexico’s 2018 Report Card evaluates the opportunities available for Mexican children and youth to reach healthy levels of physical activity, sleep, and sedentary behavior. Methods. The Report Card is a surveillance system that gathers data from national surveys, censuses, government documents, websites, grey literature, and published studies to evaluate 16 indicators in four categories: Daily Behaviors; Physical Fitness; Settings and Sources of Influence; and Strategies and Investments. Data were compared to established benchmarks. Each indicator was assigned a grade from 1 – 10 (< 6 is a failing grade) or “incomplete” if data was insufficient/unavailable. Results. Daily Behavior grades were: Overall Physical Activity, 4; Organized Sport Participation, 5; Active Play, 3; Active Transportation, 5; Sleep, 7; and Sedentary Behavior, 3. Physical Fitness, received a 7. Settings and Sources of Influence grades were: Family and Peers, incomplete; School, 3; and Community and Environment, 4. Strategies and Investments were: Government Strategies, 6; and Non-Government Organizations, 2. Conclusion. Low grades in 11 of the 16 indicators indicate that schools, families, communities, and government need to work together to improve physical activity opportunities for children and youth in Mexico.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. El boletín de notas de México correspondiente al 2018 evalúa las oportunidades a disposición de la población infantil y joven mexicana para que puedan desarrollar niveles adecuados de actividad física y sueño, y disminuyan el sedentarismo. Métodos. El boletín es un sistema de vigilancia que recopila los datos obtenidos en las encuestas nacionales, censos, documentos gubernamentales, sitios web, literatura gris y estudios publicados con respecto al análisis de 16 indicadores en 4 categorías: comportamientos diarios, estado físico, entornos y fuentes influyentes, y estrategias e inversión. Los datos fueron cotejados con los puntos de referencia establecidos. A cada indicador se le asignó una calificación entre 1 y 10 (< 6 significa reprobado) o fue marcado como “incompleto” si los datos eran nulos o insuficientes. Resultados. Las calificaciones obtenidas para los comportamientos diarios fueron: actividad física en general: 4; participación en actividades deportivas organizadas: 5; juego activo: 3; modalidades de transporte activas: 5; sueño: 7; y sedentarismo: 3. El estado físico obtuvo un 7. Las calificaciones para los entornos y fuentes influyentes fueron: familiares y pares: “incompleto”; escuela: 3; comunidad y entorno: 4. Para las estrategias e inversión: estrategias gubernamentales: 6; entidades no gubernamentales: 2. Conclusiones. Las bajas calificaciones obtenidas en 11 de los 16 indicadores demuestran que las escuelas, las familias, las comunidades y el gobierno tienen que aunar esfuerzos para mejorar las oportunidades que tiene la población infantil y joven en México para desarrollar niveles de actividad física satisfactorios.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. O Report Card de 2018 para o México avalia as oportunidades disponíveis para que crianças e jovens mexicanos atinjam níveis adequados de atividade física, sono e comportamento sedentário. Métodos. O Report Card é um sistema de vigilância que reúne dados de pesquisas nacionais, censos, documentos governamentais, websites, literatura cinzenta e estudos publicados para avaliar 16 indicadores em quatro categorias: Comportamentos Diários, Forma Física, Ambientes e Influências, e Estratégias e Investimentos. Os dados foram comparados com indicadores de referência estabelecidos. A cada indicador foi atribuída uma pontuação de 1 a 10 (pontuações abaixo de 6 indicam reprovação) ou "incompleta" se os dados fossem insuficientes/indisponíveis. Resultados. As pontuações para o Comportamento Diário foram as seguintes: atividade física geral: 4; participação em esportes organizados: 5; brincadeiras ativas: 3; transporte ativo: 5; sono: 7; comportamento sedentário: 3. A pontuação para a Forma Física foi de 7. As pontuações para Ambientes e Influências foram: família e amigos, incompleta; escola: 3; comunidade e ambiente: 4. As pontuações para Estratégias e Investimentos foram: estratégias governamentais: 6; organizações não-governamentais: 2. Conclusão. As pontuações baixas em 11 dos 16 indicadores indicam que as escolas, famílias, comunidades e o governo precisam trabalhar juntos para oferecer mais oportunidades de atividade física às crianças e jovens no México.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , México , Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , México , Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde
2.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 66(3): 354-360, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606019

RESUMO

The concept of correlation entails having a couple of observations (X and Y), that is to say, the value that Y acquires for a determined value of X; the correlation makes it possible to examine the trend of two variables to be grouped together. We know that, with increasing age, blood pressure figures also increase, therefore, if we want to answer a research question like "what is the connection between age and blood pressure?" the relevant statistical test is a correlation test. This test makes it possible to quantify the magnitude of the correlation between two variables, but it is also helpful for predicting values. If these variables had a perfect correlation, the value of the variable Y could be deduced by knowing the value of X. Because of these advantages, the correlation is one of the most frequently used tests in the clinical setting since, in addition to measuring the direction and magnitude of the association of two variables, it is one of the foundations for prediction models, such as linear regression model, logistic regression model and Cox proportional hazards model.

3.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(4): 399-405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486784

RESUMO

Research designs refer to the way information is obtained and are limited by ethical, economic and temporal viability. Research designs are standardized strategies to reduce biases, which in the architectural model of research are identified in the baseline state, the maneuver and the outcome; hence, there are no specific designs for each question. The design with the lowest probability of bias is the clinical trial, followed by cohort and case-control studies and, finally, by cross-sectional surveys. Among the main characteristics that give merit to research designs are the following: population inquiry, which refers to the situation of the population in relation to the clinical course/natural history of the disease; the maneuver, or action that is expected to modify the baseline state, which can be observational or experimental; follow-up, or documented monitoring that is given to each subject, which can be longitudinal or cross-sectional; and directionality, which can prolective or retrolective and refers to the timing of data collection for research purposes. It will always be better having a valuable question, even when answered with a design with higher risk of bias, than a question that is irrelevant or has no applicability.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Viés , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Humanos
4.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 111(9): 696-698, sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4880

RESUMO

Antecedentes: la relación entre el tiempo de tránsito intestinal (TTI) de la cápsula endoscópica (CE) y el diagnóstico de hemorragia digestiva media (HDM) es controvertida. Objetivo: evaluar la relación del TTI de la CE y la identificación de la HDM. Material y métodos: se dividieron las CE según el TTI en < 4 horas y ≥ 4 horas. Resultados: las CE con TTI ≥ 4 horas identificaron más angiodisplasias (p = 0.023), lesiones únicas (p = 0.029) y yeyunales (p = 0.001) con un OR de 3.13 (IC 95%, 1.61-6.10, p = 0.001) para identificar la causa de la HDM. Conclusiones: el TTI de la CE ≥ 4 horas incrementa el diagnóstico de HDM


Background: the relationship between small bowel transit time (SBTT) of the capsule endoscopy (CE) and the diagnosis of small bowel bleeding (SBB) is controversial. Objective: to evaluate the relationship between SBTT and CE and the identification of SBB. Material and methods: CE was divided according to SBTT into < 4 hours and ≥ 4 hours. Results: CE with SBTT ≥ 4 hours identified more angioectasias (p = 0.023), single lesions (p = 0.029) and jejunal lesions (p = 0.001) with an OR of 3.13 (95% CI, 1.61-6.10, p = 0.001) to identify the cause of SBB. Conclusions: CE SBTT of ≥ 4 hours increases the diagnosis of SBB

5.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 111(9): 696-698, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the relationship between small bowel transit time (SBTT) of the capsule endoscopy (CE) and the diagnosis of small bowel bleeding (SBB) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between SBTT and CE and the identification of SBB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CE was divided according to SBTT into < 4 hours and ≥ 4 hours. RESULTS: CE with SBTT ≥ 4 hours identified more angioectasias (p = 0.023), single lesions (p = 0.029) and jejunal lesions (p = 0.001) with an OR of 3.13 (95% CI, 1.61-6.10, p = 0.001) to identify the cause of SBB. CONCLUSIONS: CE SBTT of ≥ 4 hours increases the diagnosis of SBB.

6.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(2): 168-175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056591

RESUMO

A clinical research question requires the concurrence of clinical experience and knowledge on methodology and statistics in that who formulates it. Initially, a research question should have a structure that clearly establishes what is that which is being sought (consequence or outcome), in whom (baseline status), and by action of what (maneuver). Subsequently, its reasoning must explore four aspects: feasibility and reasonableness of the questioning, lack of a prior answer, relevance of the answer to be obtained, and applicability. Once these aspects are satisfactorily covered, the question can be regarded as being "clinically relevant", which is different from being statistically significant, which refers to the probability of the result being driven by chance, which does not reflect the relevance of the question or the outcome. One should never forget that every maneuver entails adverse events that, when serious, discredit good results. It is imperative to have the possible answer estimated from within the structure of the question. The function of clinical research is to corroborate or reject a hypothesis, rather than to empirically test to find out what the outcome is.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos
7.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 15(1): 3-20, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176072

RESUMO

Existen varias guías de práctica clínica tanto nacionales como internacionales para el tratamiento del lupus eritematoso sistémico. No obstante, la mayoría de las guías disponibles no están diseñadas para población mexicana o solamente son para el manejo de manifestaciones específicas como nefritis lúpica o para algún estado fisiológico como el embarazo. El Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología se propuso elaborar unas guías de práctica clínica que conjuntaran la mayor parte de las manifestaciones de la enfermedad y que incluyeran adicionalmente pautas en situaciones controversiales como lo son la vacunación y el periodo perioperatorio. En el presente documento se presenta la «Guía de práctica clínica para el manejo del lupus eritematoso sistémico» propuesta por el Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología, que puede ser de utilidad principalmente a médicos no reumatólogos que se ven en la necesidad de tratar a pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico sin tener la formación de especialistas en reumatología. En esta guía se presentan recomendaciones sobre el manejo de manifestaciones generales, articulares, renales, cardiovasculares, pulmonares, neurológicas, hematológicas, gastrointestinales, respecto a la vacunación y al manejo perioperatorio


There are national and international clinical practice guidelines for systemic lupus erythematosus treatment. Nonetheless, most of them are not designed for the Mexican population or are devoted only to the treatment of certain disease manifestations, like lupus nephritis, or are designed for some physiological state like pregnancy. The Mexican College of Rheumatology aimed to create clinical practice guidelines that included the majority of the manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, and also incorporated guidelines in controversial situations like vaccination and the perioperative period. The present document introduces the «Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus» proposed by the Mexican College of Rheumatology, which could be useful mostly for non-rheumatologist physicians who need to treat patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without having the appropriate training in the field of rheumatology. In these guidelines, the reader will find recommendations on the management of general, articular, kidney, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological, hematologic and gastrointestinal manifestations, and recommendations on vaccination and treatment management during the perioperative period


Assuntos
Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , México/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica
8.
Reumatol Clin ; 15(1): 3-20, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735288

RESUMO

There are national and international clinical practice guidelines for systemic lupus erythematosus treatment. Nonetheless, most of them are not designed for the Mexican population or are devoted only to the treatment of certain disease manifestations, like lupus nephritis, or are designed for some physiological state like pregnancy. The Mexican College of Rheumatology aimed to create clinical practice guidelines that included the majority of the manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, and also incorporated guidelines in controversial situations like vaccination and the perioperative period. The present document introduces the «Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus¼ proposed by the Mexican College of Rheumatology, which could be useful mostly for non-rheumatologist physicians who need to treat patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without having the appropriate training in the field of rheumatology. In these guidelines, the reader will find recommendations on the management of general, articular, kidney, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological, hematologic and gastrointestinal manifestations, and recommendations on vaccination and treatment management during the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , México
9.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 66(4): 474-482, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105428

RESUMO

The ethical principles of a research proposal are not contained only in a paragraph or in the informed consent form; actually, they are an essential part of the whole protocol from the beginning to the end. In a complementary manner to the regulatory and educative documents, our objective in this article is to propose a checklist of questions so researches can ensure they have included the necessary information and precautions to meet the ethical considerations that are required for every research with human beings, which shall be called List of Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. We propose questions that researchers must ask themselves when they compose the background, justification, objectives, research question, hypothesis, selection criteria, sample size calculation, sampling, research design, statistical analysis plan, ethical aspects, publication plan, and references.

11.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 14(3): 127-136, mayo-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174110

RESUMO

El presente documento refleja el posicionamiento del Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología y de expertos sobre el uso de medicamentos biocomparables (conocidos como biosimilares en otros países) en enfermedades reumáticas. En resumen, este posicionamiento considera que si bien los biocomparables deben considerarse como intercambiables, no es ética la sustitución automática de medicamentos sin previo aviso en pacientes estables durante el seguimiento; que la aprobación de un biocomparable debe llevarse a cabo solo después de revisar exhaustivamente las pruebas preclínicas y clínicas señaladas por la ley mexicana; que debe modificarse la forma de enfatizar en su nomenclatura que se trata de un medicamento biotecnológico innovador o biocomparable de manera clara; que no es adecuado elegir como tratamiento un biocomparable basándose únicamente en aspectos económicos ni realizarse la extrapolación de indicaciones basándose únicamente en la aprobación obtenida por el innovador y en ausencia de datos de seguridad y eficacia para el biocomparable


The present document is a position statement of the Mexican College of Rheumatology on the use of biosimilars in rheumatic diseases. This position considers that biosimilars should be considered as interchangeable, that automatic substitution without previous notice in stable patients during follow-up is not ethical, that the approval of a biosimilar should only be given after exhaustive review of preclinical and clinical data marked by Mexican regulations, that it should be clearly stated in the nomenclature of biologic drugs which is the innovator and which is the biosimilar, that it is not correct to choose a biosimilar as treatment based only on economic reasons or extrapolate indications based only on the approval of the innovator and in the absence of safety and efficacy data for the biosimilar


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicamentos Biossimilares/normas , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Intercambialidade de Medicamentos , Antirreumáticos/normas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas/normas
12.
Reumatol Clin ; 14(3): 127-136, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807650

RESUMO

The present document is a position statement of the Mexican College of Rheumatology on the use of biosimilars in rheumatic diseases. This position considers that biosimilars should be considered as interchangeable, that automatic substitution without previous notice in stable patients during follow-up is not ethical, that the approval of a biosimilar should only be given after exhaustive review of preclinical and clinical data marked by Mexican regulations, that it should be clearly stated in the nomenclature of biologic drugs which is the innovator and which is the biosimilar, that it is not correct to choose a biosimilar as treatment based only on economic reasons or extrapolate indications based only on the approval of the innovator and in the absence of safety and efficacy data for the biosimilar.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Aprovação de Drogas , Custos de Medicamentos , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/prevenção & controle , Substituição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , México , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Patentes como Assunto , Terminologia como Assunto , Equivalência Terapêutica , Revelação da Verdade
13.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 52(5): 558-65, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25301131

RESUMO

Systematic reviews (SR) are studies made in order to ask clinical questions based on original articles. Meta-analysis (MTA) is the mathematical analysis of SR. These analyses are divided in two groups, those which evaluate the measured results of quantitative variables (for example, the body mass index -BMI-) and those which evaluate qualitative variables (for example, if a patient is alive or dead, or if he is healing or not). Quantitative variables generally use the mean difference analysis and qualitative variables can be performed using several calculations: odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR), absolute risk reduction (ARR) and hazard ratio (HR). These analyses are represented through forest plots which allow the evaluation of each individual study, as well as the heterogeneity between studies and the overall effect of the intervention. These analyses are mainly based on Student's t test and chi-squared. To take appropriate decisions based on the MTA, it is important to understand the characteristics of statistical methods in order to avoid misinterpretations.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Metanálise como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Humanos
14.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 52(6): 666-72, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354061

RESUMO

Bioethics in research is an essential part of the structured review process of an article and it is based on three fundamental principles: respect for persons, beneficence and justice. In addition to not providing valid knowledge, a research with inadequate design, execution and statistical analysis is not ethical either, since these methodological deficiencies will produce information that will not be useful and, therefore, the risks that the participants were exposed to will have been in vain. Beyond scientific validity, there are other aspects that outline if an investigation is ethical, such as the clinical and social value of a study, a fair selection of participants, favorable risk-benefit balance, an independent review, the informed consent and respect for participants and potential participants. Throughout the article here presented, the documents that profile the behavior of investigators to protect the participants, such as the Declaration of Helsinki, the national regulations that rule us and the differences between research without risk, with minimal risk and with greater than minimal risk are discussed. That like in daily life, behavior in research involving human participants must be self-regulated, ie, people with knowledge of the existence of the law discover that the man is outside the realm of nature where work is done under the necessity of natural causality, and falls within the scope of the will; only if the man is free to decide their actions may be a law regulating their action.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Experimentação Humana/ética , Beneficência , Experimentação Humana/normas , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Medição de Risco/ética
15.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 52(4): 430-5, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25078746

RESUMO

Survival analyses are commonly used to determine the time of an event (for example, death). However, they can be used also for other clinical outcomes on the condition that these are dichotomous, for example healing time. These analyses only consider the relationship of one variable. However, Cox proportional hazards model is a multivariate analysis of the survival analysis, in which other potentially confounding covariates of the effect of the main maneuver studied, such as age, gender or disease stage, are taken into account. This analysis can include both quantitative and qualitative variables in the model. The measure of association used is called hazard ratio (HR) or relative risk ratio, which is not the same as the relative risk or odds ratio (OR). The difference is that the HR refers to the possibility that one of the groups develops the event before it is compared with the other group. The proportional hazards multivariate model of Cox is the most widely used in medicine when the phenomenon is studied in two dimensions: time and event.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Humanos
16.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 52(3): 308-15, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24878091

RESUMO

Decision making in health care implies knowledge of the clinical course of the disease. Knowing the course allows us to estimate the likelihood of occurrence of a phenomenon at a given time or its duration. Within the statistical models that allow us to have a summary measure to estimate the time of occurrence of a phenomenon in a given population are the linear regression (the outcome variable is continuous and normally distributed -time to the occurrence of the event-), logistic regression (outcome variable is dichotomous, and it is evaluated at one single interval), and survival curves (outcome event is dichotomous, and it can be evaluated at multiple intervals). The first reference we have of this type of analysis is the work of the astronomer Edmond Halley, an English physicist and mathematician, famous for the calculation of the appearance of the comet orbit, recognized as the first periodic comet (1P/Halley's Comet). Halley also contributed in the area of health to estimate the mortality rate for a Polish population. The survival curve allows us to estimate the probability of an event occurring at different intervals. Also, it leds us to estimate the median survival time of any phenomenon of interest (although the used term is survival, the outcome does not need to be death, it may be the occurrence of any other event).


Assuntos
Análise de Sobrevida , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier
17.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 52(2): 192-7, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24758859

RESUMO

The complexity of the causality phenomenon in clinical practice implies that the result of a maneuver is not solely caused by the maneuver, but by the interaction among the maneuver and other baseline factors or variables occurring during the maneuver. This requires methodological designs that allow the evaluation of these variables. When the outcome is a binary variable, we use the multiple logistic regression model (MLRM). This multivariate model is useful when we want to predict or explain, adjusting due to the effect of several risk factors, the effect of a maneuver or exposition over the outcome. In order to perform an MLRM, the outcome or dependent variable must be a binary variable and both categories must mutually exclude each other (i.e. live/death, healthy/ill); on the other hand, independent variables or risk factors may be either qualitative or quantitative. The effect measure obtained from this model is the odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), from which we can estimate the proportion of the outcome's variability explained through the risk factors. For these reasons, the MLRM is used in clinical research, since one of the main objectives in clinical practice comprises the ability to predict or explain an event where different risk or prognostic factors are taken into account.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Modelos Logísticos , Humanos , Julgamento
18.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 52(1): 70-5, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24625487

RESUMO

The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is based on the general linear models. This technique involves a regression model, often multiple, in which the outcome is presented as a continuous variable, the independent variables are qualitative or are introduced into the model as dummy or dichotomous variables, and factors for which adjustment is required (covariates) can be in any measurement level (i.e. nominal, ordinal or continuous). The maneuvers can be entered into the model as 1) fixed effects, or 2) random effects. The difference between fixed effects and random effects depends on the type of information we want from the analysis of the effects. ANCOVA effect separates the independent variables from the effect of co-variables, i.e., corrects the dependent variable eliminating the influence of covariates, given that these variables change in conjunction with maneuvers or treatments, affecting the outcome variable. ANCOVA should be done only if it meets three assumptions: 1) the relationship between the covariate and the outcome is linear, 2) there is homogeneity of slopes, and 3) the covariate and the independent variable are independent from each other.


Assuntos
Análise de Variância , Pesquisa Biomédica , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Modelos Lineares , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics ; 7(4-6): 243-51, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25968937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Genetic variation in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has a key role in lipid metabolism. However, its contribution to the amount and distribution of body fat is under investigation. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between genetic variation in ApoE and obesity-related traits in Mexican school children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometric, body composition and physical activity measures were conducted using standard methods in 300 children (177 girls/123 boys) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. DNA was isolated from saliva. ApoE genotypes were analyzed by allelic discrimination. The association between variation in ApoE and anthropometric and body composition measures was investigated using the General Linear Model. RESULTS: The mean±SD values for age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were 9.05±0.80 years, 19.01±3.83 and 67.98±10.97 cm, respectively. Approximately 46% of the participants were overweight or obese. A significant association between ApoE isoforms and WC was found after controlling for age, sex and the percentage of physical activity (p=0.025). Significant main effects were found for vigorous physical activity and light physical activity influencing the adiposity-related BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p=0.044), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in ApoE and physical activity intensity were associated with adiposity-related phenotypes in Mexican school children.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , México , Atividade Motora , Nutrigenômica , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 51(3): 300-3, 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23883459

RESUMO

Among the test to show differences between means, the Student t test is the most characteristic. Its basic algebraic structure shows the difference between two means weighted by their dispersion. In this way, you can estimate the p value and the 95 % confidence interval of the mean difference. An essential feature is that the variable from which the mean is going to be calculated must have a normal distribution. The Student t test is used to compare two unrelated means (compared between two maneuvers), this is known as t test for independent samples. It is also used to compare two related means (a comparison before and after a maneuver in just one group), what is called paired t test. When the comparison is between more than two means (three or more dependent means, or three or more independent means) an ANOVA test (or an analysis of variance) it is used to perform the analysis.


Assuntos
Análise de Variância , Pesquisa Biomédica , Modelos Estatísticos , Julgamento
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