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1.
Nefrologia ; 27(5): 565-73, 2007.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18045032

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cyclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity. As mitochondria are one of the main sources of ROS in cells, we evaluated the role of CsA in mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells. We incubated cells with CsA 1 microM for 24 hours and studies were performed with flow citometry and confocal microscopy. We studied mitochondrial NAD(P)H content, superoxide anion (O2.-) production (MitoSOX Red), oxidation of cardiolipin of inner mitochondrial membrane (NAO) and mitochondrial membrane potential (DIOC2(3)). Also we analyzed the intracellular ROS synthesis (H2DCF-DA) and reduced glutation (GSH) of cells. Our results showed that CsA decreased NAD(P)H and membrane potential, and increased O2.- in mitochondria. CsA also provoked oxidation of cardiolipin. Furthermore, CsA increased intracellular ROS production and decreased GSH content. These results suggest that CsA has crucial effects in mitochondria. CsA modified mitochondrial physiology through the decrease of antioxidant mitochondrial compounds as NAD(P)H and the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of oxidants as O2.-. Also, CsA alters lipidic structure of inner mitochondrial membrane through the oxidation of cardiolipin. These effects trigger a chain of events that favour intracellular synthesis of ROS and depletion of GSH that can compromise cellular viability. Nephrotoxic cellular effects of CsA can be explained, at least in part, through its influence on mitochondrial functionalism.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/efeitos adversos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/ultraestrutura , Suínos
2.
Nefrología (Madr.) ; 27(5): 565-573, sept.-oct. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-057269

RESUMO

Estudiamos el efecto de la ciclosporina A (CsA) sobre la estructura y función mitocondrial en células LLC-PK1. Las células se incubaron durante 24 horas con CsA 1 mM y se analizó la producción de anión superóxido, contenido de NAD(P)H, oxidación de cardiolipina y potencial de membrana mitocondrial; además se estudió la formación de radicales libres y el contenido de glutatión reducido intracelular. Nuestros resultados demuestran que la CsA provocó un aumento del anión superóxido mitocondrial de modo paralelo al descenso de NAD(P)H; además, se produjo oxidación de la cardiolipina de la membrana interna y un descenso del potencial de membrana mitocondrial. Finalmente, observamos un aumento de la producción de radicales libres intracelulares y un descenso del glutatión reducido. En conclusión, la CsA produce modificaciones importantes en la fisiología y estructura mitocondrial con aumento de la síntesis de especies reactivas de oxígeno y descenso de la capacidad antioxidante, hechos que podrían justificar la toxicidad celular de la droga


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cyclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity. As mitochondria are one of the main sources of ROS in cells, we evaluated the role of CsA in mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells. We incubated cells with CsA 1 mM for 24 hours and studies were performed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy.We studied mitochondrial NAD(P)H content, superoxide anion (O2.-) production (MitoSOX Red), oxidation of cardiolipin of inner mitochondrial membrane (NAO) and mitochondrial membrane potential [DIOC2(3)]. We also analyzed the intracellular ROS synthesis (H2DCF-DA) and reduced glutation (GSH) of cells. Our results showed that CsA decreased NAD(P)H and membrane potential, and increased O2.- in mitochondria. CsA also provoked oxidation of cardiolipin. Furthermore, CsA increased intracellular ROS production and decreased GSH content. These results suggest that CsA has crucial effects in mitochondria. CsA modified mitochondrial physiology through the decrease of antioxidant mitochondrial compounds as NAD(P)H and the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of oxidants such O2.-. Also, CsA alters lipidic structure of inner mitochondrial membrane through the oxidation of cardiolipin. These effects trigger a chain of events that favour intracellular synthesis of ROS and depletion of GSH that can compromise cellular viability. Nephrotoxic cellular effects of CsA can be explained, at least in part, through its influence on mitochondrial functionalism


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/efeitos adversos , Mitocôndrias , Túbulos Renais , Estresse Oxidativo , Radicais Livres/análise , Cardiolipinas/análise , Superóxidos/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , NADP/análise , Células LLC-PK1
3.
Cytometry A ; 69(3): 161-4, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16479613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine A increases oxidative stress in kidney and we hypothesized that cyclooxygenase (COX) may be involved in this effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mesangial cells of Cyclosporine A-treated (4, 7 or 10 days) rats were obtained to evaluate mRNA expression of COX-isoforms (COX-1, constitutive and COX-2, inducible) by "in situ" hybridization. Probes were labelled using "Gene Image Random Prime Labelling Protocol" and COX expression was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: "In situ" hybridization by flow cytometry is an useful method to detect mRNA. We observed an increased COX-2 expression in a time-dependent manner in parallel with Reactive Oxygen Species synthesis. COX-1 expression increased only at 10 days.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Isoenzimas/genética , Masculino , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Nefrologia ; 25(2): 131-6, 138, 140, 2005.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15912649

RESUMO

All-trans retinoic acid (AR-t) is used for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and renal cell carcinoma and it also has therapeutic value in several animal models of renal disease. Among its renal targets, mesangial cells have been widely studied: they have both retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) and the cell growth is inhibited when human mesangial cells are incubated with 1-10 microM AR-t. Although his effect has been related with the antiproliferative action of AR-t, there are no studies on the involvement of apoptosis in AR-t induced cell growth when higher concentrations of retinoid are used. Our studies show that 25 microM AR-t triggers mesangial cell apoptosis assessed by light and fluorescence microscopy (Giemsa stain and acridine orange stain, respectively), DNA electrophoresis, flow cytometry (annexin-V) and immunocytochemistry (TUNEL). AR-t induced apoptosis was not inhibited by preincubation with the RXR pan-antagonist HX531 nor with the RAR pan-antagonist AGN 193109, this suggesting RAR and RXIR are not involved in AR-t induced cell death. Previous results of our group showed that ERK (extracellular regulated kinase) and INK (c-Jun kinase), two members of the MAP (mitogen activated protein) kinase family, are involved in non apoptotic effects of AR-t on mesangial cells. Therefore we focussed on the stress activated p38 kinase, the third member of the MAPK family, to investigate its involvement in AR-t induced apoptosis. The results confirmed a role of p38 since: 1) preincubation with B5203589, a p38 inhibitor, inhibited ARA induced apoptosis; 2) incubation with AR-t induced p38 phosphorilation after few minutes and p38 remained phosphorilated for at least 8 hours and 3) AR-t induced p38 phosphorilation was inhibited by SB203589. These data suggest that AR-t might have toxic side effects on the kidney but also suggest that AR-t could be an useful inhibitor of pathological mesangial cell expansion.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesângio Glomerular/citologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
5.
Nefrología (Madr.) ; 25(2): 131-140, mar. 2005. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-042540

RESUMO

El ácido retinoico todo-trans (AR-t) se utiliza en clínica en el tratamiento de la leucemiapromielocítica aguda y el cáncer renal. También presenta efecto terapéutico endiversas formas de enfermedad renal experimental. Las células mesangiales son una delas dianas farmacológicas de AR-t mejor estudiadas: presentan receptores de ácido retinoico(RAR) y receptores X de retinoides (RXR) y el AR-t, a concentraciones entre 1 y 10µM, inhibe su crecimiento. Este efecto se ha relacionado con la acción antiproliferativadel AR-t, aunque no se ha estudiado la participación de mecanismos apoptóticos cuandose utilizan mayores concentraciones de AR-t. El presente trabajo demuestra que AR-t25 µM induce apoptosis de células mesangiales humanas en cultivo, caracterizada porestudios de microscopía óptica y de fluorescencia (tinciones de Giemsa y naranja deacridina, respectivamente), electroforesis del ADN fragmentado, citometría de flujo(anexina-V/ioduro de propidio) e inmunocitoquímica (TUNEL). Ni HX531 (pan-antagonistaRXR), ni AGN193109 (pan-antagonista RAR) redujeron el grado de muerte celularinducido por el AR-t, lo que sugiere un mecanismo independiente de receptores. Resultadosprevios de nuestro grupo indican que dos de los tres miembros de las quinasasactivadas por mitógenos (MAP), ERK (quinasa regulada por estímulos extracelulares) yJNK (quinasa de c-Jun), están implicados en efectos no apoptóticos del AR-t en célulasmesangiales. Nos centramos, pues, en el potencial pro-apoptótico del tercer miembro,la quinasa activada por estrés p38. Confirmamos su implicación en la apoptosis inducidapor el AR-t porque: 1) su inhibidor farmacológico, SB203580, previno dicha apoptosis2) El AR-t indujo en pocos minutos la fosforilación de p38, manteniéndose fosforiladadurante las 8 horas posteriores; y 3) dicha fosforilación se inhibió por preincubación conSB203580. Estos datos sugieren una posible toxicidad renal del AR-t, pero también suutilidad para controlar la proliferación patológica de células mesangiales


All-trans retinoic acid (AR-t) is used for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia andrenal cell carcinoma and it also has therapeutic value in several animal models of renaldisease. Among its renal targets, mesangial cells have been widely studied: they haveboth retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) and the cell growthis inhibited when human mesangial cells are incubated with 1-10 µM AR-t. Althoughhis effect has been related with the antiproliferative action of AR-t, there are no studieson the involvement of apoptosis in AR-t induced cell growth when higher concentrationsof retinoid are used. Our studies show that 25 µM AR-t triggers mesangial cellapoptosis assessed by light and fluorescence microscopy (Giemsa stain and acridineorange stain, respectively), DNA electrophoresis, flow cytometry (annexin-V) andimmunocytochemistry (TUNEL). AR-t induced apoptosis was not inhibited by preincubationwith the RXR pan-antagonist HX531 nor with the RAR pan-antagonist AGN193109, this suggesting RAR and RXIR are not involved in AR-t induced cell death.Previous results of our group showed that ERK (extracellular regulated kinase) andJNK (c-Jun kinase), two members of the MAP (mitogen activated protein) kinasefamily, are involved in non apoptotic effects of AR-t on mesangial cells. Therefore wefocussed on the stress activated p38 kinase, the third member of the MAPK family, toinvestigate its involvement in AR-t induced apoptosis. The results confirmed a role ofp38 since: 1) preincubation with SB203589, a p38 inhibitor, inhibited ARA inducedapoptosis; 2) incubation with AR-t induced p38 phosphorilation after few minutesand p38 remained phosphorilated for at least 8 hours and 3) AR-t induced p38 phosphorilationwas inhibited by SB203589. These data suggest that AR-t migth have toxicside effects on the kidney but also suggest that AR-t could be an useful inhibitor of pathologicalmesangial cell expansion


Assuntos
Humanos , Apoptose , Mesângio Glomerular/citologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas
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