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1.
Head Neck ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the low morbidity of middle turbinate mucosal flap (MTMF) to repair anterior skull base defects. METHODS: Skull base endonasal endoscopic surgeries performed at a tertiary hospital between 2015 and 2018 were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according the existence or not of a significant intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. In Group 1 (n = 28), gasket seal and a pedicled endonasal flap were used to repair the defect: 13 nasoseptal flaps (NSF), 8 inferolateral wall flaps (ILF), and 7 MTMF. In Group 2 only an endonasal flap was used: 9 NSF, 4 ILF, and 18 MTMF. Surgical and recovery time were analyzed (Student's t test). Our favorite surgical technique is described. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were included. Average surgical time was 27.7, 41.6, and 11.3 min for NSF, ILF, and MTMF, respectively. MTMF showed a faster recovery. CONCLUSION: MTMF is a safe reconstructive option for anterior skull base defects.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 863, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441632

RESUMO

Detection and delineation are key steps for retrieving and structuring information of the electrocardiogram (ECG), being thus crucial for numerous tasks in clinical practice. Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are often considered state-of-the-art for this purpose but require laborious rule readaptation for adapting to unseen morphologies. This work explores the adaptation of the the U-Net, a deep learning (DL) network employed for image segmentation, to electrocardiographic data. The model was trained using PhysioNet's QT database, a small dataset of 105 2-lead ambulatory recordings, while being independently tested for many architectural variations, comprising changes in the model's capacity (depth, width) and inference strategy (single- and multi-lead) in a fivefold cross-validation manner. This work features several regularization techniques to alleviate data scarcity, such as semi-supervised pre-training with low-quality data labels, performing ECG-based data augmentation and applying in-built model regularizers. The best performing configuration reached precisions of 90.12%, 99.14% and 98.25% and recalls of 98.73%, 99.94% and 99.88% for the P, QRS and T waves, respectively, on par with DSP-based approaches. Despite being a data-hungry technique trained on a small dataset, a U-Net based approach demonstrates to be a viable alternative for this task.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 528742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134290

RESUMO

Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are transmembrane proteins that initiate and propagate neuronal and cardiac action potentials. NaV channel ß subunits have been widely studied due to their modulatory role. Mice null for Scn1b, which encodes NaV ß1 and ß1b subunits, have defects in neuronal development and excitability, spontaneous generalized seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, and early mortality. A mutation in exon 3 of SCN1B, c.308A>T leading to ß1_p.D103V and ß1b_p.D103V, was previously found in a patient with a history of proarrhythmic conditions with progressive atrial standstill as well as cognitive and motor deficits accompanying structural brain abnormalities. We investigated whether ß1 or ß1b subunits carrying this mutation affect NaV1.5 and/or NaV1.1 currents using a whole cell patch-clamp technique in tsA201 cells. We observed a decrease in sodium current density in cells co-expressing NaV1.5 or NaV1.1 and ß1D103V compared to ß1WT. Interestingly, ß1bD103V did not affect NaV1.1 sodium current density but induced a positive shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation and a faster recovery from inactivation compared to ß1bWT. The ß1bD103V isoform did not affect NaV1.5 current properties. Although the SCN1B_c.308A>T mutation may not be the sole cause of the patient's symptoms, we observed a clear loss of function in both cardiac and brain sodium channels. Our results suggest that the mutant ß1 and ß1b subunits play a fundamental role in the observed electrical dysfunction.

5.
ISME J ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879462

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori is a common component of the human stomach microbiota, possibly dating back to the speciation of Homo sapiens. A history of pathogen evolution in allopatry has led to the development of genetically distinct H. pylori subpopulations, associated with different human populations, and more recent admixture among H. pylori subpopulations can provide information about human migrations. However, little is known about the degree to which some H. pylori genes are conserved in the face of admixture, potentially indicating host adaptation, or how virulence genes spread among different populations. We analyzed H. pylori genomes from 14 countries in the Americas, strains from the Iberian Peninsula, and public genomes from Europe, Africa, and Asia, to investigate how admixture varies across different regions and gene families. Whole-genome analyses of 723 H. pylori strains from around the world showed evidence of frequent admixture in the American strains with a complex mosaic of contributions from H. pylori populations originating in the Americas as well as other continents. Despite the complex admixture, distinctive genomic fingerprints were identified for each region, revealing novel American H. pylori subpopulations. A pan-genome Fst analysis showed that variation in virulence genes had the strongest fixation in America, compared with non-American populations, and that much of the variation constituted non-synonymous substitutions in functional domains. Network analyses suggest that these virulence genes have followed unique evolutionary paths in the American populations, spreading into different genetic backgrounds, potentially contributing to the high risk of gastric cancer in the region.

7.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 65, 2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the maturation of the immune system and the prevention of diseases during childhood. Early-life short-course antibiotic use may affect the progression of subsequent disease conditions by changing both host microbiota and immunologic development. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that early-life antibiotic exposures predispose to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: By using a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, we evaluated the effect on disease outcomes of early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) using tylosin, a macrolide and amoxicillin, a beta-lactam. We evaluated microbiota effects at the 16S rRNA gene level, and intestinal T cells by flow cytometry. Antibiotic-perturbed or control microbiota were transferred to pups that then were challenged with DSS. RESULTS: A single PAT course early-in-life exacerbated later DSS-induced colitis by both perturbing the microbial community and altering mucosal immune cell composition. By conventionalizing germ-free mice with either antibiotic-perturbed or control microbiota obtained 40 days after the challenge ended, we showed the transferrable and direct effect of the still-perturbed microbiota on colitis severity in the DSS model. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this experimental model provide evidence that early-life microbiota perturbation may increase risk of colitis later in life.

8.
Phys Rev E ; 101(5-1): 052318, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575233

RESUMO

Predicting missing links in real networks is an important open problem in network science to which considerable efforts have been devoted, giving as a result a vast plethora of link prediction methods in the literature. In this work, we take a different point of view on the problem and focus on predictability instead of prediction. By considering ensembles defined by well-known network models, we prove analytically that even the best possible link prediction method, given by the ensemble connection probabilities, yields a limited precision that depends quantitatively on the topological properties-such as degree heterogeneity, clustering, and community structure-of the ensemble. This suggests an absolute limitation to the predictability of missing links in real networks, due to the irreducible uncertainty arising from the random nature of link formation processes. We show that a predictability limit can be estimated in real networks, and we propose a method to approximate such a bound from real-world networks with missing links. The predictability limit gives a benchmark to gauge the quality of link prediction methods in real networks.

9.
Aquichan ; 20(2): e2024, Apr.-June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1130960

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To know the influence of the environment (family functionality, social support and neighbourhood and school environment) on the development of adolescent resilience. Methods: Descriptive, correlational design. A total of 184 adolescents from six schools in the Aranjuez district of Medellín participated. Probabilistic, two-stage sampling. Five scales were used to collect data: 1) The child and youth resilience measurement scale; 2) The neighbourhood environment questionnaire; 3) The family cohesion and adaptability assessment scale; 4) The multidimensional scale of perceived social support; and 5) The school environment questionnaire. Data were analysed though SPSS 24v software. Results: a relationship was found between resilience and neighbourhood environment (rs= .324, p = .000), family functionality (rs= .380, p = .000), social support (rs= .456, p = .000) and school environment (rs= .353, p = .000). In addition, resilience was explained in 35.8 % by the neighbourhood environment (β= .20; p = .012), family functionality (β = .13; p = .090), social support (β= .30; p = .000) and school environment (β = .15; p = .064). Conclusion: Adolescent resilient behaviour is influenced by social support, family functioning, and school and neighbourhood environment, all external factors fostering self-regulation, as mentioned by Roy's Nursing model.


RESUMEN Objetivo: conocer la influencia del ambiente (funcionalidad familiar, apoyo social y ambiente barrial y escolar) en el desarrollo de la resiliencia de los adolescentes. Métodos: diseño descriptivo, correlacional. Participaron 184 adolescentes de seis colegios de la comuna Aranjuez de Medellín. Muestreo probabilístico, bietápico. Para recolectar los datos, se aplicaron cinco escalas: 1) la escala child and youth resilience measure; 2) el cuestionario de ambiente barrial; 3) la escala de evaluación de cohesión y adaptabilidad familiar; 4) la escala multidimensional de apoyo social percibido; y 5) el cuestionario de ambiente escolar. Los datos se procesaron con el software SPSS 24v. Resultados: se encontró una relación entre la resiliencia y el ambiente barrial (rs = .324, p = .000), funcionalidad familiar (rs = .380, p = .000), apoyo social (rs = .456, p = .000) y ambiente escolar (rs = .353, p = .000). Además, la resiliencia fue explicada en un 35,8 % por el ambiente barrial (β=.20; p =.012), la funcionalidad familiar (β=.13; p =.090), el apoyo social (β=.30; p =.000) y el ambiente escolar (β=.15; p = .064). Conclusión: la conducta resiliente de los adolescentes es influenciada por el apoyo social, la funcionalidad familiar y el ambiente escolar y barrial, factores externos que favorecen la autorregulación, como lo menciona Roy en su modelo de enfermería.


RESUMO Objetivo: availar a influência do ambiente (funcionalidade familiar, apoio social e ambiente de bairro e escolar) no desenvolvimento da resiliência dos adolescentes. Métodos: desenho descritivo, correlacional. Participaram 184 adolescentes de seis colégios da comunidade Aranjuez, Medellín, Colômbia. Amostragem probabilística, bietápica. Para coletar os dados, foram aplicados cinco instrumentos: 1) a escala child and youth resilience measure; 2) o questionário de ambiente de bairro; 3) a escala de avaliação de coesão e adaptabilidade familiar; 4) a escala multidimensional de apoio social percebido; 5) o questionário de ambiente escolar. Os dados foram processados com o software SPSS 24v. Resultados: verificou-se relação entre a resiliência e o ambiente de bairro (rs = .324, p = .000), funcionalidade familiar (rs = .380, p = .000), apoio social (rs = .456, p = .000) e ambiente escolar (rs = .353, p = .000). Além disso, a resiliência foi explicada em 35,8 % pelo contexto de bairro (β =.20; p =.012), pela funcionalidade familiar (β =.13; p =.090), pelo apoio social (β =.30; p =.000) e pelo ambiente escolar (β =.15; p = .064). Conclusões: o comportamento resiliente dos adolescentes é influenciado pelo apoio social, pela funcionalidade familiar e pelo ambiente escolar e de bairro, fatores externos que favorecem a autorregulação, como mencionado por Roy no seu modelo de enfermagem.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Meio Social , Resiliência Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente
10.
Interdisciplinaria ; 37(1): 3-4, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124912

RESUMO

Resumen Si bien es común ver en la práctica clínica deficiencias en la motivación en usuarios de marihuana, no ha sido firmemente establecida la existencia de un posible síndrome amotivacional asociado con el consumo de esta droga, entre otras razones por la concurrencia de factores como la depresión que pueden llevar a generalizar inadecuadamente la situación de algunos usuarios de la sustancia. Esta investigación se orientó a obtener evidencia acerca de la existencia de deficiencias en la motivación en consumidores de marihuana. Se construyó una batería de preguntas a partir de una revisión y una consulta a expertos, que fue aplicada a una muestra de 1455 participantes, junto con otros instrumentos seleccionados para excluir del análisis a los participantes con depresión, síntomas prefrontales, trastornos por uso de alcohol, apatía y aplanamiento afectivo, que pudieran confundir los resultados. Se aplicaron métodos estadísticos y psicométricos basados en el modelo de Rasch, para establecer qué comportamientos serían más característicos de una deficiencia motivacional en consumidores habituales de marihuana. Se estimó que un 54.9 % de los participantes tendría un trastorno grave por uso de marihuana, un 54.0 %, síntomas de aplanamiento afectivo y un 60.9 % serían usuarios de marihuana con altos niveles de tetrahidrocannabinol (THC). La media de cigarrillos de marihuana consumidos al mes sería de 44.5. Mediante el modelo de Rasch se estableció que con el conjunto de preguntas construido era posible identificar una dimensión o factor coincidente con una deficiencia motivacional. Se encontró evidencia que sugiere la existencia de apatía emocional; retraimiento social; descuido de la imagen personal y enlentecimiento motor.


Abstract It is common to find marijuana users with alterations in motivation, in clinical practice. Several studies have found evidence about a possible amotivational syndrome in marijuana users, both from the analysis of behavior and from the neurological examination. However, the existence of such a syndrome associated with the use of marijuana has not been firmly established, among other reasons, due to the concurrence of factors such as depression and the use of other drugs that may lead to inadequate generalization of the situation of some consumers of the substance and due to methodological difficulties in research aimed at establishing whether or not there is a decrease in the general motivation associated with the use of marijuana. Likewise, the decrease in motivation could be the result of the disorder by substances rather than by the consumption of marijuana. Due to the growing use of marijuana in the world, the study of its consequences is of the greatest importance, for the design of better treatments for people with substance use disorders. The aim of this study was to obtain evidence about the existence or not of deficiencies in the motivation of marijuana users. In addition, we sought to establish which are the characteristic behaviors that show this possible reduction of motivation. A battery of questions was constructed from a systematic literature review in PubMed, Lilacs, MedLine, Cochrane library, Embase, Science Direct and Bibliomed, using as terms "amotivational syndrome", "amotivation cannabis", "amotivation marijuana", "comorbidity cannabis", "comorbidity marijuaba", "mental disorders and cannabis", "cannabis and mental consequences", "amotivation and drug use". Likewise, an expert consultation was done about behaviors that were indicative of a reduction in the motivation of marijuana users. From the review and consultation of experts, a set of 70 possible behaviors expressed in questions about probable deficiencies in motivation was extracted. These questions, along with other instruments selected to exclude from the analysis participants with depression, prefrontal symptoms, alcohol use disorders, apathy and affective flattening, which could confuse the results, were presented to a sample of 1455 participants. The Rasch model was applied to establish whether it was possible to identify a measurable and consistent dimension that corresponded to a deficiency in motivation, and to discern which behaviors would be most characteristic of a possible motivational deficiency in habitual marijuana users. In addition, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out to identify possible groupings of the characteristic symptoms of a reduction in motivation. Our Results and conclusions show that it was estimated that 54.9 % of the participants would have a serious disorder due to the use of marijuana; 54.0 % presented symptoms of affective flattening, and 60.9 % would be marijuana users with high levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The average number of cigarettes consumed per month would be 44.5. Using the Rasch model it was established that, with the constructed set of questions, it was possible to identify a dimension or factor coinciding with a motivational deficiency. Using the exploratory factor analysis, it was found that the characteristic behaviors could be grouped into four possible subdimensions: emotional apathy; social withdrawal; neglect of personal image and motor slowdown.

12.
Arch Med Res ; 51(6): 574-576, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446538

RESUMO

The recent pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has now spread worldwide and caused more than 51,000 deaths, by April 2nd 2020. As predicted, there are several obstacles for medical and governmental authorities to efficiently manage this respiratory illness. In spite of appropriated supplies, most hospitals are suffering from a scarcity of free beds, protective masks, sanitizing liquids and even ECMO machines for patients with severe cases. Defeating this pandemic is impossible without united and coordinated international attempts shaped by all countries of the world. We believe that an international scaled-determination is required to diminish the complex impacts of pandemic. The most important priorities are supposed to be i) The development of potential vaccine candidates to provide protection and interrupt the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, ii) To ensure enough supplies for hospitals and their homogeneous distribution among the countries with the worst number of severe cases, iii) There is a need for more studies to identify potential treatments that are effective for the control of this viral infection and iv) It is imperative to provide easy access to diagnostic kits for all countries affected by this pandemic. In the light of these suggestions, it would be recommendable to at least temporarily abandon the political checkouts in both national and international levels; therefore, all partners will be potentially able to efficiently enforce their strategies for the elimination of this unique threat to the human populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Estudos Longitudinais , Alocação de Recursos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4415, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157160

RESUMO

For a broad class of input-output maps, arguments based on the coding theorem from algorithmic information theory (AIT) predict that simple (low Kolmogorov complexity) outputs are exponentially more likely to occur upon uniform random sampling of inputs than complex outputs are. Here, we derive probability bounds that are based on the complexities of the inputs as well as the outputs, rather than just on the complexities of the outputs. The more that outputs deviate from the coding theorem bound, the lower the complexity of their inputs. Since the number of low complexity inputs is limited, this behaviour leads to an effective lower bound on the probability. Our new bounds are tested for an RNA sequence to structure map, a finite state transducer and a perceptron. The success of these new methods opens avenues for AIT to be more widely used.

14.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(5): 358-368, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122246

RESUMO

Stakeholders' experiences with flexible and integrative treatment models in German child and adolescent psychiatry according to § 64b SGB V - A qualitative study Abstract. Background and Aims: Since 2013, new possibilities for flexible and integrative forms of treatment (FIT) exist within the German mental healthcare system. These FIT models, created according to § 64b of the Social Security Code V, have been implemented in adult as well as child and adolescent psychiatry over the past years. This paper investigates stakeholders' experiences with these innovative FIT models. Methods: Focus groups were conducted in two hospital departments that had implemented a FIT model according to § 64b. In total, 36 participants were included, comprising employees, patients, and their caretakers. We also conducted a thematic analysis. Results: According to all stakeholders, these forms of acute outpatient treatment form a core component of FIT models that may serve to prepare, replace, or follow-up on inpatient treatment. In addition, the flexibility of treatment and increased continuity of care were mentioned as benefits of FIT models according to § 64b. Third, these FIT models allow for a better integration of caretakers in the treatment of their kin, which also produces various challenges for this stakeholder group. Conclusions: The introduction of FIT models in German child and adolescent psychiatry has complex implications for the treatment process and the experiences of all stakeholders. They perceive it as a needs-adapted extension of current forms of psychiatric support.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Psiquiatria Infantil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Participação dos Interessados , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos
15.
Adicciones ; 0(0): 1307, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100035

RESUMO

The lack of consensus on the issue of whether the consumption of cannabis favors neurocognition among schizophrenia-diagnosed patients or not, plus methodological problems found in available evidence and the limitations of studies focused on diagnosis and treatment for positive symptoms are sufficient reason for designing new research proposals based on recent brain connectivity models. The objective of this paper is to review available literature databases, selected for neurocognition in cannabis-using schizophrenia patients and to analyze contributions made by functional connectivity studies. Cognitive impairment among schizophrenia patients is found even before the appearance of the first psychotic symptoms. Measuring cognitive function in these patients, techniques such as fMRI and EEG have found brain impairment. Furthermore, regarding schizophrenia-diagnosed patients who use cannabis, some studies have shown less deterioration among cognitive domains, which may apparently be related with one of its components (CBD). Measuring brain connectivity can be useful for clarifying neurophysiological mechanisms of cognition in marihuana-using schizophrenia patients. Cognitive decline is generalized in schizophrenia patients and is considered fundamental for disease physiopathology.

16.
Gut ; 69(10): 1750-1761, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980446

RESUMO

The myeloid differentiation factor Schlafen4 (Slfn4) marks a subset of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the stomach during Helicobacter-induced spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). OBJECTIVE: To identify the gene products expressed by Slfn4+-MDSCs and to determine how they promote SPEM. DESIGN: We performed transcriptome analyses for both coding genes (mRNA by RNA-Seq) and non-coding genes (microRNAs using NanoString nCounter) using flow-sorted SLFN4+ and SLFN4- cells from Helicobacter-infected mice exhibiting metaplasia at 6 months postinfection. Thioglycollate-elicited myeloid cells from the peritoneum were cultured and treated with IFNα to induce the T cell suppressor phenotype, expression of MIR130b and SLFN4. MIR130b expression in human gastric tissue including gastric cancer and patient sera was determined by qPCR and in situ hybridisation. Knockdown of MiR130b in vivo in Helicobacter-infected mice was performed using Invivofectamine. Organoids from primary gastric cancers were used to generate xenografts. ChIP assay and Western blots were performed to demonstrate NFκb p65 activation by MIR130b. RESULTS: MicroRNA analysis identified an increase in MiR130b in gastric SLFN4+ cells. Moreover, MIR130b colocalised with SLFN12L, a human homologue of SLFN4, in gastric cancers. MiR130b was required for the T-cell suppressor phenotype exhibited by the SLFN4+ cells and promoted Helicobacter-induced metaplasia. Treating gastric organoids with the MIR130b mimic induced epithelial cell proliferation and promoted xenograft tumour growth. CONCLUSION: Taken together, MiR130b plays an essential role in MDSC function and supports metaplastic transformation.

17.
mBio ; 10(6)2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874917

RESUMO

Early-life antibiotic exposure may provoke long-lasting microbiota perturbation. Since a healthy gut microbiota confers resistance to enteric pathogens, we hypothesized that early-life antibiotic exposure would worsen the effects of a bacterial infection encountered as an adult. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice received a 5-day course of tylosin (macrolide), amoxicillin (ß-lactam), or neither (control) early in life and were challenged with Citrobacter rodentium up to 80 days thereafter. The early-life antibiotic course led to persistent alterations in the intestinal microbiota and even with pathogen challenge 80 days later worsened the subsequent colitis. Compared to exposure to amoxicillin, exposure to tylosin led to greater disease severity and microbiota perturbation. Transferring the antibiotic-perturbed microbiota to germfree animals led to worsened colitis, indicating that the perturbed microbiota was sufficient for the increased disease susceptibility. These experiments highlight the long-term effects of early-life antibiotic exposure on susceptibility to acquired pathogens.IMPORTANCE The gastrointestinal microbiota protects hosts from enteric infections; while antibiotics, by altering the microbiota, may diminish this protection. We show that after early-life exposure to antibiotics host susceptibility to enhanced Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis is persistent and that this enhanced disease susceptibility is transferable by the antibiotic-altered microbiota. These results strongly suggest that early-life antibiotics have long-term consequences on the gut microbiota and enteropathogen infection susceptibility.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Etários , Animais , Citrobacter rodentium/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrobacter rodentium/patogenicidade , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847486

RESUMO

This study sought to identify and localize SLO1 channels in boar spermatozoa by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, and to determine their physiological role during in vitro sperm capacitation. Sperm samples from 14 boars were incubated in a capacitation medium for 300 min in the presence of paxilline (PAX), a specific SLO1-channel blocker, added either at 0 min or after 240 min of incubation. Negative controls were incubated in capacitation medium, and positive controls in capacitation medium plus tetraethyl ammonium (TEA), a general K+-channel blocker, also added at 0 min or after 240 min of incubation. In all samples, acrosome exocytosis was triggered with progesterone after 240 min of incubation. Sperm motility and kinematics, integrity of plasma and acrosome membranes, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium levels and acrosin activity were evaluated after 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 250, 270 and 300 min of incubation. In boar spermatozoa, SLO1 channels were found to have 80 kDa and be localized in the anterior postacrosomal region and the mid and principal piece of the tail; their specific blockage through PAX resulted in altered calcium levels and acrosome exocytosis. As expected, TEA blocker impaired in vitro sperm capacitation, by altering sperm motility and kinematics and calcium levels. In conclusion, SLO1 channels are crucial for the acrosome exocytosis induced by progesterone in in vitro capacitated boar spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Capacitação Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Acrossomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrossomo/metabolismo , Reação Acrossômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação Acrossômica/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Exocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Exocitose/fisiologia , Masculino , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Capacitação Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa , Suínos
19.
Rev. CES psicol ; 12(3): 1-18, sep.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057156

RESUMO

Resumen La exposición a situaciones de vulnerabilidad y violencia, como el desplazamiento forzado, generan en la población víctima efectos nocivos para su salud mental. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir el estado actual de la salud mental y algunos factores sociodemográficos y del entorno asociados, de 471 adolescentes y jóvenes entre 13 y 28 años, víctimas de desplazamiento forzado en tres ciudades colombianas. Se aplicó la entrevista Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), versión CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview); un cuestionario ad hoc sobre aspectos del desplazamiento forzado y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas; la escala de funcionamiento familiar APGAR y la escala MOS (Medical Outcomes Study) de apoyo social. Se encontró una prevalencia de cualquier trastorno mental en el último año del 24,4% y cualquier trastorno por uso de sustancias del 4,7%. Los trastornos más prevalentes fueron fobia específica (6,8%), trastorno por estrés postraumático (5,7%) y trastorno depresivo mayor (5,1%). La dependencia a la marihuana se presentó en 2,1% de los participantes y el abuso de alcohol en 1,9%. Un 14,6% de los adolescentes y jóvenes víctimas de desplazamiento forzado han pensado suicidarse alguna vez en la vida. Ser hombre, menor de edad, con buen funcionamiento familiar y apoyo social adecuado, fueron factores protectores para la presencia de trastornos mentales.


Abstract Exposure to vulnerable and violent events, such as forced displacement, generate several adverse effects on the mental health of victim population. The objective of this study is to describe the current mental health condition and some associated sociodemographic and environmental factors in 471 adolescents and young people between 13 and 28 years of age, who have been victims of forced displacement in three Colombian cities. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) interview, CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) version was administered; an ad hoc questionnaire on aspects of forced displacement and the consumption of psychoactive substances; the APGAR family function scale and the MOS (Medical Outcomes Study) scale of social support. It was found a prevalence of any mental disorder in the last years of 24.4% and any substance use disorder of 4.7%. The most prevalent disorders were specific phobia (6.8%), post-traumatic stress disorder (5.7%) and major depressive disorder (5.1%). Dependence on marijuana was found at 2.1% and alcohol abuse at 1.9%. 14.6% of adolescents and young victims of forced displacement have considered committing suicide at some point along their lives. Being a minor- age man, with a functional family and adequate social support, were protective factors from mental disorders.

20.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 43: 102159, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522018

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the functional impact of two combined KCNH2 variants involved in atrial fibrillation, syncope and sudden infant death syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic testing of a 4-month old SIDS victim identified a rare missense heterozygous in KCNH2 variant (V483I) and a missense homozygous polymorphism (K897T) which is often described as a genetic modifier. Electrophysiological characterisation of heterologous HERG channels representing two different KCNH2 genotypes within the family, showed significant differences in both voltage and time dependence of activation and inactivation with a global gain-of-function effect of mutant versus wild type channels and, also, differences between both types of recombinant channels. CONCLUSIONS: The rare variant V483I in combination with K897T produces a gain-of-function effect that represents a pathological substrate for atrial fibrillation, syncope and sudden infant death syndrome events in this family. Ascertaining the genotype-phenotype correlation of genetic variants is imperative for the correct assessment of genetic testing and counselling. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: According to the current guidelines for clinical interpretation of sequence variants, functional studies are an essential tool for the ascertainment of variant pathogenicity. They are especially relevant in the context of sudden infant death syndrome and sudden cardiac death, where individuals cannot be clinically evaluated. The patch-clamp technique is a gold-standard for analysis of the biophysical mechanisms of ion channels.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Canal de Potássio ERG1/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Morte Súbita do Lactente/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético
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