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Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589405


Metal oxyfluorides are currently attracting much attention for next-generation rechargeable batteries because of their high theoretical capacity and resulting high energy density. Rhombohedral VO2F is promising because it allows two-electron transfer during electrochemical lithium cycling, with a theoretical capacity of 526 mAh g-1. However, the chemical changes it undergoes during operation are not clearly understood. In this work, a combination of synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction was employed to accurately describe the crystal structure of both pristine and lithiated VO2F, using samples with high crystallinity to overcome challenges in previous studies. The mechanism and reversibility of the lithium insertion was monitored in real time by high angular synchrotron diffraction measurements, performed in operando on a lithium battery in the high-voltage range: 3.9-2.3 V vs Li+/Li. Insertion of up to one lithium ion proceeds through a solid-solution reaction, while Rietveld refinements of neutron powder diffraction data revealed that the lithiated states adopt the noncentrosymmetric R3c framework, uncovering an octahedral Li-(O/F)6 coordination with reasonable Li-O/F bond lengths. This work further evaluates the redox changes of VO2F upon Li intercalation. By a comparison of changes in electronic states of all the elements in the compound, it clarifies the critical role of both anions, O and F, in the charge compensation through their covalent interactions with the 3d states of V. The clear evidence of participation of F challenges existing assumptions that its high electronegativity renders this anion largely a spectator in the redox reaction.

ChemSusChem ; 10(14): 2978-2989, 2017 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594114


The perovskite series Sr2 CoNb1-x Tix O6-δ (0≤x≤1) was investigated in the full compositional range to assess its potential as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The variation of transport properties and thus, the area specific resistances (ASR) are explained by a detailed investigation of the defect chemistry. Increasing the titanium content from x=0-1 produces both oxidation of Co3+ to Co4+ (from 0 up to 40 %) and oxygen vacancies (from 6.0 to 5.7 oxygen atom/formula unit), although each charge compensation mechanism predominates in different compositional ranges. Neutron diffraction reveals that samples with high Ti-contents lose a significant amount of oxygen upon heating above 600 K. Oxygen is partially recovered upon cooling as the oxygen release and uptake show noticeably different kinetics. The complex defect chemistry of these compounds, together with the compositional changes upon heating/cooling cycles and atmospheres, produce a complicated behavior of electrical conductivity. Cathodes containing Sr2 CoTiO6-δ display low ASR values, 0,13â€…Ω cm2 at 973 K, comparable to those of the best compounds reported so far, being a very promising cathode material for SOFC.

Condutividade Elétrica , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Óxidos/química , Eletrodos , Oxigênio/química , Pressão , Temperatura
Chemphyschem ; 17(7): 1062-9, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805439


Titanium-oxide-based materials are considered attractive and safe alternatives to carbonaceous anodes in Li-ion batteries. In particular, the ramsdellite form TiO2 (R) is known for its superior lithium-storage ability as the bulk material when compared with other titanates. In this work, we prepared V-doped lithium titanate ramsdellites with the formula Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 (0≤x≤0.5) by a conventional solid-state reaction. The lithium-free Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds, in which the ramsdellite framework remains virtually unaltered, are easily obtained by a simple aqueous oxidation/ion-extraction process. Neutron powder diffraction is used to locate the Li channel site in Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds and to follow the lithium extraction by difference-Fourier maps. Previously delithiated Ti1-x Vx O2 ramsdellites are able to insert up to 0.8 Li(+) per transition-metal atom. The initial gravimetric capacities of 270 mAh g(-1) with good cycle stability under constant current discharge conditions are among the highest reported for bulk TiO2 -related intercalation compounds for the threshold of one e(-) per formula unit.

Dalton Trans ; 41(48): 14633-42, 2012 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23108296


Li(2)Ti(6)O(13) and H(2)Ti(6)O(13) were easily synthesized from Na(2)Ti(6)O(13) by successive Na(+)-Li(+)-H(+) ion exchange. The crystal structures of Na(2)Ti(6)O(13), Li(2)Ti(6)O(13) and H(2)Ti(6)O(13) were investigated using neutron powder diffraction. Monovalent A(+) cations (Na, Li and H) have been located using difference Fourier analysis. Although monoclinic lattice parameters (space group C2/m) of the three titanates remain almost unchanged with retention of the basic [Ti(6)O(13)(2-)] network, monovalent Na, Li and H cations occupy different sites in the tunnel space. By comparing the structural details concerning the A(+) oxygen coordination, i.e. NaO(8) square prismatic coordination, LiO(4) square planar coordination and covalently bond H atoms, with results from (23)Na, (7)Li and (1)H NMR spectroscopy we were able to obtain a more detailed insight into the respective local distortions and anharmonic motions. We were able to show that the site that the A(+) cation occupies in the hexatitanate channel structure strongly influences the lithium insertion properties of these compounds and therefore their usefulness as electrode materials for energy storage.

Dalton Trans ; 40(31): 7908-15, 2011 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21743906


Substitution of La(3+) by Sr(2+) in the double perovskite La(2)CoTiO(6) yields materials of the La(2-x)Sr(x)CoTiO(6) series showing a significant amount of trivalent cobalt ions when prepared at ambient atmosphere. The as-prepared compounds can be reduced in severe conditions retaining the perovskite structure while inducing the formation of a large amount of oxygen vacancies. The limit of aliovalent substitution in this series was found to extend up to x = 1. For substitution of La(3+) up to 15% cobalt and titanium are ordered, though the order is progressively lost as x increases; for x≥ 0.30 no ordering is observed as evidenced by magnetic measurements. The ability of these materials to present either cobalt ions in a mixed oxidation state or large amounts of anion vacancies depending on the atmosphere makes them interesting to be further investigated regarding their electrical and electrochemical properties, and hence, their usefulness in some electrochemical devices.

Dalton Trans ; 39(8): 1962-71, 2010 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20148212


The reactions of phosphido complexes [Nb(eta(5)-C(5)H(4)SiMe(3))(2)(L)(PPh(2))] [L = CO (1), CNxylyl (2), CNCy (3)] with alkynes have been carried out. The new diphenylphosphinoalkenyl niobocene complexes [Nb(eta(5)-C(5)H(4)SiMe(3))(2)(eta(1)-C-C(CO(2)CH(3))=C(R)PPh(2))(CO)] [R = H (4), CH(3) (5)] and [Nb(eta(5)-C(5)H(4)SiMe(3))(2)(eta(1)-C-C(CO(2)R)=C(CO(2)R)PPh(2))(CO)] [R = CH(3), (6), R = (t)Bu, (7)] were successfully synthesized by the reaction of with methyl propiolate (HC[triple bond]CCO(2)CH(3)) or methyl 2-butynoate (CH(3)C[triple bond]CCO(2)CH(3)) and dimethyl 2-butynedioate [(CH(3) O(2)C)C[triple bond]C(CO(2)CH(3))] or di(tert-butyl) 2-butynedioate [((t)BuO(2)C)C[triple bond]C(CO(2)(t)Bu)], respectively. However, reaction was not observed with more electron-rich alkynes. Complex reacted with methyl propiolate, methyl 2-butynoate (MeC[triple bond]CCO(2)Me) or di(tert-butyl) 2-butynedioate to give surprising new heteroniobacycle complexes [Nb(eta(5)-C(5)H(4)SiMe(3))(2)(eta(1)-C-C(=NXylyl)C(R(1))=C(R(2))PPh(2)-kappa(1)-P)] [R(1) = H, R(2) = CO(2)Me (8); R(1) = Me, R(2) = CO(2)Me (9); R(1) = CO(2)(t)Bu, R(2) = CO(2)(t)Bu (10)]. Finally, the phosphido complexes and reacted with phenylacetylene (PhC[triple bond]CH) to give new diphenylphosphinoalkenyl niobocene derivatives [Nb(eta(5)-C(5)H(4)SiMe(3))(2)(eta(1)-C-C(C(6)H(5))=C(H)PPh(2))(CNR)] [R = xylyl (11), Cy (12)]. All of these compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and the molecular structure of was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Theoretical studies were also carried out by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the insertions of alkynes into the Nb-P bond in the phosphido niobocenes.