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1.
Nefrologia ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651084

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postural balance is the result of a complex interaction of sensory input which keeps us upright. Haemodialysis patients have alterations which can lead to postural instability and a risk of falls. Our objective was to analyse postural stability and its relationship with the risk of falls in haemodialysis patients using a force platform. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Postural balance was recorded using a force platform in prevalent haemodialysis patients. We collected epidemiological, dialysis, analytical and treatment data. The incidence of falls was recorded over the 6 months following the tests. The postural stability analysis was performed with a portable strain gauge platform (AMTI AccuGait®) and a specific software unit for stabilometry (Balance Trainer® program). We measured 31 balance parameters; the balance variables used were: Area95; AreaEffect; VyMax; Xrange and Yrange. The stabilometry studies were performed in 3 situations: with eyes open; with eyes closed; and with the patient performing a simultaneous task. We performed one study at the start of the dialysis session, and a second study at the end. Stabilometry was measured in a control group under similar conditions. RESULTS: We studied 32 patients with a mean age of 68 years old; of this group, 20 subjects were male and 12 were female. Their mean weight was 74kg, with a mean BMI of 27.6kg/m2. In the controls, there were no significant differences in the stabilometry between the 3 situations studied. Both pre- and post-haemodialysis, patients with closed eyes showed greater imbalance, and there were significant differences with the other situations and controls. We found a significant increase in instability after the haemodialysis session, and greater instability in the 13 patients with diabetes (P<.05). The 4 patients with hyponatraemia (Na<136mmol/l) had worse balance in the simultaneous task situation (P=.038). Various drugs, such as insulin (P=.022), antiplatelet agents (P=.036) and beta-blockers (P=.029), were associated with imbalance. The 10 patients who suffered falls had greater imbalance, Yrange, Xrange, Area95 and AreaEffect, both pre- and post-haemodialysis (P<.05) than those without falls. CONCLUSIONS: Haemodialysis patients have alterations which can lead to postural instability and a risk of falls. Prevention programmes which include specific exercises to improve balance could be beneficial in reducing the risk of falls in this population.

2.
Nefrologia ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651086

RESUMO

Hypomagnesaemia in haemodialysis (HD) is associated with increased mortality risk: its relationship with dialysis fluid (DF). INTRODUCTION: Low concentrations of magnesium (Mg) in blood have been linked to the development of diabetes, hypertension, arrhythmias, vascular calcifications and an increased risk of death in the general population and in haemodialysis patients. The composition of the dialysis fluid in terms of its magnesium concentration is one of the main determinants of magnesium in haemodialysis patients. OBJECTIVE: To study magnesium concentrations in haemodialysis patients, their predictive mortality rate and what factors are associated with hypomagnesaemia and mortality in haemodialysis. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of prevalent haemodialysis patients followed up for two years. Serum magnesium was measured every six months. The analysis used the initial and average magnesium values for each patient, comparing patients with magnesium below the mean (2.1mg/dl) with those with magnesium above the mean. During the follow-up, three types of dialysis fluid were used: type 1, magnesium 0.5 mmol/l; type 3, magnesium 0.37 mmol/l (both with acetate); and type 2, magnesium 0.5 mmol/l with citrate. RESULTS: We included 137 haemodialysis patients in the study, of which 72 were male and 65 were female, with a mean age of 67 (15) [26-95] years old. Of this group, 57 patients were diabetic, 70 were on online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) and 67 were on high-flow haemodialysis (HF-HD). The mean magnesium of the 93 patients with dialysis fluid type 1 was 2.18 (0.37) mg/dl. In the 27 patients with dialysis fluid type 3 it was 2.02 (0.42) mg/dl. And in the 17 with dialysis fluid type 2 it was 1.84 (0.24) mg/dl (p=.01). There was a pronounced direct relationship between Mg and P and albumin. After a mean follow-up of 16.6 (8.9) [3-24] months, 77 remained active, 24 had died and 36 had been transplanted or transferred. Patients with magnesium above than 2.1mg/dl had a longer survival (p=.008). The survival of patients with the three types of dialysis fluid did not differ significantly (Log-Rank, p=.424). Corrected for blood magnesium, patients with dialysis fluid with citrate have better survival (p=.009). The COX regression analysis shows how age, serum albumin, magnesium, dialysis technique and type of dialysis fluid have an independent predictive mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum magnesium levels have a greater association with an increased risk of mortality compared to high levels. The type of dialysis fluid affects the magnesium concentration and the risk of death.

3.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 39(4): 424-433, jul.-ago. 2019. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189764

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El líquido de diálisis (LD), elemento esencial en la hemodiálisis (HD), se fabrica in situ mezclando 3 componentes: agua tratada, concentrado de bicarbonato y concentrado ácido. Para evitar la precipitación de carbonato cálcico y magnésico que se produce en el LD por la adición de bicarbonato, es necesario añadir un ácido. Existen 2 concentrados ácidos según contengan acetato (LDA) o citrato (LDC) como estabilizante. OBJETIVO: Comparar el efecto agudo de la HD con LDC vs. LDA sobre el metabolismo del calcio, fosforo y magnesio, el equilibrio ácido base, la coagulación, inflamación y la estabilidad hemodinámica. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo, multicéntrico, aleatorizado y cruzado, de 32 semanas de duración, en pacientes en HD trisemanal, monitor AK-200-Ultra-S o Artis, 16 semanas con LDA SoftPac(R), elaborado con 3 mmol/l de acetato, y 16 semanas con LDC SelectBag Citrate(R), con 1 mmol/l de citrato. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años en HD durante un mínimo de 3 meses mediante fístula arteriovenosa. Se recogieron datos epidemiológicos, de diálisis, bioquímica pre- y posdiálisis, episodios de hipotensión arterial, y scores de coagulación mensualmente durante los 8 meses de estudio. Se extrajeron pre- y posdiálisis: gasometría venosa, calcio (Ca), calcio iónico (Cai), fósforo (P), magnesio (Mg) y hormona paratiroidea (PTH), entre otros. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03319680. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 56 pacientes, 47 (84%) hombres y 9 (16%) mujeres de edad media: 65,3 (16,4) años, técnica HD / HDF: 20 (35,7%) / 36 (64,3%). Encontramos diferencias (p < 0,05) cuando utilizamos el LD con citrato (C) frente a acetato (A) en los valores posdiálisis de bicarbonato [C: 26,9 (1,9) vs. A: 28,5 (3) mmol/l], Cai [C: 1,1 (0,05) vs A: 1,2 (0,08) mmol/l], Mg [C. 1,8 (0,1) vs A: 1,9 (0,2) mg/dl] y PTH [C: 255 (172) vs. 148 (149) pg/ml]. No encontramos diferencias en ninguno de los parámetros medidos prediálisis. Se registraron menos episodios de hipotensión arterial durante las sesiones con el LDC; de las 4.416 sesiones de HD, 2.208 en cada grupo, cursaron con hipotensión 311 sesiones (14,1%) con LDA y 238 (10,8%) con LDC (p < 0,01). También fue menor la caída de volumen sanguíneo máximo medido por biosensor Hemoscan(R) [-3,4(7,7) vs. -5,1 (8,2)], aunque sin significación estadística. CONCLUSIÓN: La diálisis con citrato produce de forma aguda menor alcalemia posdiálisis y modifica de forma significativa el Ca, el Mg y la PTH. El LDC tiene un impacto positivo sobre la tolerancia hemodinámica


INTRODUCTION: Dialysis fluid (DF), an essential element in hemodialysis (HD), is manufactured in situ by mixing three components: treated water, bicarbonate concentrate and acid concentrate. To avoid the precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonate that is produced in DF by the addition of bicarbonate, it is necessary to add an acid. There are 2 acid concentrates that contain acetate (ADF) or citrate (CDF) as a stabilizer. OBJECTIVE: To compare the acute effect of HD with CDF vs. ADF on the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, acid base balance, coagulation, inflammation and hemodynamic stability. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, randomized and crossed study, of 32 weeks duration, in patients in three-week HD, AK-200-Ultra-S or Artis monitor, 16 weeks with ADF SoftPac(R), prepared with 3mmol/L of acetate, and 16 weeks with CDF SelectBag Citrate(R), with 1mmol/L of citrate. Patients older than 18 years were included in HD for a minimum of 3 months by arteriovenous fistula. Epidemiological, dialysis, pre and postdialysis biochemistry, episodes of arterial hypotension, and coagulation scores were collected monthly during the 8 months of the study. Pre and post-dialysis analysis were extracted: venous blood gas, calcium (Ca), ionic calcium (Cai), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) among others. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03319680. RESULTS: We included 56 patients, 47 (84%) men and 9 (16%) women, mean age: 65.3 (16.4) years, technique HD / HDF: 20 (35.7%) / 36 (64.3%). We found differences (p < 0.05) when using the DF with citrate (C) versus acetate (A) in the postdialysis values of bicarbonate [C: 26.9 (1.9) vs. A: 28.5 (3) mmol/L], Cai [C: 1.1 (0.05) vs. A: 1.2 (0.08) mmol/L], Mg [C: 1.8 (0.1) vs A: 1, 9 (0.2) mg/dL] and PTH [C: 255 (172) vs. 148 (149) pg/mL]. We did not find any differences in any of the parameters measured before dialysis. Of the 4,416 sessions performed, 2,208 in each group, 311 sessions (14.1%) with ADF and 238 (10.8%) with CDF (p < 0.01), were complicated by arterial hypotension. The decrease in maximum blood volume measured by Hemoscan(R) biosensor was also lower [-3.4 (7.7) vs -5.1 (8.2)] although without statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Dialysis with citrate acutely produces less postdialysis alkalemia and significantly modifies Ca, Mg and PTH. CDF has a positive impact on hemodynamic tolerance


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Citratos/administração & dosagem , Soluções para Hemodiálise/química , Diálise Renal/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 39(3): 287-293, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189242

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVOS: Los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) corren mayor riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular. En los pacientes con IRC, los mecanismos implicados en la disfunción endotelial y el papel de los diferentes fármacos utilizados en estos pacientes no se conocen por completo. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el efecto de las estatinas y los antiagregantes plaquetarios (AP) sobre las microvesículas endoteliales (MVE) y otros marcadores de la disfunción endotelial. Enfoque experimental. Estudio transversal con 41 pacientes con IRC 3b-4 y 8 voluntarios sanos. Se cuantificaron los niveles de MVE, factor de crecimiento vascular endotelial (FCVE) y productos avanzados de oxidación de proteínas (AOPP, por sus siglas en inglés) en la circulación y se evaluó la correlación con diferentes variables de comorbilidad y estrategias terapéuticas. RESULTADOS: Las MVE aumentaron en pacientes con IRC al comparar los niveles con los controles (171,1 frente a 68,3/μl; p < 0,001). Se observó una correlación negativa entre la edad y las MVE. Las estatinas y los AP se asociaron con una reducción de los niveles de MVE y FCVE, independientemente de los niveles séricos de colesterol total (CT). Los niveles de AOPP y FCVE no fueron diferentes entre los pacientes con IRC y los controles. CONCLUSIÓN: La IRC se asocia con un cambio de los niveles de MVE, FCVE y AOPP. El tratamiento con estatinas y AP normaliza estos valores a casi los observados en los controles y este efecto es independiente del nivel de CT predominante. Estos hallazgos explican la existencia de los efectos pleiotrópicos de las estatinas y los AP que merecen estudios adicionales


BACKGROUNDS AND PURPOSES: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In CKD patients the mechanisms involved in, endothelial damage and the role of different drugs used on these patients are not completely understood. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of statins and platelet antiaggregant (PA) on endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) and other markers of endothelial dysfunction. Experimental approach: Cross-sectional study of 41 patients with CKD 3b-4 and 8 healthy volunteers. Circulating levels of EMVs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and advance oxidized protein products (AOPPS) were quantified and the correlation with different comorbidity variables and therapeutic strategies were evaluated. RESULTS: EMVs are increased in CKD patients as compared with controls (171.1 vs. 68.3/μl, P<.001). It was observed a negative correlation between age and EMVs. Statins and PA were associated with a reduction in EMVs and VEGF levels, independently of the serum total cholesterol levels (TC). The levels of AOPPS and VEGF were not different in CKD vs. controls. CONCLUSION: CKD is associated with a change in EMVs, VEGF and AOPP levels. The treatment with statins and PA normalizes these values to almost the observed in controls and this effect is independently of the prevailing TC level. These findings explain the existence of the pleiotropic effects of statins and PA which deserve further studies


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/sangue , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Nefrologia ; 39(3): 287-293, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732927

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS AND PURPOSES: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In CKD patients the mechanisms involved in, endothelial damage and the role of different drugs used on these patients are not completely understood. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of statins and platelet antiaggregant (PA) on endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) and other markers of endothelial dysfunction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cross-sectional study of 41 patients with CKD 3b-4 and 8 healthy volunteers. Circulating levels of EMVs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and advance oxidized protein products (AOPPS) were quantified and the correlation with different comorbidity variables and therapeutic strategies were evaluated. RESULTS: EMVs are increased in CKD patients as compared with controls (171.1 vs. 68.3/µl, P<.001). It was observed a negative correlation between age and EMVs. Statins and PA were associated with a reduction in EMVs and VEGF levels, independently of the serum total cholesterol levels (TC). The levels of AOPPS and VEGF were not different in CKD vs. controls. CONCLUSION: CKD is associated with a change in EMVs, VEGF and AOPP levels. The treatment with statins and PA normalizes these values to almost the observed in controls and this effect is independently of the prevailing TC level. These findings explain the existence of the pleiotropic effects of statins and PA which deserve further studies.


Assuntos
Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/sangue , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 39(1): 58-66, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181910

RESUMO

Introducción: El Kt/V se ha usado como sinónimo de dosis de hemodiálisis. La supervivencia de los pacientes mejoraba con un Kt/V > 1; este objetivo posteriormente fue elevado a 1,2 y a 1,3. En el estudio HEMO no se demostró una relación significativa entre Kt/V y la mortalidad. La relación Kt/V y mortalidad con frecuencia es una curva en "J". ¿Es la V el factor de confusión de esa relación? El objetivo de este estudio es buscar la relación de la mortalidad con el Kt/V, Kt y con el contenido de agua corporal (V) y masa magra (bioimpedancia). Métodos: Se ha estudiado una cohorte de 127 pacientes prevalentes en hemodiálisis seguidos durante una media de 36 meses. Se determinó el Kt por dialisancia iónica y la V y parámetros de nutrición mediante bioimpedancia. Se ha calculado el Kt/V y el Kt alcanzado corregido para superficie corporal (Ktsc) y el Ktsc objetivo. Como parámetros de hemodiálisis se ha utilizado la media de los datos de 18.998 sesiones, con una media de 155 sesiones por paciente. Resultados: La edad media fue 70,4 (15,3) años y un 61% eran hombres; 76 se dializaban mediante fístula arteriovenosa y 65 estaban en HDF-OL. Peso: 70,6 (16,8) kg; superficie corporal: 1,8 (0,25) m2; agua corporal total: 32,2 (7,4) l; índice de masa magra (LTI): 11,1 (2,7) kg/m2. El Kt/V medio fue 1,84 (0,44); Kt: 56,1 (7 )l, y el Ktsc, 52,8 (10,4) l. El Ktsc objetivo medio era de 49,7 (4,5) l. La media del Ktsc-Ktsc objetivo: +6,4 (7,0) l. Los pacientes con un Kt/V mayor tienen peor supervivencia que el resto. Con el Kt no existe esta relación. Los Kt/V mayores se deben a una V menor, con peores parámetros de nutrición. La albúmina sérica y el LTI son los parámetros que se relacionan con el riesgo de muerte de forma independiente y son menores en los pacientes con mayor Kt/V y menor V. Conclusión: El Kt/V no es útil para determinar la dosis de diálisis en pacientes con un agua corporal pequeña o disminuida. Se propone el Kt o el Ktsc como alternativa


Introduction: Kt/V has been used as a synonym for haemodialysis dose. Patient survival improved with a Kt/V > 1; this target was subsequently increased to 1.2 and 1.3. The HEMO study revealed no significant relationship between Kt/V and mortality. The relationship between Kt/V and mortality often shows a J-shaped curve. Is V the confounding factor in this relationship? The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between mortality and Kt/V, Kt and body water content (V) and lean mass (bioimpedance). Methods: We studied a cohort of 127 prevalent haemodialysis patients, who we followed-up for an average of 36 months. Kt was determined by ionic dialysance, and V and nutrition parameters by bioimpedance. Kt/V, Kt corrected for body surface area (Kt/BSA) and target Kt/BSA were calculated. The mean data from 18,998 sessions were used as haemodialysis parameters, with a mean of 155 sessions per patient. Results: Mean age was 70.4 ± 15.3 years and 61% were male; 76 were dialysed via an arteriovenous fistula and 65 were on online haemodiafiltration. Weight was 70.6 (16.8) kg; BSA 1.8 (0.25) m2; total body water (V) 32.2 (7.41) l and lean mass index (LMI) 11.1 (2.7) kg/m2. Mean Kt/V was 1.84 (0.44); Kt 56.1 (7) l and Kt/BSA 52.8 (10.4) l. The mean target Kt/BSA was 49.7 (4.5) l. Mean Kt/BSA-target Kt/BSA +6.4 (7.0) l. Patients with a higher Kt/V had worse survival rates than others; with Kt this is not the case. Higher Kt/V values are due to a lower V, with poorer nutrition parameters. LMI and serum albumin were the parameters that best independently predicted the risk of death and are lower in patients with a higher Kt/V and lower V. Conclusion: Kt/V is not useful for determining dialysis doses in patients with low or reduced body water. Kt or the Kt/BSA are proposed as an alternative


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diálise Renal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Água Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Análise de Sobrevida , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Nefrologia ; 39(4): 424-433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686542

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dialysis fluid (DF), an essential element in hemodialysis (HD), is manufactured in situ by mixing three components: treated water, bicarbonate concentrate and acid concentrate. To avoid the precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonate that is produced in DF by the addition of bicarbonate, it is necessary to add an acid. There are 2 acid concentrates that contain acetate (ADF) or citrate (CDF) as a stabilizer. OBJECTIVE: To compare the acute effect of HD with CDF vs. ADF on the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, acid base balance, coagulation, inflammation and hemodynamic stability. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, randomized and crossed study, of 32 weeks duration, in patients in three-week HD, AK-200-Ultra-S or Artis monitor, 16 weeks with ADF SoftPac®, prepared with 3mmol/L of acetate, and 16 weeks with CDF SelectBag Citrate®, with 1mmol/L of citrate. Patients older than 18 years were included in HD for a minimum of 3 months by arteriovenous fistula. Epidemiological, dialysis, pre and postdialysis biochemistry, episodes of arterial hypotension, and coagulation scores were collected monthly during the 8 months of the study. Pre and post-dialysis analysis were extracted: venous blood gas, calcium (Ca), ionic calcium (Cai), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) among others. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03319680. RESULTS: We included 56 patients, 47 (84%) men and 9 (16%) women, mean age: 65.3 (16.4) years, technique HD/HDF: 20 (35.7%)/36 (64.3%). We found differences (p<0.05) when using the DF with citrate (C) versus acetate (A) in the postdialysis values of bicarbonate [C: 26.9 (1.9) vs. A: 28.5 (3) mmol/L], Cai [C: 1.1 (0.05) vs. A: 1.2 (0.08) mmol/L], Mg [C: 1.8 (0.1) vs A: 1, 9 (0.2) mg/dL] and PTH [C: 255 (172) vs. 148 (149) pg/mL]. We did not find any differences in any of the parameters measured before dialysis. Of the 4,416 sessions performed, 2,208 in each group, 311 sessions (14.1%) with ADF and 238 (10.8%) with CDF (p<0.01), were complicated by arterial hypotension. The decrease in maximum blood volume measured by Hemoscan® biosensor was also lower [-3.4 (7.7) vs -5.1 (8.2)] although without statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Dialysis with citrate acutely produces less postdialysis alkalemia and significantly modifies Ca, Mg and PTH. CDF has a positive impact on hemodynamic tolerance.

8.
Nefrologia ; 39(1): 58-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Kt/V has been used as a synonym for haemodialysis dose. Patient survival improved with a Kt/V>1; this target was subsequently increased to 1.2 and 1.3. The HEMO study revealed no significant relationship between Kt/V and mortality. The relationship between Kt/V and mortality often shows a J-shaped curve. Is V the confounding factor in this relationship? The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between mortality and Kt/V, Kt and body water content (V) and lean mass (bioimpedance). METHODS: We studied a cohort of 127 prevalent haemodialysis patients, who we followed-up for an average of 36 months. Kt was determined by ionic dialysance, and V and nutrition parameters by bioimpedance. Kt/V, Kt corrected for body surface area (Kt/BSA) and target Kt/BSA were calculated. The mean data from 18,998 sessions were used as haemodialysis parameters, with a mean of 155 sessions per patient. RESULTS: Mean age was 70.4±15.3 years and 61% were male; 76 were dialysed via an arteriovenous fistula and 65 were on online haemodiafiltration. Weight was 70.6 (16.8)kg; BSA 1.8 (0.25) m2; total body water (V) 32.2 (7.41) l and lean mass index (LMI) 11.1 (2.7)kg/m2. Mean Kt/V was 1.84 (0.44); Kt 56.1 (7)l and Kt/BSA 52.8 (10.4)l. The mean target Kt/BSA was 49.7 (4.5)l. Mean Kt/BSA-target Kt/BSA +6.4 (7.0)l. Patients with a higher Kt/V had worse survival rates than others; with Kt this is not the case. Higher Kt/V values are due to a lower V, with poorer nutrition parameters. LMI and serum albumin were the parameters that best independently predicted the risk of death and are lower in patients with a higher Kt/V and lower V. CONCLUSION: Kt/V is not useful for determining dialysis doses in patients with low or reduced body water. Kt or the Kt/BSA are proposed as an alternative.


Assuntos
Água Corporal , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Ureia/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Superfície Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiponatremia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/métodos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 38(3): 315-320, mayo-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177498

RESUMO

Antecedentes: En la hemodiafiltración posdilucional se han usado solo membranas sintéticas. Ahora contamos con un triacetato de celulosa asimétrico (ATA(R)) cuyas características lo hacen apto para esta técnica. Objetivos: Describir las prestaciones y el comportamiento in vivo de esta membrana estudiando la eficacia depurativa y el uso clínico, además de su biocompatibilidad aguda tras un mes de tratamiento. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo observacional en el que se incluyeron 23 pacientes que se dializaron durante 4 semanas con ATA(R) manteniendo su pauta previa. Resultados: Se realizaron 287 sesiones y se recogieron 264 sesiones completas. Con un tiempo efectivo de 243,7 (17,6) min y un flujo medio de sangre de 371,7 (23) ml/min, se obtuvo un Kt medio de 56,3 (5,3) l, un volumen convectivo de 27,1 (4,2) l, con una fracción de filtración del 29,9 (3,7) %, un porcentaje de reducción (RR) de urea de 81 (5,2) %, un RR de creatinina de 74,7 (4,6) %, un RR de Beta2-microglobulina de 76,5 (4,8) % y un RR de proteína transportadora de retinol de 18,6 (7,6) %. No se produjeron problemas técnicos ni alarmas. No fue preciso cambiar la dosificación de heparina. A los 30 min de la sesión no se produjo ningún aumento de C3a, C5a ni leucopenia. Tampoco se modificaron de forma significativa las poblaciones monocitarias ni la IL-Beta1 ni IL-6 tras un mes de tratamiento. Conclusiones: ATA(R) logra un Kt y un volumen convectivo adecuados, sin problemas técnicos y con buen perfil de biocompatibilidad e inflamatorio, lo que lo convierte en una posibilidad más de tratamiento para hemodiafiltración posdilucional, máxime en pacientes alérgicos a membranas sintéticas


Background: In post-dilution haemodiafiltration only synthetic membranes have been used to date. Asymmetric cellulose triacetate (ATA(TM)) is now available, whose characteristics are suitable for this technique. Objectives: To describe the in vivo performance and behaviour of this membrane, to identify its depurative effectiveness, use in clinical practice and its biocompatibility, both acute and after one month of treatment. Methods: Observational prospective study of 23 patients who were dialysed for 4 weeks using an ATA(TM) membrane and who maintained their prior regimen. Results: A total of 287 sessions were performed and 264 complete sessions were collected. With an effective time of 243.7 (17.6) min and a mean blood flow of 371.7 (23) ml/min, an average Kt of 56.3 (5.3) l was observed, as well as a convection volume of 27.1 (4.2) l, a filtration fraction of 29.9 (3.7) %, a urea reduction ratio (RR) of 81 (5.2) %, a creatinine RR of 74.7 (4.6) %, a Beta2-microglobulin RR of 76.5 (4.8) % and a retinol binding protein RR of 18.6 (7.6) %. There were no technical problems or alarms. Changing the heparin dosage was not necessary. No increases in C3a or C5a concentrations or leukopenia were observed in the first 30min of the session. Neither the monocyte subpopulations nor IL-Beta1 or IL-6 were significantly altered after one month of treatment. Conclusions: The new ATA(TM) membrane achieves adequate Kt and convection volume, without technical problems and with good biocompatibility and inflammatory profiles. It is therefore a valid option for post-dilution haemodiafiltration, particularly in patients allergic to synthetic membranes


Assuntos
Humanos , Hemodiafiltração/instrumentação , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Celulose , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudo Observacional , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
10.
Nefrologia ; 38(3): 315-320, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In post-dilution haemodiafiltration only synthetic membranes have been used to date. Asymmetric cellulose triacetate (ATA™) is now available, whose characteristics are suitable for this technique. OBJECTIVES: To describe the in vivo performance and behaviour of this membrane, to identify its depurative effectiveness, use in clinical practice and its biocompatibility, both acute and after one month of treatment. METHODS: Observational prospective study of 23 patients who were dialysed for 4 weeks using an ATA™ membrane and who maintained their prior regimen. RESULTS: A total of 287 sessions were performed and 264 complete sessions were collected. With an effective time of 243.7 (17.6) min and a mean blood flow of 371.7 (23) ml/min, an average Kt of 56.3 (5.3) l was observed, as well as a convection volume of 27.1 (4.2) l, a filtration fraction of 29.9 (3.7) %, a urea reduction ratio (RR) of 81 (5.2) %, a creatinine RR of 74.7 (4.6) %, a ß2-microglobulin RR of 76.5 (4.8) % and a retinol binding protein RR of 18.6 (7.6) %. There were no technical problems or alarms. Changing the heparin dosage was not necessary. No increases in C3a or C5a concentrations or leukopenia were observed in the first 30min of the session. Neither the monocyte subpopulations nor IL-ß1 or IL-6 were significantly altered after one month of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The new ATA™ membrane achieves adequate Kt and convection volume, without technical problems and with good biocompatibility and inflammatory profiles. It is therefore a valid option for post-dilution haemodiafiltration, particularly in patients allergic to synthetic membranes.


Assuntos
Celulose/análogos & derivados , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 33(1): 160-170, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992120

RESUMO

Background: Intravenous iron management is common in the haemodialysis population. However, the safest dosing strategy remains uncertain, in terms of the risk of hospitalization and mortality. We aimed to determine the effects of cumulative monthly iron doses on mortality and hospitalization. Methods: This multicentre observational retrospective propensity-matched score study included 1679 incident haemodialysis patients. We measured baseline demographic variables, haemodialysis clinical parameters and laboratory analytical values. We compared outcomes among quartiles of cumulative iron dose (mg/kg/month). We implemented propensity-score matching (PSM) to reduce confounding due to indication. In the PSM cohort (330 patients), we compared outcomes between groups that received cumulative iron doses above and below 5.66 mg/kg/month. Results: Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the high iron dose group had significantly worse survival than the low iron dose group. A univariate analysis indicated that the monthly iron dose could significantly predict mortality. However, a multivariate regression did not confirm that finding. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that iron doses >5.58 mg/kg/month were not associated with elevated mortality risk, but they were associated with elevated risks of all-cause and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations. These results were ratified in the PSM population. Conclusions: Intravenous iron administration is advisable for maintaining haemoglobin levels in patients that receive haemodialysis. Our data suggested that large monthly iron doses, adjusted for body weight, were associated with more hospitalizations, but not with mortality or infection-related hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Mortalidade/tendências , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Diálise Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 33(4): 690-699, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036505

RESUMO

Background: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. The issue of ESA safety has been raised in multiple studies, with correlates derived for elevated cancer incidence and mortality. Whether these associations are related to ESA dose or the typology of the patient remains obscure. Methods: A multicentre, observational retrospective propensity score-matched study was designed to analyse the effects of weekly ESA dose in 1679 incident haemodialysis (HD) patients. ESA administration was according to standard medical practice. Patients were grouped as quintiles, according to ESA dose, in order to compare mortality and hospitalization data. Using propensity score matching (PSM), we defined two groups of 324 patients receiving weekly threshold ESA doses of either > or ≤8000 IU. Results: Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated significant increases in the risk of mortality in patients administered with high doses of ESAs (>8127.4 IU/week). Multivariate Cox models identified a high ESA dose as an independent predictor for all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Moreover, logistic regression models identified high ESA doses as an independent predictor for all-cause, CV and infectious hospitalization. PSM analyses confirmed that weekly ESA doses of >8000 IU constitute an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and hospitalization, even though the adjusted cohort displayed the same demographic features, inflammatory profile, clinical HD parameters and haemoglobin levels. Conclusions: Our data suggest that ESA doses of >8000 IU/week are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and hospitalization in HD patients.


Assuntos
Hematínicos/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Pontuação de Propensão , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Nefrología (Madr.) ; 37(6): 630-637, nov.-dic. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168668

RESUMO

El líquido de diálisis con citrato no induce in vitro estrés oxidativo ni inflamación en comparación con el acetato. El incremento de la acetatemia durante la sesión de hemodiálisis se ha asociado a una serie de alteraciones: aumento del estrés oxidativo, de las citocinas proinflamatorias y de la síntesis de óxido nítrico. El ácido cítrico puede jugar un papel alternativo al acetato como estabilizante del líquido de diálisis (LD). El citrato en comparación con el acetato tiene un patrón diferente en cuanto a la activación leucocitaria y del complemento. El objetivo de este estudio es comparar el acetato con el citrato en el LD respecto a su efecto inflamatorio en las células inmunocompetentes de la sangre. Material y métodos: El efecto del acetato o citrato fue investigado en sangre completa de pacientes urémicos y controles sanos in vitro, enfrentada a 4tipos de LD: el LD 1, con 1mmol/L de citrato y libre de acetato; LD 2, con 0,8mmol/L de citrato y 0,3mmol/L de acetato; LD 3, con 3mmol/L de acetato sin citrato y LD 4, con 4mmol/L de acetato sin citrato. Los tipos de células utilizados fueron: cultivo de monocitos humanos (THP-1); células mononucleares de sangre periférica (PBMC) de controles sanos y pacientes urémicos en HD. Se determinó ICAM-1, la cuantificación de los niveles de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) y la cuantificación de microvesículas totales. Resultados: Los LD con acetato (L3 y L4) indujeron un incremento en la densidad de expresión de ICAM-1 en las células THP-1, no así los de citrato; con células inmunocompetentes de sujetos sanos los LD con acetato (L3 y L4) respecto a los con citrato (L1 y L2) observamos un incremento en la expresión de ICAM-1; con células de pacientes en hemodiálisis no existían diferencias significativas entre los diferentes LD. Tanto en las células de sujetos sanos como en las de los dializados, se incrementaron significativamente la expresión de especies reactivas de oxígeno y las microvesículas con los LD con acetato y no con citrato. Conclusiones: El acetato en el LD, en las concentraciones que se utilizan habitualmente en la práctica clínica, aumenta el estrés oxidativo y las microvesículas totales, y puede actuar como coadyuvante de los otros estímulos proinflamatorios a los que están sometidos los pacientes urémicos en hemodiálisis. Los LD con citrato no producen esta activación, por lo que podrían ser una alternativa en la clínica (AU)


Increased acetataemia during haemodialysis sessions has been associated with a number of abnormalities, including increased oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide synthesis. However, citric acid may play an alternative role to acetate as a dialysate stabiliser given that the effect of citrate on complement and leukocyte activation is different to that of acetate. The purpose of this study was to compare the inflammatory effect in immunocompetent blood cells of acetate dialysate and citrate dialysate. Material and methods: The effect of acetate and/or citrate was investigated in the whole blood of uraemic patients and in healthy in vitro samples. Four types of dialysate were tested: dialysate 1, acetate-free with 1mmol/L of citrate; dialysate 2, with 0.8mmol/L of citrate and 0.3mmol/L of acetate; dialysate 3, citrate-free with 3mmol/L of acetate; and dialysate 4, citrate-free with 4mmol/L of acetate. The cell types used were: human monocyte culture (THP-1); and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy subjects and uraemic patients on haemodialysis. ICAM-1 was determined and levels of reactive oxygen species and total microvesicles were quantified. Results: Unlike the citrate dialysates, the dialysates with acetate (dialysate 3 and dialysate 4) induced increased ICAM-1 expression density in THP-1 cells; an increase in ICAM-1 expression was observed in the immunocompetent cells of healthy subjects with acetate dialysate (dialysate 3 and dialysate 4) but not with citrate dialysate (dialysate 1 and dialysate 2). No significant ICAM-1 differences were found between the different dialysates in the cells of haemodialysed patients. Reactive oxygen species expression and the number of microvesicles increased significantly with acetate dialysate but not with citrate dialysate in the cells of both healthy subjects and haemodialysed patients. Conclusions: At the concentrations in which it is generally used in clinical practice, acetate-based dialysate increases oxidative stress and the total number of microvesicles and may induce other pro-inflammatory stimuli typical of uraemic patients on haemodialysis. Citrate dialysates do not induce this activation, which could make them a suitable alternative in clinical practice (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Soluções para Diálise/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácido Cítrico/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Técnicas In Vitro , Soluções para Diálise/classificação , Imunocompetência
17.
Nefrologia ; 37(6): 630-637, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122211

RESUMO

Increased acetataemia during haemodialysis sessions has been associated with a number of abnormalities, including increased oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide synthesis. However, citric acid may play an alternative role to acetate as a dialysate stabiliser given that the effect of citrate on complement and leukocyte activation is different to that of acetate. The purpose of this study was to compare the inflammatory effect in immunocompetent blood cells of acetate dialysate and citrate dialysate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of acetate and/or citrate was investigated in the whole blood of uraemic patients and in healthy in vitro samples. Four types of dialysate were tested: dialysate 1, acetate-free with 1mmol/L of citrate; dialysate 2, with 0.8mmol/L of citrate and 0.3mmol/L of acetate; dialysate 3, citrate-free with 3mmol/L of acetate; and dialysate 4, citrate-free with 4mmol/L of acetate. The cell types used were: human monocyte culture (THP-1); and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy subjects and uraemic patients on haemodialysis. ICAM-1 was determined and levels of reactive oxygen species and total microvesicles were quantified. RESULTS: Unlike the citrate dialysates, the dialysates with acetate (dialysate 3 and dialysate 4) induced increased ICAM-1 expression density in THP-1 cells; an increase in ICAM-1 expression was observed in the immunocompetent cells of healthy subjects with acetate dialysate (dialysate 3 and dialysate 4) but not with citrate dialysate (dialysate 1 and dialysate 2). No significant ICAM-1 differences were found between the different dialysates in the cells of haemodialysed patients. Reactive oxygen species expression and the number of microvesicles increased significantly with acetate dialysate but not with citrate dialysate in the cells of both healthy subjects and haemodialysed patients. CONCLUSIONS: At the concentrations in which it is generally used in clinical practice, acetate-based dialysate increases oxidative stress and the total number of microvesicles and may induce other pro-inflammatory stimuli typical of uraemic patients on haemodialysis. Citrate dialysates do not induce this activation, which could make them a suitable alternative in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Citratos/farmacologia , Soluções para Diálise/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetatos/efeitos adversos , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Soluções para Diálise/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Técnicas In Vitro , Inflamação , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/biossíntese , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/sangue , Diálise Renal , Células THP-1 , Uremia/sangue , Uremia/imunologia , Uremia/terapia
18.
Ther Apher Dial ; 21(6): 592-598, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971592

RESUMO

Residual renal function (RRF) has an important effect on uremic toxin clearance, on volume control, on quality of life, and on mortality. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), microinflammation with an increased percentage of CD14+ /CD16++ inflammatory monocytes has been reported, even with no clinical evidence of inflammation. No correlation has been established between these and RRF in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Our objective was to assess the relationship between RRF and the inflammatory parameters in HD patients. Cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 69 adult patients on chronic HD for at least 6 months, from which demographic, analytic and HD-technique data were collected and the following were measured: (i) RRF with average urea and creatinine clearance ((CCr + CU)/2) in 24-h urine (if >1 mL/min and diuresis >100 mL/day, RRF was considered); (ii) Inflammation through biochemical parameters (C-reactive protein, ß2 microglobulin, albumin) and monocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood. The average age was 70.9 [40-88] years old; 38 (55.1%) were male; and 25 (36.2%) were diabetic. 43.5% (30/69) presented RRF, with an average of ((CCr + CU)/2): 1.8 (2.6) mL/min and diuresis: 454.5 (569) mL /24 h. Patients with RRF presented lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (6.2 vs 21.4 mg/L) (P = 0.038) and a lower percentage of non-classical CD14+ /CD16++ monocytes (14.6 vs. 28.3%, P = 0.02). In our study, patients with RRF present lower concentrations of inflammatory parameters, which is another reason why its preservation is an essential objective in HD.


Assuntos
Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Creatinina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Renal , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo
19.
Am J Nephrol ; 46(4): 288-297, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of studies suggesting that online hemodiafiltration reduces the risk of mortality compared to hemodialysis (HD) have been performed in dialysis-prevalent populations. In this report, we conducted an epidemiologic study of mortality in incident dialysis patients, comparing post-dilution online hemodiafiltration and high-flux HD, with propensity score matching (PSM) used to correct indication bias. METHODS: Our study cohort comprised 3,075 incident dialysis patients treated in 64 Spanish Fresenius Medical Care clinics between January 2009 and December 2012. The primary outcome of this study was to investigate the impact of the type of renal replacement on all-cause mortality. An analysis of cardiovascular mortality was defined as the secondary outcome. To achieve these objectives, patients were followed until December 2016. Patients were categorized as high-flux HD patients if they underwent this treatment exclusively. If >90% of their treatment was with online hemodiafiltration, then the patient was grouped to that modality. RESULTS: After PSM, a total of 1,012 patients were matched. Compared with patients on high-flux HD, those on online hemodiafiltration received a median replacement volume of 23.45 (interquartile range 21.27-25.51) L/session and manifested 24 and 33% reductions in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (all-cause mortality hazards ratio [HR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.94 [p = 0.01]; and cardiovascular mortality HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.90 [p = 0.008]). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that post-dilution online hemodiafiltration reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared to high-flux HD in an incident HD population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Hemodiafiltração , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Nefrología (Madr.) ; 37(1): 34-38, ene.-feb. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-160596

RESUMO

La adición de fósforo (P) en el líquido de hemodiálisis (LD) mediante enema con fosfato de sodio (enema Casen®) se utiliza habitualmente en pacientes con hipofosforemia. El cálculo de la cantidad y los problemas que puede presentar no se describen en la literatura. Nuestro trabajo hace un abordaje práctico de cómo poner fósforo en LD con una fórmula razonada para calcular cuánto volumen de enema añadir en función del concentrado de diálisis utilizado y los problemas que pueden aparecer (AU)


The addition of phosphorus (P) to the dialysate (LD) in the form of enema Casen® is common practice in patients with hypophosphatemia. The estimation of the amount to be used and the identification of the problems that may can occur are not well defined. As a result of our work we propose a practical approach of how to proceed to increase phosphate concentration in the hemodialysate. We present a reasoned formula to calculate how much enema has to be added and the problems that may arise (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Soluções para Hemodiálise/farmacologia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Hipofosfatemia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Fósforo/farmacocinética
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