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1.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101460, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide. We analysed active and latent TB infections (LTBI) from the Spanish Network for the Study of Imported Infectious Diseases by Travellers and Immigrants (+REDIVI). METHODS: Observational, retrospective, multicentre study of TB and LTBI registered in the +REDIVI network from October 2009 to December 2016. RESULTS: Of 1008 cases of LTBI, 884 (87.7%) were immigrants; 93 (4.5%), immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFR); 2 (0.9%), VFR-travellers; and 29 (1.1%), travellers. Absolute (N = 157 vs. N = 75) and relative (12.5% vs. 5.9%) frequency decreased over the study period (p = 0.003). Median time to diagnosis was 24.6 months (females 50.3 vs males 11.9; p < 0.001). Of 448 TB cases, 405 (90.4%) were in immigrants; 30 (6.7%), VFR-immigrants; 6 (1.3%), VFR-travellers; and 7 (1.6%), travellers. Median time to diagnosis was 62.5 months (females 86.6 vs males 70.1; p = 0.0075). There were 8 multidrug resistant TB cases and 1 extensively drug resistant case of TB, all in immigrants. CONCLUSION: TB was frequently diagnosed more than 5 years after arrival in Spain. Screening programmes for TB and LTBI in immigrants should be considered beyond this time point. Women showed a higher diagnostic delay for both latent and active TB.

2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 29: 51-57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous growth of mobile populations has influenced the global epidemiology of infectious diseases, including chronic and acute viral hepatitis. METHOD: A prospective observational multicentre study was performed in a Spanish network of imported infections. Viral hepatitis cases from January 2009 to September 2017 were included. RESULTS: Of 14,546 records, 723 (4.97%) had imported viral hepatitis, including 48 (6.64%) acute cases and 675 (93.36%) chronic cases. Of the 48 acute cases, 31 were travellers and immigrants returning from visiting friends or relatives (VFR), while 19 (61%) were acute Hepatitis A or Hepatitis B. Only 18.2% of VFR immigrants and 35% of travellers received pre-travel advice. Acute hepatitis was more frequent in VFR immigrants (AOR 2.59, CI95% 1.20-5.60) and travellers (AOR 2.83, CI95% 1.46-5.50) than immigrants. Of the 675 Chronic cases, 570 were immigrants, and 439 (77%) had chronic Hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis was more frequent in immigrants (AOR 20.22, CI95% 11.64-35.13) and VFR immigrants (AOR 11.12, CI95% 6.20-19.94) than travellers. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic viral hepatitis was typical of immigrants, acute viral hepatitis was common among travellers, and VFR immigrants had mixed risk. Improving pre-travel consultation and screening of immigrants may contribute to preventing new cases of viral hepatitis and avoiding community transmission.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressão/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Drug Saf ; 41(11): 1035-1048, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006773

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Benznidazole is the preferred drug for treatment of Chagas disease. However, it is toxic and of limited value in chronic infection. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the rates of and factors related to adverse reactions (ARs) to benznidazole and treatment discontinuations (TDs). METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed using an electronic search of the published literature with no language restrictions until June 2017. Prospective studies were included of chronically infected patients in which at least one treatment arm included benznidazole. Data were added from a prospective cohort of patients with Chagas disease at our centre (January 2007-June 2017). Weighted rates of ARs and TDs were estimated, and potentially related factors were analysed. RESULTS: Some 413 studies were found, from which we chose 42 (nine clinical trials and 33 observational studies, including ours), comprising data for 7822 patients. The weighted rate of ARs to benznidazole was 44.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.2-51.2). ARs were more frequent in adults than in children (51.6 vs. 24.5%), with the most common being skin reactions (34%), gastrointestinal complaints (12.6%) and neurological symptoms (11.5%). Grade 4 ARs were recorded in 3% of cases. The weighted rate of TDs was 11.4% (95% CI 8.5-14.5); TDs were more frequent in adults than in children (14.2 vs. 3.8%). In our cohort, only female sex was related to an increased rate of ARs but not to TDs. CONCLUSION: Benznidazole had a poor tolerability profile, with a high incidence of TDs, especially in adult patients and women. Optimised dosing schedules and/or new drugs are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Nitroimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tripanossomicidas/administração & dosagem , Tripanossomicidas/efeitos adversos
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20182018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588298

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a parasitic disease that mostly affects Latin American countries, but it has currently become a worldwide epidemic due to migration. Both drugs marketed for its treatment (benznidazole and nifurtimox) are associated with a high rate of adverse reactions. Benznidazole is preferred initially because of its more favourable toxicity profile and perceived greater efficacy. Hypersensitivity dermatological reactions, gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances represent the most common drug-related adverse events. General symptoms such as fever, arthralgia, myalgia or bone marrow depression (leucopaenia) are seen less frequently. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman with chronic Chagas disease who presented with acute gingival bleeding and severe thrombocytopaenia, probably related to benznidazole treatment. Temporal association with drug initiation and recovery after treatment withdrawal were demonstrated. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between immune thrombocytopaenia and benznidazole, even though the pathogenesis remains unclear at present.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico
8.
Lancet ; 391(10115): 82-94, 2018 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28673423

RESUMO

Chagas disease is an anthropozoonosis from the American continent that has spread from its original boundaries through migration. It is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which was identified in the first decade of the 20th century. Once acute infection resolves, patients can develop chronic disease, which in up to 30-40% of cases is characterised by cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, megaviscera, and, more rarely, polyneuropathy and stroke. Even after more than a century, many challenges remain unresolved, since epidemiological control and diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic methods must be improved. In particular, the efficacy and tolerability profile of therapeutic agents is far from ideal. Furthermore, the population affected is older and more complex (eg, immunosuppressed patients and patients with cancer). Nevertheless, in recent years, our knowledge of Chagas disease has expanded, and the international networking needed to change the course of this deadly disease during the 21st century has begun.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/etiologia , Doença de Chagas/terapia , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188851, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening of anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM with anal cytology results in high rates of false positive results and elevated burden of high-resolution anoscopies. High-risk HPV up-regulates p16 and Ki67 expression in epithelial cells. We assessed the usefulness of P16/Ki-67 immunostaining cytology for the diagnosis of precancerous anal lesions. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional multicenter study. Concomitant anal liquid cytology with p16/Ki-67 immunostaining and HRA with biopsy of acetowhite lugol-negative lesions was performed in HIV-infected MSM. We compared the diagnostic performance of an abnormal anal cytology and p16/Ki-67 immunostaining relative to HRA-guided biopsy by logistic regression and comparison of ROC areas. RESULTS: We included 328 HIV-infected MSM. HSIL was histologically diagnosed in 72 subjects (25.1%), and 2 (0.6%) were diagnosed with anal cancer. An abnormal cytology showed a sensitivity of 95.6% and a specificity of 58.8% for the diagnosis of biopsy-proven HSIL. P16/Ki67 positivity was associated with the presence of biopsy-proven HSIL (P trend = 0.004) but with low sensitivity (41.2%) and specificity (71%). The combination of standard cytology with P16/Ki67 immunostaining did not increment the predictive value of standard cytology alone (AUC 0.685 vs. 0.673, respectively, P = 0.688). CONCLUSION: In HIV-infected MSM P16/Ki67 immunostaining does not improve the diagnostic accuracy of anal cytology, which shows a high sensitivity yet poor specificity. Other approaches aimed at improving the diagnostic accuracy of current techniques for the diagnostic of precancerous HSIL are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Homossexualidade Masculina , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasias do Ânus/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/complicações
10.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(10): 617-623, dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169560

RESUMO

Algunas enfermedades infecciosas han adquirido más relevancia por el aumento de los movimientos poblacionales. La eosinofilia es un hallazgo frecuente en inmigrantes y en viajeros. Una de las causas más frecuentes de eosinofilia es la infección por helmintos y algunos protozoos intestinales. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las características epidemiológicas de los casos con eosinofilia y su asociación con la presencia de parásitos en la red de datos REDIVI. Se trata de un estudio observacional multicéntrico prospectivo, donde se incluyen los casos diagnosticados de eosinofilia registrados en la Red cooperativa para el estudio de las infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes (+REDIVI) desde enero de 2009 hasta diciembre de 2012. Se registraron en la red un total de 5.255 episodios durante el periodo de estudio, y la eosinofilia fue un hallazgo en el 8,1 al 31,3% de los casos (dependiendo del tipo migratorio). Fueron hombres el 60,2%, con una mediana de 31,0años, inmigrantes el 72,4% y asintomáticos el 81,2%. Los parásitos más frecuentemente identificados fueron S.stercoralis(34,4%), Schistosoma sp. (11,0%) y uncinarias (8,6%). Existía asociación entre eosinofilia y presencia de parásitos para todos los helmintos (excepto para larva migrans cutánea). La sintomatología y la duración del viaje no determinaron significativamente la presencia de eosinofilia. Ante una eosinofilia en una persona que ha vivido en zonas endémicas de helmintiasis es aconsejable realizar estudios dirigidos para su diagnóstico, independientemente del tipo migratorio, la duración de la estancia o la presencia de sintomatología (AU)


The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travelers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicenter prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travelers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Viajante , Fatores de Risco , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Protocolos Clínicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Eosinofilia/microbiologia , Medicina de Viagem/normas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993335

RESUMO

A low CD4/CD8 ratio during treated HIV infection reflects heightened immune activation and predicts death. The effects of different antiretroviral therapy regimens on CD4/CD8 ratio recovery remains unclear. We performed a post hoc analysis of the MERIT study, a randomized, double-blind trial of maraviroc versus efavirenz in combination with zidovudine-lamivudine in treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals. We found higher rates of CD4/CD8 ratio normalization with efavirenz, which was driven by a greater CD8+ T-cell decline.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Relação CD4-CD8 , Cicloexanos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Maraviroc , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Viral/biossíntese , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Travel Med ; 24(5)2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931128

RESUMO

Background: Understanding and detecting imported diseases is a priority in the prevention and management of prevalent and emergent infectious diseases acquired abroad. The +Redivi network measures the burden of imported infections in Spain and is essential for closing the gap in travel medicine. Methods: Demographic characteristics, travel information, syndromes and confirmed travel-related diagnoses were registered in a standardised online database. Results: A total of 10 767 cases of imported infectious diseases were registered between October 2009 and December 2015. Of these, 60.8% of cases were immigrants seen for the first time after arrival, 20.6% were travellers, and 18.4% were individuals visiting friends and relatives (VFR [immigrants and travellers]). The median time between arrival and medical consultation was 5.5 years for immigrants, 2.0 weeks for travellers, 3.1 weeks for VFR-travellers and 11.4 for VFR-immigrants. The most prevalent diagnoses were Chagas disease in immigrants and nonspecific acute diarrhoea in travellers. Malaria by P. falciparum was one of the most prevalent diagnoses among VFR. More than half the travellers saw a physician before travelling, although one-third of those for whom antimalarial medication was indicated did not take their medication correctly. As for VFR, only 10.4% of VFR-immigrants and 32.5% of VFR-travellers sought pre-travel advice. Only 23 and 21%, respectively, of those for whom antimalarial prophylaxis was indicated took the medication properly. Conclusions : +Redivi provides a clear picture of the prevalence of imported infectious diseases among travellers and immigrants in Spain. The data collected could be used to improve everyday health care provided to travellers and immigrants after travel, to guide pre-travel consultations and to monitor the potential occurrence of tropical or exotic infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/etiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(6): 377-383, jun.-jul. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-163479

RESUMO

Administration of antiretroviral drugs to individuals exposed to, but not infected by, HIV has been shown to reduce the risk of transmission. The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) makes it obligatory to include it in an integral program of prevention of HIV transmission, together with other measures, such as use of the condom, training, counseling, and appropriate treatment of infected individuals. In this document, the AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) provides its views on this important subject. The available evidence on the usefulness of PrEP in the prevention of transmission of HIV is presented, and the components that should make up a PrEP program and whose development and implementation are feasible in Spain are set out (AU)


Se ha demostrado que la administración de fármacos antirretrovirales a personas expuestas y no infectadas por el VIH puede reducir el riesgo de transmisión. La eficacia de la profilaxis pre-exposición obliga a considerar su inclusión en un programa integral de prevención de la transmisión del VIH, junto con otras medidas como el uso del preservativo, la formación y el consejo asistido y el tratamiento adecuado de las personas infectadas. En este documento, el Grupo de Estudio de SIDA (GeSIDA) de la SEIMC aporta su visión sobre este importante tema. Se presenta la evidencia disponible acerca de la utilidad de la PrEP en la prevención de la transmisión del VIH y se enumeran los elementos que deberían integrar un programa de PrEP, cuyo desarrollo y puesta en marcha sea factible y viable en nuestro medio (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Sexo Seguro , Avaliação de Resultado de Ações Preventivas
14.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 35(10): 617-623, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032297

RESUMO

The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travellers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicentre prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travellers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Viagem , África/etnologia , Américas/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Helmintíase/sangue , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Protozoários/sangue , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 15: 52-56, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27818359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-artesunate delayed haemolysis is described as hemolytic anemia presenting days after malaria treatment in hyperparasitemic patients. Physiopathological mechanisms and clinical manifestations have not been thoroughly characterised. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of hospitalised malaria patients who received artemisinin derivatives from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. RESULTS: 21 patients were included in the study: 11 travellers, 8 travellers visiting friends and relatives and 2 immigrants. Median age was 35.5 years (IQR: 25.7-44.8) and 11 were men. Eight patients received oral and 13 received intravenous (IV) artemisinin-based drugs. Follow-up after the malaria episode was available for 15 patients (12 with IV treatment). Four patients presented with delayed haemolysis 9-14 days after artesunate treatment; all had been admitted with severe malaria, were treated IV and had hyperparasitaemia (17%-33%). Other than hyperparasitaemia, no other factors were associated with artesunate haemolysis. Patients' outcomes were favourable and the only additional therapeutic measure needed was a blood transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed haemolysis is a frequent complication in hyperparasitemic malaria treated with IV artesunate. Follow-up is mandatory for at least 2 weeks after treatment initiation. This condition is potentially severe but does not appear to be life threatening.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica/induzido quimicamente , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Hemólise , Malária/complicações , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Artesunato , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Viagem
16.
Acta Trop ; 164: 117-124, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27619190

RESUMO

Symptomatic chronic Chagas disease affects up to 40% of patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The lack of reliable early markers of cure after therapy hinders disease management and clinical trials with new drugs. We performed a study with 18 months of follow-up to compare changes in immune parameters and T. cruzi-specific immune responses as surrogate markers of response to therapy between patients treated with benznidazole and untreated patients. This was a pilot, open-label, randomised clinical trial of treatment with benznidazole versus no treatment in patients with indeterminate chronic T. cruzi infection. In both groups we investigated changes in T-cell activation, T-cell subpopulations, regulatory T-cell counts, IL6, and sCD14 levels, and T. cruzi-specific immune responses (Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses). Fourteen patients were included in the study (seven in each group). Median age was 35 years (P25-75 31-43), 57% were female, and 93% were Bolivian. Benznidazole was administered at 5mg/kg/day for 60days. Three patients discontinued benznidazole owing to adverse reactions and were not evaluated. At the end of the follow-up period, treated patients showed significantly less immune activation and lower regulatory T-cell counts, with an increased Th17 and Th1 response. This randomised pilot clinical trial administering benznidazole to patients with indeterminate chronic Chagas disease brings about changes in the adaptive immunity, leading to a general decrease in inflammatory status. This apparently beneficial response could act as the basis for monitoring new antiparasitic drugs.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(7): 431-438, ago.-sept. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-155489

RESUMO

Los inmigrantes representan en torno a un tercio de los nuevos diagnósticos de VIH en España y constituyen una población especialmente vulnerable a sus consecuencias negativas debido al contexto sociocultural, económico, laboral, administrativo y legal. Los inmigrantes se diagnostican más tardíamente, lo que empeora su pronóstico individual y facilita el mantenimiento de la epidemia en la población. A pesar de las diferentes barreras que experimentan para acceder a los servicios sanitarios en general, y a los relacionados con el VIH en particular, el acceso al tratamiento antirretroviral se ha producido en condiciones similares a la población autóctona. Sin embargo, los beneficios obtenidos del mismo han sido inferiores, siendo los subsaharianos y las mujeres los grupos con peor respuesta. Es necesaria una actitud proactiva para el diagnóstico precoz de la infección, la adopción de medidas preventivas para evitar nuevos casos y proporcionar una atención sanitaria accesible, adaptada y de alta calidad (AU)


Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34(7): 431-8, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016136

RESUMO

Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Migrantes , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
19.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 108-113, feb. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-148624

RESUMO

Introduction: The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. Results: A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV− (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV− travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P = .001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P < .001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P = .078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV− travelers the main diagnoses were “healthy” (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). Conclusions: The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening (AU)


Introducción: La mejoría en el pronóstico de la infección por el VIH, sumada al incremento de los viajes y la inmigración, han aumentado la frecuencia del binomio viajero-VIH+. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la epidemiología y hallazgos clínicos de los viajeros VIH+ en comparación con los VIH-. Métodos: Estudio observacional y prospectivo, de los viajeros e inmigrantes viajeros que se desplazan para visitar familiares y amigos (VFR) incluidos en la red +REDIVI (enero-2009; octubre-2014). +REDIVI es una red nacional que recopila información sobre infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes en 21 centros mediante un protocolo estandarizado de recogida de datos. Resultados: Se identificaron 3.464 viajeros: 72 VIH+ (2,1%) y 3.392 VIH− (98%). Los VIH+ en contraste con los VIH−, eran mayores (40 vs. 34 años; p = 0,001), predominantemente VFR (79,7% vs 44,4%. p < 0,001), y solicitan menos consejo pre-viaje (27% vs 37%. p = 0,078). Los destinos predominantes para ambos grupos fueron África Subsahariana y Latinoamérica. Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes al retorno del viaje fueron la fiebre, solicitar un examen de salud, molestias gastrointestinales, y anomalías en los resultados de laboratorio (principalmente eosinofilia y anemia) los cuales variaron según el grupo. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes en los VIH+ fueron la malaria (38,8%), nuevo diagnóstico de VIH (25%) y parasitosis intestinales (19,4%), mientras que en los sujetos VIH− los principales diagnósticos fueron “sano” (17,9%), parásitos intestinales (17,3%) y malaria (14%). Conclusiones: El perfil más común del viajero VIH+ atendido en +Redivi es el de un inmigrante VFR que no solicita consejo pre-viaje y hace viajes de alto riesgo. Esto puede suponer un mayor riesgo de adquisición de infecciones relacionadas con el viaje, las cuales en un viajero VIH+ pueden tener un efecto deletéreo adicional. La consulta tras el viaje es una buena oportunidad para el cribado de la infección por VIH (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Saúde do Viajante , Estudos Prospectivos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
20.
AIDS ; 30(1): 75-82, 2016 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26731755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 1% topical cidofovir cream for the treatment of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in HIV-infected individuals. DESIGN: Single-arm, open-label, pilot clinical trial. METHODS: The study medication was applied intraanally three times per week for 4 weeks. Lesions were assessed with high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy at weeks 12 and 24. The primary endpoint was complete remission (CR) at week 12, defined as clinical and histological remission. We also evaluated partial remission defined as regression to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. RESULTS: We included 17 HIV-infected patients with intraanal HSIL. Median (interquartile range) age was 36 years (28-41), median (interquartile range) CD4 cell count was 545 cells/µl (358-630), and viral load was less than 50  copies/ml in 93.7%. Two patients were lost to follow-up, one of them did not apply treatment. At 12 weeks, in the intention-to-treat population, 10 out of 16 patients [62.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 38.2-85.7%] had achieved CR. At 24 weeks, seven of the 10 patients (70%; 95% CI, 47-93%) remained in CR, but two out of 10 patients (20%; 95% CI, 0-40%) presented HSIL. One patient did not attend the visit at 24 weeks. Three patients with persistent HSIL at 12 weeks improved at 24 weeks (partial response in one and CR in two). The mean number of human papillomavirus genotypes decreased from 5.2 to 2.7 at 12 weeks (P = 0.002). Local adverse effects were frequent (81%), although there were no discontinuations because of adverse events. CONCLUSION: One percent topical cidofovir could be an appropriate alternative therapy in HIV-infected patients with anal HSIL. CLINICAL TRIAL: gov unique identifier: NCT01946009.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Ânus/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma in Situ/tratamento farmacológico , Citosina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Organofosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Biópsia , Cidofovir , Citosina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
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