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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255638

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the main leisure habits of students at the University of Huelva and the relationship with perceived health by grouping the various activities into components whilst also evaluating possible gender differences. The sample was selected through random cluster sampling and was composed of 903 students from various courses and degrees. Of the sample, 73.8% were female and 26.2% were male, with a mean age of 20.82 years. The participants responded to items measuring perceived health and the inventory of leisure activities extracted from the INJUVE (Spanish Youth Observatory) survey. The results obtained offered a solution of four components, grouping the activities into passive leisure, festive leisure, sports-competitive leisure and cultural leisure. Passive leisure was the most practiced and cultural leisure the least practiced. Statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in terms of the sports-competitive component and in the perception of health. In addition, a direct relationship was found between the sports-competitive dimension and health perception. These results support the existence of a "techno-active" profile in males and should be considered in the creation of university policies linked to health promotion or the prevention of risk behaviors.

2.
J Dual Diagn ; : 1-16, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for impaired executive functioning in patients diagnosed with a dual pathology of personality disorder (PD) and substance use disorder, and to identify whether differences exist in comparison to those with a single diagnosis. Methods: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies using measures of executive functioning in patients with PD-substance use disorder dual pathology. Sixteen studies were selected. Results: The results indicate that dual pathology patients with Cluster C personality disorder do not differ from controls, and that the presence of dual pathology does not influence the updating domain of executive functioning. The findings were inconclusive with regard to dual pathology patients with Cluster B personality disorders. Whilst the various studies consistently show that these patients show worse performance than the control groups, here are contradictory results with regard to whether Cluster B personality disorders add more alterations in executive functioning to those that already appear in substance use disorder. Conclusions: The results suggest the need for further research that more adequately controls variables such as time in treatment, medication, and sample size, whilst there is also a need to employ longitudinal designs that include more patients from Clusters A and C.

3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos , Rede Social , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Internet
4.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 31(2): 69-77, ago. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-138362

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio es examinar las relaciones entre estrés de rol, engagement y satisfacción laboral de acuerdo con el modelo demandas-recursos laborales. El modelo propuesto plantea que el engagement media la relación entre ambigüedad, conflicto y sobrecarga de rol, por un lado y satisfacción en el trabajo, por el otro. Para verificar el modelo, se obtuvieron datos de una muestra de 586 trabajadores del sur de España (Medad = 37.11, 50% mujeres). El ajuste del modelo y de la mediación se realizaron mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (path analysis). Los resultados mostraron que el conflicto de rol y la ambigüedad de rol junto con el engagement fueron predictores significativos de la satisfacción laboral. No obstante, el engagement no medió la relación entre el estrés de rol y la satisfacción laboral. El estrés de rol como demanda obstaculizadora explicaría el mayor impacto directo sobre la satisfacción que a través del engagement. Se proponen implicaciones prácticas y futuras investigaciones (AU)


The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between role stress, work engagement, and job satisfaction according to the Job Demands-Resources Model. The proposed model hypothesizes that work engagement mediates the relationship between role ambiguity, role conflict, and role overload on one hand, and job satisfaction on the other. To test the model, data was collected from 586 workers from southern Spain (Mage = 37.11, 50% women). Model fit and mediation test were examined using structural equation modeling (path analysis). Results showed that role conflict, role ambiguity, and work engagement were significant predictors of job satisfaction. However, work engagement did not mediate the relationship between role stress and job satisfaction. Role stress as a hindrance job demand would explain the most direct impact on job satisfaction than through work engagement. Implications for practice and future research are considered (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho de Papéis , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Satisfação Pessoal , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/tendências , Conflito Psicológico , Eficiência Organizacional/história , Eficiência Organizacional/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Dados/métodos
5.
Int J Psychol ; 49(3): 175-82, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24821506

RESUMO

This work falls within the framework of the study of acculturation processes of natives and immigrants. Its goal is to test an explanatory multi-group model of natives' acculturation attitudes as a function of diverse psychosocial variables: Prejudice and natives' appraisal of their own culture (in a direct way) and inter-group contact and perceived inter-group similarity (in an indirect way). Participants were 499 Spaniards surveyed for their attitude towards Romanian immigrants and 493 towards Ecuadorian immigrants. The indicators used took into account three socio-cultural spheres: peripheral, intermediate and central areas. This multi-group model shows an adequate fit to the data.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Atitude , Características Culturais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Modelos Psicológicos , Preconceito , Adulto , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Romênia , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
An. psicol ; 28(3): 922-928, oct.-dic. 2012. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-102663

RESUMO

Este trabajo se enmarca en el estudio del prejuicio en las poblaciones autóctona e inmigrante. El objetivo es llevar a cabo un estudio de las propiedades psicométricas de una nueva medida de la actitud de prejuicio para los diferentes grupos (mayorías y minorías), el Test de Actitud Prejuiciosa (TAP). El TAP se basa en una concepción tricomponente de la actitud prejuiciosa, considerando cogniciones, afectos e intenciones de conducta. Este trabajo muestra los resultados de las estimaciones de fiabilidad y el estudio de diversas fuentes de evidencias de validez: su estructura interna y relaciones con otras variables. La muestra estuvo formada por 1.967 participantes: 992 españoles, 500 rumanos y 475 ecuatorianos. La muestra fue seleccionada en 12 municipios con altas tasas de personas inmigrantes censadas, elegidas en cuatro comunidades autónomas de la zona mediterránea de España. El TAP presenta propiedades psicométricas adecuadas para su uso tanto en los grupos mayoritarios como minoritarios: una fiabilidad adecuada, una estructura interna sustantiva y relaciones con otras variables que son coherentes con el constructo en que se basa la prueba (AU)


The framework of this research is the study of prejudice between autochthonous and immigrant people. Its aim is to conduct a study of the psychometric properties of a new measure of prejudice attitude for different groups (majority and minority groups), the Prejudice Attitude Test (PAT). The PAT is based on a conceptual design of attitude with three dimensions: cognitive, emotional and conative. This work shows the results of reliability estimates and the study of validity evidences (internal structure). Sample was formed by 1967 participants: there were 992 Spanish, 500 Romanian and 475 Ecuadorian people. The sample was selected in 12 municipalities with high rates of immigrant people in their census, chosen in four autonomous communities of Spain's Mediterranean zone. The PAT shows psychometric properties suitable for its use both in majority and in minority groups: an adequate reliability, a substantive internal structure that are consistent with the construct underlying the test (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Psicometria/instrumentação , Preconceito , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Grupos Étnicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Atitude
7.
Psychol Rep ; 109(2): 553-72, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22238856

RESUMO

There have been two basic approaches for the study of minority group prejudice against the majority: to adapt instruments from the majority group, and to use qualitative techniques by analyzing the content of the discourse of the groups involved. Neither of these procedures solves the problem of measuring intergroup attitudes of majorities and minorities in interaction. This study shows the result of a prejudice scale which was developed to measure the attitude of both the minority and majority groups. Prejudice is conceived as an attitude which requires the beliefs or opinions about the out-group, the emotions it elicits, and the behavior or intentional behavior toward it to be known for its evaluation. The innovation in this work is that the psychometric development of the scale was based on the item response theory, and more specifically, the rating scale model.


Assuntos
Atitude , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito , Adulto , Afeto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Identificação Social , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
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