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1.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; : 1-5, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103691

RESUMO

This review updates the knowledge regarding the association between the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the risk of gynecological cancer. We performed a literature review of clinical and epidemiological studies concerning PCOS and the risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer after selecting information by quality of scientific methodology. It was found that evidence does not support a link between PCOS and breast cancer risk. There is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, while data concerning ovarian cancer are contradictory. Regarding PCOS and its association to cervical, fallopian tube, and vulvar cancer, the quality of evidence is heterogeneous. In conclusion, women with PCOS should be screened for endometrial cancer and more research is warranted to determine in this population the true risk of developing other gynecological cancers such as breast and ovarian.

2.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(2): 231-247, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907366

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency has become a pandemic health problem with a consequent increase of requests for determining circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. However, the analytical performance of these immunoassays, including radioimmunoassay and ELISA, is highly variable, and even mass spectrometric methods, which nowadays serves as the gold standard for the quantitatively determination of 25(OH)D, do not necessarily produce comparable results, creating limitations for the definition of normal vitamin D status ranges. To solve this problem, great efforts have been made to promote standardization of laboratory assays, which is important to achieve comparable results across different methods and manufacturers. In this review, we performed a systematic analysis evaluating critically the advantages and limits of the current assays available for the measure of vitamin D status, i.e., circulating 25(OH)D and its metabolites, making suggestions that could be used in the clinical practice. Moreover, we also suggest the use of alternatives to blood test, including standardized surveys that may be of value in alerting health-care professionals about the vitamin D status of their patients.

3.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 299(5): 1215-1231, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of cervical pessary application for the prevention of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) in singleton pregnancies with a sonographically measured short cervix. METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed-Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in all languages from inception through 28 July 2018. Inclusion criteria were registered RCTs of singleton pregnants with a short cervix (≤ 25 mm) measured at 22-24 weeks comparing the use of a cervical pessary versus controls over the risk of SPB. Risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane tool. Risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: We identified three RCTs meeting defined inclusion criteria, including a total of 1612 pregnancies (805 used a cervical pessary). SPB risk at < 37 was lower for participants using the pessary (RR 0.46; 95% CI 0.28-0.77). Pessary application was associated with a higher risk of presenting vaginal discharge (RR 2.05; 95% CI 1.82-2.31). There were no significant differences between pessary users and controls in terms of SPB at < 28 and < 34 weeks, and for any type of preterm birth < 34 weeks; mean gestational age and infant weight at delivery; and the risks of chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, and perinatal or neonatal outcomes. Sub-analysis by risk of bias showed that there was a lower risk of SPB < 34 weeks (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16-0.66) in two RCTs with low risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Cervical pessary application was associated with a reduced risk of SPB at < 37 weeks and a higher risk of vaginal discharge.

4.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 23(3): 207-217, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of uterine or paracervical lidocaine application on pain control during IUD insertion. METHODS: PubMed and five other electronic research databases were searched through 15 November 2017 for RCTs comparing lidocaine treatment vs. a control (placebo or no-intervention) to prevent pain during IUD insertion. Searched terms included 'IUD insertion', 'lidocaine' and 'randomised controlled trial'. RCTs evaluating lidocaine treatment before IUD insertion without restriction of language, age and IUD type. Pain measured by visual pain scales at tenaculum placement, IUD insertion and immediate post-IUD insertion. Results of random effects meta-analyses were reported as mean differences (MDs) of visual pain scale (VPS) scores and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Eleven RCTs (n = 1458 women) reporting paracervical lidocaine block or uterine mucosa lidocaine application before IUD insertion. Lidocaine produced lower VPS scores during tenaculum placement (MD -0.99, 95% CI: -1.73 to -0.26), IUD insertion (MD -1.26, 95% CI: -2.23 to -0.29) and immediate post-IUD insertion period (MD -1.25, 95% CI: -2.17 to -0.33). CONCLUSION: Lidocaine treatment was associated with modest reduction of pain during tenaculum placement and after IUD insertion.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 297(5): 1089-1100, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of single- versus double-balloon catheter (SBC vs. DBC) for cervical ripening and labor induction with an unfavorable cervix. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs (qRCT) regarding the use of SBC or DBC for labor induction of live singleton cephalic pregnancies (≥ 35 weeks) of any parity with an unripe cervix (Bishop score ≤ 6). Nine research databases were searched for original articles published in all languages up to November 2017 comparing both devices for labor induction. Five RCTs and one qRCT were included. Primary outcome measures were time from intervention (device placement) to birth time, vaginal delivery and cesarean section rates, and maternal satisfaction with the procedure. Risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane tool. Random effects models were used to combine data for meta-analyses. Summary measures were reported as mean differences and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Regardless of parity, pooled analyses of the six trials (n = 1060 women) found that mean intervention to birth time, vaginal delivery and cesarean section rates, and maternal satisfaction to the procedure were similar for both studied groups (SBC vs. DBC). CONCLUSION: Measured primary outcome measures were similar regardless of the type of device used for labor induction of singleton pregnancies.


Assuntos
Cateteres , Maturidade Cervical , Cesárea/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Paridade , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 24(6): 315-322, nov.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131184

RESUMO

Objetivo El presente estudio investiga el grado de satisfacción vital en mujeres de mediana edad. Método Estudio observacional transversal de 235 mujeres de edad comprendida entre 40 y 65 años, domiciliadas en Granada, acompañantes sanas de pacientes asistentes a las consultas de obstetricia y ginecología, que cumplimentaron la Escala de Satisfacción Vital de Diener, la Escala de Puntuación de la Menopausia, la Escala de Estrés Percibido, el Índice de Severidad de Insomnio y un cuestionario sociodemográfico incluyendo datos personales y de la pareja. También se calculó la consistencia interna de cada instrumento. Resultados El 61,3% de las mujeres eran postmenopáusicas, el 43,8% tenían obesidad abdominal, el 36,6% sufría insomnio, el 18,7% tenía mala calidad de vida relacionada con la menopausia, el 31,9% hacia ejercicio con regularidad, y el 5,1% tenía problemas económicos graves. La satisfacción vital tuvo correlaciones (prueba de Spearman) positivas significativas con la edad femenina y la masculina, y negativas significativas con la calidad de vida relacionada con la menopausia, el estrés percibido y el insomnio. En el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple, la alta satisfacción vital se correlacionó positivamente con tener una pareja que hiciese ejercicio, e inversamente con tener problemas laborales, el grado de estrés percibido y la sospecha de infidelidad de la pareja. Estos factores explican el 40% de la varianza en el análisis de regresión múltiple para la satisfacción vital en mujeres de mediana edad. Conclusión La satisfacción vital es un constructo relacionado con el estrés percibido, los problemas laborales y tener pareja, mientras que los aspectos relacionados con la menopausia y la salud general no tuvieron influencia significativa (AU)


Objective To assess life satisfaction and related factors in middle-aged Spanish women. Method This was a cross-sectional study including 235 women aged 40 to 65, living in Granada (Spain), healthy companions of patients visiting the obstetrics and gynecology clinics. They completed the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also calculated. Results Almost two-thirds (61.3%) of the women were postmenopausal, and 43.8% had abdominal obesity, 36.6% had insomnia, 18.7% had poor menopause-related quality of life, 31.9% performed regular exercise, and 5.1% had severe financial problems. Life satisfaction showed significant positive correlations (Spearman's test) with female and male age, and inverse correlations with menopause-related quality of life, perceived stress and insomnia. In the multiple linear regression analysis, high life satisfaction is positively correlated with having a partner who performed exercise, and inversely with having work problems, perceived stress and the suspicion of partner infidelity. These factors explained 40% of the variance of the multiple regression analysis for life satisfaction in middle-aged women. Conclusion Life satisfaction is a construct related to perceived stress, work problems, and having a partner, while aspects of menopause and general health had no significant influence (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Menopausa/psicologia , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Climatério/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Exercício , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia
7.
Enferm Clin ; 24(6): 315-22, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25288564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess life satisfaction and related factors in middle-aged Spanish women. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study including 235 women aged 40 to 65, living in Granada (Spain), healthy companions of patients visiting the obstetrics and gynecology clinics. They completed the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also calculated. RESULTS: Almost two-thirds (61.3%) of the women were postmenopausal, and 43.8% had abdominal obesity, 36.6% had insomnia, 18.7% had poor menopause-related quality of life, 31.9% performed regular exercise, and 5.1% had severe financial problems. Life satisfaction showed significant positive correlations (Spearman's test) with female and male age, and inverse correlations with menopause-related quality of life, perceived stress and insomnia. In the multiple linear regression analysis, high life satisfaction is positively correlated with having a partner who performed exercise, and inversely with having work problems, perceived stress and the suspicion of partner infidelity. These factors explained 40% of the variance of the multiple regression analysis for life satisfaction in middle-aged women. CONCLUSION: Life satisfaction is a construct related to perceived stress, work problems, and having a partner, while aspects of menopause and general health had no significant influence.


Assuntos
Menopausa , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
8.
Enferm Clin ; 24(6): 345-50, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25107334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess obstetrical outcomes in a sample of nulliparous gestations with preeclampsia, as compared to gestations without preeclampsia, attended in the Enrique C. Sotomayor Hospital of Guayaquil, Ecuador. METHOD: This was a comparative study of maternal and perinatal outcome data of gestations with late onset preeclampsia (n=150; gestational age=36.7±3.3 weeks) with that of normal gestations (n=150; gestational age 38.7±1.7 weeks). RESULTS: Almost three-quarters (73.3%) of preeclampsia cases were defined as severe. Compared to normal gestations, preeclampsia cases had higher anthropometric indices (neck and mid-arm circumference) and had more oligohydramnios, cesarean sections, transfusions, distressed fetuses, and adverse perinatal outcomes such as, lower Apgar scores at birth, and more preterm births, lower birth weight and small for gestational age infants. CONCLUSION: Gestations with preeclampsia had a negative impact on maternal and perinatal outcomes compared to gestations without preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paridade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 22(12): 669-75, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17162708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the content and quality of currently available Internet-based information on the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. DESIGN: A sample was obtained comprising the 75 top sites retrieved with the Google search engine using 'treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis' and then evaluated according to predefined general and specific criteria, content type, language and quality. Using a systematic scoring tool, each site was assessed for factual information provided and site quality. RESULTS: The sites studied were heterogeneous in content and quality. The most frequent type of website corresponded to non-profit organizations (n = 40), followed by commercial sites (n = 19), professional sites (n = 8) and government sites (n = 8). There were no significant differences in the popularity index, medical content score or quality score among the four groups of sites. Twelve websites were papers published in peer-reviewed medical journals. Few sites provided comprehensive medical and complete information on the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis oriented towards consumers. The consumer-oriented webpage with the most balanced and complete information was that of the National Osteoporosis Foundation which, at the same time, had the highest popularity index of all the resources studied. CONCLUSION: The content and quality of websites concerning the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis are highly varied and sometimes biased. The most frequent high-quality information corresponds to peer-reviewed medical journals. It is necessary to increase the number of resources, with rigorous language that is understandable for consumers, in relation to the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Serviços de Informação/normas , Internet/normas , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Dados Factuais/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Informação/classificação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Saúde da Mulher
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